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cattle in India; or whether, if there ever thirsty he had been before his were, its prophylactic powers were immersion into water for the amuse. applied or understood; but though ment of swimming, he never conti. many are disposed to assert that the nued so afterwards; and recomdisease was known to the Bramins mends the apparel of sailors being from time immemorial, yet this dipped in the sea, with a confidence claim was never advanced till vac of there being no danger of catching cine inoculation had triumphed over cold. all opposition to it. Something more, In a narrative of the loss of a indeed, than mere assertions was ship from the West Indies bound employed to establish this point; for for Whitehaven, in 1768, the capthe surgeon of a native regiment, tain, after having related the disstationed at Bareilly, got possession tress which he and his people had of a Sanscript manuscript, which endured, dwells much upon the contained the following paragraph great advantage received from soakon the subject :
ing his clothes twice a day in salt “ Taking the matter (půya) of water, and putting them on without pimples (granthi) which are natu. wringing. rally produced on the udders of “ It was a considerable time," cows, carefully preserve it; and, says he, “ before I could make the before the breaking out of the small people comply with this measure ; pox (sitala), making with a small though, from seeing the good effects instrument a small puncture, like it produced, they afterwards, of their that made by a gnat, in a child's own accord, practised it twice a day. limb, introduce into the blood as To this discovery I may with jusmuch of that matter as is measured. tice ascribe the preservation of my by the fourth part of a racti ; thus own life and that of six other perthe wise physician renders the child sons, who must otherwise have pe. secure from the breaking out of the rished. small-pox."
« The hint I first gained from a This passage was suspected to be treatise written by Dr. Lind, and an interpolation ; and the conjec- which, I think, ought to be recomture was proved to be well founded, mended to all sea-faring people. by collating the manuscript from “ One very remarkable circumwhich it was taken with others. stance was, that we daily made the
It was hoped that the Hindoos, same quantity of urine as if we had from the veneration which they drank moderately of any liquid; bear to the cow, would practise vac. which must be owing to a quantity cine inoculation with ardour : but of water being absorbed by the pores the circumstance of the prophylac, of the skin. The saline particles tic being connected with that ani. remaining in our clothing became mal seems to have operated rather encrusted by the heat of our bodies as an objection, than as a recom, and that of the sun, which cut and gendation to its adoption.
wounded us, and rendered sitting very disagreeable. But we found, on washing out the saline particles, and wetting our clothes without
wringing, twice a day, the skin beFor the Literary Magazine. came well in a short time: and so
very great advantage did we derive PSE OF BATHING AS NUTRICIOUS. from this practice, that the violent
thirst went off; the parched tongue DR. FRANKLIN has advised, was cured in a few minutes after when a scarcity of water at sea oc- bathing and washing our clothes ; curs, that mariners should bathe at the same time we found ourselves themselves in tubs of salt water; as much refreshed as if we had re, and that he had observed, that, how, ceived some actual nourishment."
For the Literary Magazine. tion without suspecting error in the
orthography. THE COCKNEY DIALECT.
All that can be said upon these
unpleasant pronunciations taken IN turning over a late British together is, that letters of the same publication, I was much amused to organ of speech have been mutually discover, in the peculiarities of the exchanged in several languages. In dialect of Londoners, a striking re- the province of Gascoigne in France, semblance to those of my native the natives substitute the letters B city, Philadelphia. The vulgar and V for each other, which occa. people of London are well known sioned Joseph Scaliger to say of by the name of cockneys, and a them, “ Felices populi, quibus biblearned enquirer has taken the ere est vivere. trouble to examine their dialect, in The London use of redundant ne. which the following examples are gatives, in " I don't know nothing the most remarkable.
about it," or worser and more The most striking and most of worser;" and “mought" for might; fensive error in pronunciation among “ ax” for ask; “ fetch a walk;" the Londoners lies in the transposi- “ learn” for teach ; " shall us ;" tional use of the letters W and V, summons'd” for summoned; "a. ever to be heard where there is any dry;" “his-self” for himself, and possibility of inverting them. Thus " their-selves" for themselves ; they always say,
“ this here ;” “ that there;" “ beWeal instead of veal; and cause why;" ourn, yourn, hern, Winegar instead of vinegar; hisn ;" “a few while;" “ com’d" while, on the other hand, you hear
gone with ;" “ went Vicked for wicked ;
gone dead ;" have more Vig for wig; and a few others. said in their favour than cockneys The following little dialogue is themselves would suppose ; and the said to have passed between a citi. sneer of the beau monde is rebutzen and his servant :
ted by the sanction of respectable Citizen. Villiam, I vants my vig. men, who gave the ton to our great Servant. Vitch vig, sir?
great grandfathers. In some inCitizen. Vy, the vite vig in the stances, indeed, the cockney apvooden vig-box, vitch I vore last pears, without perhaps being conVensday at the westry.
scious of it, to have kept nearer to To these may be added their use the true etymology, and to have of the letter W, in the place of the more closely followed the genius of letter H, in compound words; for, our language than even the courtier. instead of neighbourhood, widow A courtier will say, “ Let him do hood, livelihood, and knighthood, it himself;" but the cockney has it, they not only say, but would even « Let him do it his-self." Here write, neighbourwood, widowwood, the latter comes nearest to the truth, liveliwood, and knightwood. Nay, though both he and the courtier are they have been caught in the fact; wrong; for the grammatical confor the last of these words is so spelt struction should be “ Let he do it in Dr. Fuller's Church History, and his-self,” or, by a transposition of and in Rymer's Fædera. This words, better and more energetioversight cannot, however, be charg- cally arranged, “ Let he his-self do ed upon either of those writers; it." It must be allowed that the but, as they both lived in or near Londoner does not use this comLondon, it is most probable that pounded pronoun, in the mode betheir amanuenses were first-rate fore us, from any degree of conviccockneys, and that, in collating the tion; he has fortunately stumbled transcripts by the ear, allowances upon a part of the truth which the had been made for mere pronuncia. courtier has overleaped. But,
throwing aside the correct phraseo- ly reconcile them in their uses of logy, and confining ourselves to the the singular number; for let the received mode, let me observe how courtier, instead of saying “ He incongruous our combined pronoun came himself,” use the cockney's appears in this situation. Of these expression “ He came his-self;" double personal pronouns, as I may and, on the other hand, in the place call them, the nominative in the of “ He hurt his-self,” let the cocksingular number is my self, and not ney say with the courtier, “ He me self; and in the second person hurt himself,” and all would be well, it is thy self, and not thee self. according to the present acceptation Why then shall the accusative in of these phrases, and these jarring the third person (viz. him-self) be interests be happily accommodated; received in the polite world, and by but I am afraid that the obstinate both the universities, into the place and deep-rooted principles of eduof the nominative “his-self?” It is cation on one hand, and of habit on the same with us in the plural num- the other, must forbid the exchange. ber; for we very conveniently make I am sensible that it is accounted the word “ themselves” serve our elegant and energetic language to purpose both in the nominative and use « himself” nominatively when in the accusative; while, on the intended to enforce personality, as other hand, the cockney is right in in the following two examples: his plural nominative
« their selves," and only errs when he uses “ Himself hasted also to go out.” the same word for the accusative.
“ Himself an army.” Dr. Johnson unguardedly, but very obligingly for me, admits « his-self" No one, I believe, will be hardy to have been anciently (though he enough to vindicate this as gramgoes but a very little way back for mar; but it is allowed in all arts to his authority) the nominative case break through the trammels of rule of this double pronoun, and quotes to produce great effects. the words of Algernon Sydney, Dr. Johnson was not aware of the “ Every of us, each for his-self.” authenticity of dialectical expresTime will not subvert a real no- sions, and has been guilty of many minative case, however incongru- omissions, and blundered in his etyously it may be abused; and I won- mologies. More may be said in der that Dr. Johnson should doubt support of the poticary of the cockfor a moment, and (as his word an- ney than the apothecary of the ciently implies) ever suppose other. learned and fashionable world, which wise.
has usurped its place : Dr. Wallis, who published his Henry Knighton, who lived about grammatical work in 1653, lays the 1393, had the word apothecarius. charge of vulgarity upon the cour Dr. Johnson says, from apotheca, tier, and acquits the cockney, " Fa- a repository: and that it means “a teor tamen,” says he,“ him-self et man, whose employment is to keep themselves vulgo dici pro his-self et medicines for sale ; Greek Aronun." their-selves.”
Chaucer, who wrote before the Now, sir, this matter might, upon introduction of Greek, writes “ Pothe whole, be brought to a very easy tecary.” Chaucer died in 1400. compromise, if the cockney would (N. B. Greek known in England but adopt the courtier's « them. in 1453.) selves" for his accusative, and the In the Liber Niger Dom. Reg. courtier would condescend to accept Angliæ, temp. Edward IV, who the cockney's accusative “ their- reigned from 1461 to 1483, it is selves," instead of his own nomina- written poticary. tive « them-selves."
Stevens's Dictionary has botica. The like exchange would as easi. rio, and derives it from bote, a gal.
AND PAINTING COM
lipot. Botica is a shop in Spanish very low; and so it is to our ears
You might as well say that peri.
, circum use has added to the words, toge- (Græcè) and wig (Anglice); wherether with the article an, which is a as it is only unfortunately a corruppleonasm.
tion of the French peruque. Per contra, we have appellatives, The boticario (or poticary) was which, by withdrawing a letter from perhaps to the quack, who carried the word per aphæresin in the arti. his medicines about for sale, as the cle, has absorbed it, as, from ana. stationer (or shop-keeper) was to ranja, we have formed an orange. the hawker and pedlar. Avanna, we call a fan, which should be termed an avan; from Abeli we say a lily: so, by dropping the A entirely, we have made saffron from For the Literary Magazine. assafran : all from the Spanish. Not content to say a boticario, or, Anglicè, boticary, but we must double the article and say an aboticary.
BEYOND the poet in the strength Junius calls it vocabulum sump- of his conceptions, as well as in the tum ex Greco; but adds, minus force and fidelity with which they commode ; and refers us to Vossius, are expressed, the painter is more lib. I. de Vitiis Sermonis, c. 32. alive to what passes around him;
Apothecaries anciently sold wine external objects take a stronger hold and cordials.
of his imagination; the impressions " The emperor is somewhat of beauty, of grandeur, of sublimity, amended, as his poticarie saith.” sink deeper into his soul. His art,
A bookseller who keeps a shop estimated by its noblest examples, (a bibliotheca), might as well be considered in every view of mental called a bibliothecary.
or manual ability, appears to be the Perhaps the poticary or boticario most arduous enterprise of taste, was so called, to distinguish him and, without injustice to other purfrom the initerant medicine-monger; suits, may be termed the most exfor I am willing to suppose there traordinary operation of human gehave been quacks as long as there nius; in its theory and principles have been regular men in the pro- unfolding the most subtle refinements fession of physic.
of intellect, in its practice displayApollo was little more than an ing the most dextrous achievement empiric; for it was one of his infe- of mechanical skill. rior occupations. Opifer per orbem. The only character, indeed, that His son Æsculapius was a physi. can pretend to rank with the paincian.
ter in the great scale of human inQ. If Apollo, by the term Onifer, genuity is the poet ; but he has not was not a midwife? The apothe- been satisfied with equality; he has caries proud of the connection, by commonly aspired to a higher stahis figure in Dutch tile in their tion; and, having been usually judge shops.
and jury in the cause, he has al. In the comedy of the Four P's, by ways taken care to decide it in his J. Heywood, published 1569, one of own favour. Yet an impartial inthem is the poticary; and I never vestigation of the powers displayed heard that he was arraigned by the in both arts; of the qualities from critics for pseudography. They are nature and education which they the Pothecary, the Pedlar, the respectively require, would perhaps Palmer, and the Pardoner. amend the record, if not reverse the
Mr. Nares says, that potecary is decree. What is there of intellec
tual in the operations of the poet up at a moment's warning, like which the painter does not equal ? “spirits from the vasty deep" of his what is there of mechanical which imagination, he does not surpass? He also is one " cui sit ingenium, cui mens di “ To do his bidding, and abide his will." vinior.” The “os magna sonaturum,” indeed, is not his; but he has From the nature of the medium a language more general, more elo. through which the poet operates, quent, more animated ; as much he has an advantage over the paintmore arduous in its attainment as iter, which considerably facilitates is more extraordinary in its effects. his progress. · As verse is construcWhere their arts resemble, the ted of language, modified by numpainter keeps his level with the ber and measure, the poet may be poet; where they differ, he takes a said to pursue, in some degree, a more elevated ground.
preparatory course of study from The advantage which poetry pos. his cradle; he never talks but he sesses over painting, in continued may be considered as sharpening narration and successive impres- his tools, and collecting his matesion, cannot be advanced as a pecu- rials; his instrument is never out liar merit of the poet, since it re- of his hands, and whether he reads, sults from the nature of language, writes, or converses, he exercises and is common to prose.
his faculties in a way that appears The eye of the painter is required to have a direct reference to his art, to be as much more sensible and and to be a prelude to his performacute than the eye of the poet, as the accuracy of him who imitates The painter, on the other hand, should exceed that of him who only makes use of a medium that has describes. What is the verbal ex. no analogy to speech, no connection pression of a passion, compared to with any of his ordinary habits or its visible presence; the narration acquirements; his art speaks a lanof an action to the action itself guage of the most uncommon conbrought before your view ? What struction, and most comprehensive are the “ verba ardentia” of the influence : demanding the unremitpoet, to the breathing beauties, the ting application of a life to produce living lustre of the pencil, rivalling that facility of expression, that fluthe noblest products of nature, ex ency of graphic utterance, by which pressing the characteristics of mat. only he can hope to address himself ter and mind, the powers of soul, the effectually to the passions and underperfection of form, the brightest standings of men. bloom of colour, the golden glow of If to become familiar with the light?
Can the airy shadows of writings of the ancients, to compoetical imagery be compared to prehend their beauties, and comthe embodied realities of art ? pose in their language, be the proud
Where the poet cursorily ob- est attainments of the scholar and serves, the painter studies intensely; the poet, how much more worthy what the one carries loosely in his of admiration is the skill of him who memory, the other stamps upon his pours forth his ideas in the glowing soul. The forms and combinations language of Nature ; who becomes of things, the accidents of light and familiar with all her beauties, who colour, the relations of distance and learns by heart all her characters, degree, the passions, proportions, though numerous and varied, to an and properties of men and animals; extent that reduces the amplitude all the phenomena of “the visible of the Chinese tongue to a contractdiurnal sphere,” the painter must ed alphabet; and who can trace treasure up in his mind in clear, dis- them through all their combinations, tinct, indelible impressions, and with from the simplest blade of grass in the powers of a magician call them the field, to the most complex ex