« ПредишнаНапред »
Our readers are no doubt aware, at the period of Lord Wellington's that a collection of Lord Wellington's arrival, is—just what it ought to be despatches has been for some time clear, concise, and comprehensive. past in process of publication. Six Though the work be announced volumes of the work have already ap- simply as a collection of “despatches," peared, and as the documents they that title affords a very inadequate contain reach only to the latter part idea of its contents. In fact, it conof 1810, it is probable that at least an tains not merely the despatches-takequal number will be required for its ing the word in its ordinary significacompletion. Colonel Gurwood, the tion_but the whole mass of Lord editor, is well known to be one of the Wellington's letters relative to the most distinguished officers of his rank public service, which it has been found in the service, and having gained his possible to recover. * Of those conhonours under Wellington, may be tained in the volumes already publishsupposed to discharge his duties con ed many are of course official, but the amore. The volumes before us prove great majority are of a nature strictly that he is fully qualified for the task private, and communicate his impreshe has undertaken. His own contri- sions of passing events with a freebutions are always marked by good dom only to be expected in the confitaste and sound judgment, and the dential intercourse of friends. It is prefatory notice of the state of India, needless to say how much this entire
The Despatches of Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington, K.G., during his various Campaigns in India, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, the Low Countries, and France, from 1799 to 1818. Compiled from official and authentic documents, by Lieut-Colonel Gurwood, Esquire to his Grace as Knight of the Bath. London : John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1834_6.
We have been informed within these few days, that Sir Frederick Adam has discovered Three Volumes of His Grace's Letters in his own handwriting in the Mysore Residency. These letters embrace the period immediately subsequent to the Duke's taking command of Seringapatam in 1799, up to his illness at Bombay in 1801. They are all addressed to Colonel Barry Close, and there appears to be only one of them which has found its way into print. Some of these are of the highest interest, and they all afford proof, it is said, of the versatility and extent of the Duke's capacity.
VOL. XLI, NO, CCLV.
absence of premeditation enhances their which rarely happens), our concluinterest and value. We read with the sions as to the motives which produced gratifying consciousness of being ad- them, must frequently be dubious and mitted to the full confidence of the imperfect. The decisions of a comwriter, and are often placed in a situ- mander are necessarily influenced by ation to observe the entire progress of many transient circumstances, which his plans, from the first moment of born of the moment, pass with it, and their conception to that of their exe- leave no trace of their existence. Rucution. We learn how he wrote, how mours often false—anticipations not he felt, how he acted, under circum- realized and never recorded—and a stances of high and singular interest, multitude of petty but important facts and are enabled to trace the progress which never reach the historian, consive developement of those qualities stitute, in many cases, the only key which have led to the acquisition of by which the circumstances of a camthe highest honours attainable by a paign can be satisfactorily explainBritish subject, and the most splendid ed. Without a knowledge of these, reputation in Europe. By the mili- the records of war afford but scanty tary student the work will be found instruction, and an imperfect lesson. full of the most important instruc- The premises reasoned from are netion, which he could hope to obtain cessarily imperfect, and of course little from no other source. He will find reliance can be placed even on the in it a lofty example of high talents most logical deductions from partial devoted to high objects-of dangers truth. braved--privations cheerfully submit- It is not, however, in the public ted to-difficulties encountered and despatches of a general that we can overcome—an activity that never tired look for the minute and circumstantial —and a professional zeal which shrank details, so essential to accurate judgfrom the performance of no duty how- ment. They can be discovered only ever irksome and laborious. Nor by examination of his private records, will the statesman find the time unpro- - where such exist,—and his secret fitably spent which he devotes to and confidential communications with
Be his pretensions what the higher officers of his army. Pos. they may, we are sure he cannot read sessing these valuable materials, howof the negotiations conducted by Wel- ever, we are placed as it were on an lington with consummate skill ; of the eminence which commands the whole important and complicated interests he events of the war, and are enabled to was often called on to arrange or to decide with accuracy on the merits protect; or observe how completely of the general. his military operations were guided There are probably, however, very by the most subtle and comprehensive few generals who would feel solicitous views of political expediency, without that the world should be furnished gaining some valuable knowledge and with a knowledge so capable of being some enlargement of thought.
used as an instrument of offence. The But apart from such considerations, power of scrutiny which it must neand regarding the work merely as a cessarily carry with it is felt to be too collection of historical documents illus- severe. Even where their operations trative of events of the highest inter- have been successful in result, many est and importance, it would be diffi- generals are conscious of errors and cult to over-estimate its value. His- miscalculations, towards which they tory in general can deal only in re- are by no means desirous that public sults, and whenever it attempts more, attention should be directed. To mithe truth of its conclusions is even litary men, at least, the assertion will proverbially admitted to be precarious. not seem incredible, that victories have To military history, in particular, the been gained by a fortunate mistake, observation is applicable in its broad- and blunders on one side have been ocest extent. The latter will be found casionally successful, through greater in many instances to be little more miscalculations on the other. In such than a system of ingenious conjecture. circumstances, of course, the victor The reason is obvious. Even where has the prudence to wear his honours we are in possession of a minute and in silence. He writes no history of authentic record of the proceedings of his achievements_he publishes no dotwo hostile armies (a circumstance, cuments connected with them—he
communicates no gratuitous particu- the birthright of every Englishmanlars for the gratification of inconve- justice—and where is the man who nient curiosity. The laurels acquired would deny to Wellington that which by one error, he takes care not to en- is accorded to the meanest criminal ? danger by another.
It is inconceivable that such an aptherefore, are burned, or consigned to peal should have been made by a man the most obscure corner of his bureau, already in the evening of life; covered and the world is left to form its own with honours ; satiated—if ever man estimate of his services, and discrimi. was, with applause ; with no remainnate as best it may, between merit ing ambition to be gratified, unless and good luck. Under such circum- from the proud consciousness, that stances, the decision, as might be ex- there was nothing in his past life that pected, is all in his favour. England demanded either colouring or concealrings with his praises. He receives ment. No man has been more the the thanks of Parliament—is invested object of malignant abuse. Mobs have with stars and ribbons—and when he assailed his life, and mob orators his is gathered to his fathers, St Paul's is principles and character. And what graced with a monument to his memo- is his answer? The proudest ever made ry, in which Chantrey represents him by a great man to his calumniators. resting on a cannon, with the true He lays open the record of his serlineaments and bearing of a majestic vices, he discloses every particular warrior.
connected with them, and lets in the It is probable that the sketeh we broad light of day, that every transhave just drawn savours somewhat of action in which he has borne a part, caricature. At all events, we wish may be seen by all, in its true colours merely to state, that whatever peril and proportions. This is Wellington's in ordinary cases may attend such reply. How nobly does it befit the disclosures, by the publication of the man ! present work we are put in possession The work, indeed, might, without of every document which can illus- impropriety, have been entitled, “ Metrate the public life of Wellington. moirs of the public life of the Duke of It cannot fail to be regarded as a remark- Wellington," for from its contents able and memorable circumstance, alone, might be compiled a biography that the man whose aristocratic con- far more authentic and minute, than tempt for popular opinion has been we can ever hope to possess of any made the subject of invective by every other warrior or statesman. There Radical newspaper in the kingdom, exists no man whose life is so comshould thus voluntarily place himself pletely historical, so thoroughly and at the bar of the public, and demand inseparably interwoven with the great judgment. He says, “in the first en- events of his time, as that of Wellingthusiasm of triumph, you bestowed ton. The part allotted to him has not honours on the man by whom it had only been uniformly great, but played been achieved ; I now, after a lapse of on a great stage. In tracing his cayears, afford you the means of judging reer, therefore, the reader has not to whether these honours have been me- wade through a mass of uninteresting rited." There can be no reason, details, such as are usually necessary therefore, why the final award on the to illustrate the progress of subordinservices of Wellington should not be ate merit to distinction and reward. delivered. He acknowledges the au- To his noble birth, and the political thority of the tribunal. He challenges influence of his connexions, Wellingthe fullest investigation of his claims. ton was perhaps indebted, in the first There exists no doubt as to the authen- instance, for the opportunities of disticity or validity of the evidence ad- tinction he enjoyed; but for the manduced. If the reputation he enjoys be ner in which he turned these opporfounded on a false and hollow basis, tunities to account, he was indebted to he has himself furnished ample means no one but himself. Under no cirby which the imposture may be de- cumstances is it conceivable, that tatected. He voluntarily subjects every lents like Wellington's could have action of his public life to the most ri- failed in raising their possessor to the gid and unsparing examination. He highest distinction. But even in the asks no favour, and will accept of commencement of his career he owed none ; le demands only that which is nothing more to patronage, than does the sculptor who is employed on some To acquire information so extensive, high work of art. The marble may however, and continually to bear in be found by others, but it is to the mind the very numerous details which skill and genius of the artist that we press on the attention in reading these are indebted for the statue.
volumes, is a task which by few men Had Wellington been deficient in will be found easy, and by many, one those great qualities which raised him demanding more labour than they have to pre-eminence, no private or family leisure to bestow. The work, too, is influence, however powerful, could voluminous and expensive, and though have retained him in those high and its claims, arising both from the author responsible situations which he suc- and the subject, are too powerful and cessively held. The interests at stake peculiar not to secure for it a place in were too vast to be trifled with, and every library, it is impossible to exthe certain consequences of failure too pect (unless the march of pocket disastrous to admit of the most impor- should keep pace with the march of tant powers being confided to hands intellect), that its contents will ever be incapable of wielding them with ef- very widely diffused among that nufect. Lord Wellington arrived in In- merous and increasing portion of the dia at the moment of a great crisis. community, yclept “the reading pubThe fate of our whole possessions in lic." the East depended on the issue of the It shall be our object, therefore, in Mysore war. Among the native this, and many other articles by which powers, Lord Wellesley could disco- we intend it shall be succeeded, to obver only virulent enemies, and luke- viate, as far as possible, the difficulties warm allies ready to become enemies to which we have alluded, and furnish on the first symptom of weakness or such a commentary as may fully illusdisaster. Such were the political cir- trate the import of the copious extracts cumstances under which the public which we shall lay before our readers. life of Lord Wellington may be said Regarding the subject as one which to have commenced. To the deve- should be held sacred from party feellopement of talents like his they were ing, we shall avoid, in the execution highly favourable, but not so to the of our task, touching on any matters advancement of imbecile mediocrity. merely political. It is only through It is in tranquil times, and in sheltered his military career—which may be places, that the latter most flourishes, considered to have terminated with and spreads its tiny blossoms to the the second expulsion of Napoleon
On the mountain top it is up- that we propose to follow him ; and rooted by the first storm.
we trust that in contemplating the Notwithstanding the unquestionable triumphs of our common country, and interest and importance of the work, rendering justice to the great mind by we fear it is impossible to expect that which they were achieved, men of all it should become popular in the ordi- parties will for a time cast aside their nary acceptation of the term. To un prejudices, and forgetting that they derstand its contents, and follow out are Whig or Tory, remember only the inferences to which they lead, the that they are Englishmen. reader must bring to the perusal a Before entering on the task we have very considerable degree of know- undertaken, we think it will not be ledge. He must possess accurate in- found uninteresting to take a short formation of the geography of the review of the circumstances of Welseat of war, its difficulties and resour- lington's early life. Commencing, ces, and bear in mind, not only the re- therefore, ab ovo, be it known, that lative position of the different portions Arthur Wellesley, the third son of the of the army to the enemy, but to each Earl of Mornington, was born on the other. All that part of the documents first of May, 1769. At the usual age which relates to military movements, he was sent to Eton, and being innecessarily presupposes such know- tended for the army, was subsequently ledge in the reader, and it is of course removed to the Military Academy at impossible to form any judgment of Angiers in France. In 1787, he rethe qualities they display without ceived his first commission as ensign of thoroughly understanding the circum- infantry, and rose by rapid steps to the stances under which they were writ. rank of colonel. In 1794, he sailed in ten,
command of the 33d regiment to join
the army of the
Duke of York in the pleasure is predominant in most men, Netherlands. The issue of this un- he did not shrink from the dangers fortunate expedition is well known. or hardships of the service, but was The Duke retreated, followed by the determined to seek distinction whereenemy, and several severe encounters ever it could be found. took place. The campaign termina- When Colonel Wellesley arrived in ted by the re-embarkation of the India the Company's territories were troops in the spring of 1795. During in a state of profound peace. But the retreat, Colonel Wellesley com- the peace was treacherous, for never manded a brigade, and on several oc- were our Eastern possessions in a casions was engaged with the enemy. state of greater peril than at that moDuring these inglorious operations ment. Lord Wellesley, who arrived there were of course few honours to at Calcutta in the spring of the folbe gained; but his conduct was such lowing year as Governor-general, foras to attract the applause of Sir James tunately possessed not only the sagaCraig and several other generals of city to discover the secret machinadistinction. The fact is interesting, tions of the native powers, but the as it enables us to discern the first wisdom and decision to disconcert dawning of that reputation which sub- them. It becomes necessary that we sequently filled the whole horizon with should here briefly advert to the poits light.
litical events which gave rise to the After his return to England, Colo- second Mysore war, in order that the nel Wellesley did not long remain in reader may fully understand the milithe enjoyment of inglorious ease. The tary services to which his attention 33d regiment was ordered to the West will subsequently be directed. Indies, and sailed with that destina- The war of 1789, though it had tion. After being six weeks at sea, greatly diminished the power of Tiphowever, the fleet was driven back by poo Sultan, had neither converted him tempestuous weather, and the regi- into a safe friend, nor deprived him ment relanded. In a few weeks it of the power of becoming a formidaembarked for India, and, with its
He had been compelled, commander, reached Bengal in Fe- it is true, to cede nearly one half of bruary 1797.
his territories to the Company and It is evident, we think, from the their allies, but he still ruled with abfacts above narrated, that from the solute power over a country nearly very commencement of his military two hundred thousand square miles in life, young Wellesley devoted himself extent, with a revenue and population with zeal and ardour to the duties of equal to maintaining an army of his profession. He was no holyday 150,000 men. Tippoo was a man of soldier; he did not belong to that bold and martial temperament, though numerous, and, we fear, increasing not of high talents, and the blow which class, who seek in the army merely an fell on him at the termination of the agreeable mode of passing a few years, former war in 1792, seems to have irand quit it whenever they are ordered ritated him almost to madness. From to an unpleasant station, or succeed that time his whole soul was occupied to fortune by the death of a relation. with schemes of vengeance, and he Such men regard the service as a pas. waited only for a favourable conjunctime rather than a profession. Their ture to employ all his great resources lot is not permanently cast in it, and in attacking the British. His territhey look upon its duties as things to tory was most favourably situated for be performed when necessary, and the hostile purpose he entertained. The avoided when possible. Very different Mysore country occupied a central posifrom that of such men was the course tion between our settlements, and might of Wellington's early life. He en- be said to command their communicatered the service with the true spirit tion by land, while by a sudden irof a soldier. We have seen that in ruption into the Carnatic, he could at Flanders his zeal and exemplary any moment place Madras in a situaconduct were conspicuous : That he tion of great peril. Judging by the embarked for the West Indies, and contents of the papers which fell into subsequently accompanied his regi- our possession by the capture of Sement to the East. It thus appears ringapatam, this was the favourite prothat even at an age wlien the love of ject of Tippoo, and to promote its