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236 ACCESSION TO THE DEWANNY.
Lkcturk the landholders, tenants, and public officers were as usual — required to pay the stated revenues to the Company instead of to the treasury, and to submit to the authority of the Company, which thus held a conditional jageer of these districts. These grants were confirmed on the 10th July 1763 by Meer Jaffier when he in turn was restored,1 and his acts were further confirmed by the Emperor in 1765. Accession to ijne above grants to the East India Company were com
tbe Dewanny. ° r. J
pleted on the 12th August 1765 by the grant of the dewanny of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. This was made by Shah Alum, the Emperor of Delhi, as a free gift and altumgha under the red seal; and it amounted to a perpetual grant of the office of dewan, which gave the Company the entire management of the revenues of the districts included in it. The grant was upon condition of paying twenty-six lacs of rupees a year into the royal treasury, and of providing for the expenses of the Nizamut.2 We have seen that this grant was simultaneous with the firman confirming the Company in the full right to the revenue of the Twenty-four Pergunnahs. Fiscal The English, having thus acquired the dewanny, conti
nued at first to employ native agency and took no direct part themselves in the collection of the revenue. Mahomed Reza Khan and his two assistants, Dolubram and Juggut Seat, managed all revenue collections up to 1769. But in that year the Company took the first step towards bringing the collections under their own control by appointing supervisors to superintend the native officers in collecting
1 Harington'a Analysis, Vol. I, 45. See the treaties and sunnuds in Aitchison's Treaties, Vol. I, 46 to 55.
» Fifth Report, Vol. I, 2. Harington's Analysis, Vol. I, 5, 6. See the treaty and finnans in Aitchison's Treaties, Vol. I, 56 to 66.
ArPOINTMENT OF SUPERVISORS. 237
the revenue and administering justice.1 They were Lecturk appointed by a resolution of the Select Committee at the — Presidency passed on the 16th August 1769 in accordance with orders from the Court of Directors in England. The Directors remark that the direct administration of the revenue by the English has when adopted proved beneficial both to the country and to the revenue: that they do not intend to interfere with the rents and profits of the zemindar, much less to add to the rents of the ryots, but to relieve both from oppression; and that they intend to establish committees for the management of the revenue at Moorshedabad and Patna, with Mahomed Reza Khan and Shitab Roy, or two other principal persons, as naibs of the respective provinces. And while they declare that they have "no view to prejudice the rights of the zemindars, who hold certain districts by inheritance," they direct that, when any of these die without heirs, the lands are to be let for a term of years, upon such conditions as may encourage cultivation. The same course is to be followed with regard to waste land. Lastly, the Directors object to the union of the judicial and revenue jurisdiction in the same persons." In the instructions to the supervisors they were directed instructions to
to enquire into the following matters:—They were to enquire into the history of the provinces, not however going back to records of earlier date than the time of Shujaa Khan (1725 to 1739), the successor of Jafrler Khan, "as, at that era of good order and good government, no alterations had taken place in the ancient divisions of the 238 INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SUPERVISORS.
1 Fifth Report, Vol. I, 3. Harington's Analysis, Vol. II, 7. Colebrooke's Supplement, 174. 1 Auber's India, Vol. I, 275 to 279.
Lkctork country, and the confusion which is now apparent has
1 Colebrooke's Supplement, 178.
KHAMAR LANDS. 239
lands, and that the talookdars have encroached upon the Lecturs
Vii. neighbouring lands, and hold much more than they are —
entitled to.1 With regard to charitable and religious endow-
1 Colebrooke's Supplement, 182.
5 lb., 184.
240 KHAMAR LAND8.
Lecturk such lands himself, he was of course entitled to the cultiva— tor's share in the produce. It was therefore only a step towards reducing the zemindars to their original position; and as they must in most cases have amply repaid themselves for their exertions in bringing the waste lands into cultivation by the profit derived during the time they had already held them, the measure was probably not an unjustone. The Committee consider the State at liberty to interfere with the disposal of the khamar lands by the zemindar, plainly showing that they did not consider even the khamar lands to be the absolute property of the zemindar. I may remark, before leaving this point, that the lands of which the zemindar appropriated the revenue under this title were the waste lands brought into cultivation by him during the term of his engagement for the revenue; and that he claimed the revenue of such lands on the ground that, as he had agreed to render a certain revenue during his term, any profit to be derived from an increase in the area of cultivation during that term properly belonged to him. Thus such lands were properly khamar only during the zemindar's term; and after that had expired, the lands were strictly liable to assessment in the same way as other lands. It is probable however that the designation continued to adhere in many cases to the land, as it was the obvious interest of the zemindar that it should, and as we find was the case in other instances, such as in land being called khoodkasht, fcc.1 In this way probably, or almost certainly, a great deal of land would come to be included in the khamar land which, with respect to the
1 See' Rustic Bengal' by J. B. P. in the Calcutta Review for October 1874.