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THE JAGEER. 201
dition of military service, ia not resumable so long as the Lkctukk holder does not refuse to perform the service;1 but on the — other hand it may be resumed and assessed when the services are no longer required or performed.2
The iageer was originally not hereditary: but it was The jageer
J^> . now hereditary
frequently renewed in favour of the son of the previous and alienable.
holder." Under British rule however it has become
hereditary, and the family share it in the same way as other
property. In the Deccan it is not unusual for the eldest
son to take the management, or for all to manage by turns*
The jageer was not alienable formerly, but now is so.5
It was either conditional (mushroot or shurtee) or uncon- The conditional jageer. ditional (guire mushroot or bila shurt). The conditional
jageer, like the feudal fief, was granted on condition of service,6 and originally to enable a munsubdar or commander of a certain number of horse to support the troops which he was bound to maintain. The jageer went with the office.7 The unconditional jageer, on the other hand, The uncondiwas a voluntary grant made out of favour or for past
1 Morley's Digest, 404, pi. 15.
* Unide Rajaha Raje Bommarauze Bahadur r. Peinmasamy Venkatradry Naidoo, 7 Moore's I. A., 128.
* Fifth Report, Vol. II, 14. Harington's Analysis, Vol. III, 361. Land Tenure by a Civilian, 56. Colebrooke's Supplement, 238. Baillie's Land Tax, xlviii, lxi, lxii. Steele's Deccan Castes, 208. Fatton's Asiatic Monarchies, 78. Collector of Bareilly c. Martindell, 2 Sel. Hep., 188. Evidence of Mr. Elphinatone before the Select Committee of the House of Lords (1830), 2300.
4 Steele's Deccan Castes, 211, 212, 229, 230.
* Land Tenure by a Civilian, 56. Colebrooke's Supplement, 238. Steele's Deccan Castes, 208.
'Fifth Report, Vol. II, 159. Ilarington's Analysis, Vol. II, 66. Colebrooke's Supplement, 237. Baillie's Land Tax, xlvii. Steele's Deccan Castes, 208.
1 Ilarington's Analysis, Vol. III, 407 to 410, 413.
services.1 The services annexed to the conditional jageer were generally specified in the first instance, but sometimes the jageerdar was called upon to hold himself ready to perform such services as should be required of him; and the military jageerdar was bound to attend in person with his troops when directed.2 This kind of jageer in some cases carried with it the same jurisdiction, rights, and prerogatives as the sovereign himself had.* Some unconditional jageers again gave the holder a still more independent position. Thus the killadar or commander of a fort, when he held an unconditional jageer, was independent of all intermediate authority in respect of it, and was only bound to fealty to the sovereign* The two kinds of jageer above described correspond to the fouj serinjam and jat serinjam jageers of the Deccan: the fouj serinjam jageer being held on condition of military service; and the other being a personal grant.5 Jageers were also known in other parts of Southern India as polliams.6 The polliam has been held to be hereditary but indivisible,7 and capable of descending to females.8
The jageer is apparently referred to in the Institutes of Timour under the name of Yetool. This term includes the jageers below the foujdary, which was the class existing at THE JAOEER. 203
1 Baillie's Land Tax, xlvii. Steele's Deccan Castes, 208.
* Harington's Analysts, Vol. III, 414.
* Baillie's Land Tax, xlvii.
* Fifth Report, Vol. II, 159. Orissa, Vol. II, 218, 219.
* Steele's Deccan Castes, 208.
* Fifth Report, Vol. II, 88, 89, 90, 697.
1 Naragunty Lutchmeedavamah r. Vengama Naidoo, 9 Moore's I. A., 66.
* Collector of Madura v. Veeracamoo Ummnl, 9 Moore's I. A., 446. Katauia Natchier r. Rajah of Shivagunga, lb., 539.
the beginning of the British rule, and which seldom Lkctu-rh extended beyond a single circar.1 —
The amount of revenue assigned in jageer from a parti- Powers and
cular district might be the full revenue or less. When the the jageerdar. full revenue was granted in conditional jageer the whole of the rights of the State passed to the jageerdar, and its authority was vested in him.2 If however, less than the full revenue of the district was assigned, the jageerdar had no jurisdiction; but the grant contained a request to the proper parties to pay their revenue to him.5 And whether or not the whole revenue was assigned as a jageer, yet if the amount to be taken was specified, the jageerdar was bound to account for any excess (towfeer) which might come to his hands: as also for any surplus above the proper allowance for the number of troops he actually maintained, a deduction being made from his jageer if his effective troops fell short of the required number.4 The surplus thus to be accounted for was not accounted for to the khalsa but in the jageer or paibakee jurisdiction, in which department escheated jageers were also administered.8 But since the British rule the jageerdars neither perform service nor account for any excess.6 When a jageer was granted with respect to a district puw to zemin
•> o o I dnrs and the
included in a zemindary, the jageerdar, as we have seen, State
1 Baillio's Land Tax, xliv to xlvi. Fifth Report, Vol. II, 167. 'Baillie's Land Tax, xlvii. Fifth Report, Vol. I, 485, 486. 'Baillie's Land Tax, xlvii. Fifth Report, Vol. I, 486; Vol. II, 159. 'Fifth Report, Vol. I, 237, 268. Harington's Analysis, Vol. IlI, 415. Steele's Deccan Castes, 208. 5 Harington's Analysis, Vol. IlI, 415. 1 lb., 417.
had to pay malikana to the zemindar.1 And the hereditary pergannah officers have been held entitled, under British rule, to receive their fees, whether they perform any service or not, so long as they are still willing to perform the duties of their offices.' The jageerdar had also to pay fees to the State, called nuzzurs or presents, on succession, partition and all transfers.* This confirms the opinion that the jageer was not originally alienable as of right.
One district in Southern India was held as a jageer by the Nizam on condition of furnishing a certain number of troops. He held it in his capacity of aumildar.4 Lord Clive also held the zemindary of the Twenty-four Pergunnahs as a jageer of the bila shurt (unconditional) and zatee (personal) kind; the East India Company holding a grant of the zemindary rights.5
A jageer was not generally created by a sunnud, when the jageerdar was not intended to be invested with jurisdiction, but a khiU or order was addressed to the Government officers, ordering them to pay the revenue granted into the hands of the jageerdar. These orders were called tunkas.6 The regular jageer sunnud consisted of two parts : the munsub, which set forth the rank of the grantee, and specified a suitable number of horse as required to be kept up, both for the support of the dignity and for the SEYTJRGHAL GRANTS. 205
1 Harington's Analysis, Vol. III, 345, 417. Patton's Asiatic Monarchies, 105. Moohummud Ismail Jemadar v. Raja Balungee Surrun, 3 Sel. Rep., 346.
* 1iama Shunkar r. Jamasjee Shaporjee, 2 Moore's I. A., 23.
3 Steele's Deccan Castes, 208. Land Tenure by a Civilian, 57, 58.
4 Fifth Report, Vol. II, 154.
1 lb., Vol. I, 486; Vol. II, 167. Harington's Analysis, Vol. II, 66. 8 Steele's Deccan Castes, 208. Galloway's Law and Constitution of India, 868, 7.
service of the State; and the zimn, or details of the Lecturs
assignment, whether extending over a particular district, —
or allotting a specified amount of revenue in money. This sunnud was issued under the Emperor's seal.
Another class of the ikta grants was called seyurghai. Seyurghai These were grants of revenue to—first, learned men and their scholars; second, those who had withdrawn from worldly affairs; third, the needy in general; and fourth, the poor descendants of great families, who were too proud to follow any occupation.1 Grants to the needy were also called aymas; and were often obtained by the wealthy under fictitious names.2 Grants for these purposes sometimes included the land, and were of the milk or muddudmash kind. When grants of the seyurghai class were made simply by way of assignments of revenue, they were of the nature of unconditional jageers, and only for life originally:3 and it is obvious that there would be less tendency to allow grants to the classes of persons above specified to become hereditary, although no doubt they often did become so. The mode of assignment was by tunkas, which never included more than three-fourths of the revenue of the district from which the assigned revenue was to be received.4
One of the classes of grant included in the seyurghai was, Ayma grant* as I have mentioned, the ayma grants. Ayma (or aimma, the plural of imam, a leader of the devotions of a private assembly of Mahomedan worshippers,) grants were grants made to imams by the sovereign. When grants of
1 Baillie's Land Tax, xlviii. Ayeen Akbery, Vol. I, 281, 383.
1 Colebrooke's Supplement, 238.
1 Baillie's Land Tax, xlviii.
4 lb., xlix. Ayeen Akbery, Vol. I, 283, 284.