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need for which implies actual disability in the equipment, but also with respect to running repairs for which locomotives are held 24 hours or more. To ascertain the physical condition of the equipment reference should be made to the locomotives in shop or awaiting shop for classified repairs.

SEPARATION OF FREIGHT TRAIN STATISTICS BY DIRECTIONS

On Form 1 all of the basic information and all of the averages or ratios are shown separately by directions--east, west and total. Where the movement of traffic as a whole is not east and west, it may be shown as north and south, or branches which run north or south may be combined with east or west according to traffic movement. The requirement of separation by direction is designed to throw light on the effect of unbalanced traffic, and to permit a separate analysis of the performance in each direction. Such an analysis is essential to an accurate determination of the effect of fluctuations by directions.

Freight traffic usually is unbalanced. There is usually what is called the “direction of prevailing traffic,” although with seasonal or other traffic fluctuations it may alternate between east and west. Ordinarily it is unnecessary to pay much attention to train loading in the light direction, as the locomotives and crews in the direction of heavy traffic must be returned in the light direction with little regard to train loading. It may be, however, that the grades are easy in the direction of traffic and are heavy in the opposite direction. In that case it is probable that the train loading in the direction of light traffic requires the greatest supervision. In one specific case the westward gross tons normally are from 55% to 65% of the eastward gross tons, but the heaviest grades are against the westward movement. For a given type of locomotive the eastward rating is 2,000 gross tons; westward it is 1,200 tons, or 60% of the eastward rating. It is plain, then, that in this case the eastward direction is controlling so long as the westward gross tons are not more than 60% of the eastward gross tons. When it exceeds 60%, it is the westward movement which controls the number of locomotives and crews.

This instance will illustrate the importance of the required separation in the statistics of traffic, of train-, locomotive-, and car-mileage, and of train-hours. Heretofore, its importance has been recognized in the statistical practise of but very few railroads.

ACTUAL FIGURES FROM ONE REPORT

Space will not permit the reproduction of all of the forms and summaries. A single example will suffice to show the design of one form, and to illustrate the completeness of the data pertaining to freight train operation. The report hereill reproduced contains the actual figures of one railroad on Form 1 for the month of May, 1919, compared with May, 1918. In this case the road had unusually complete statistics for 1918, and was able to adapt its records to fit the comparative requirements of the new report.

In analyzing this report we note first that the gross ton-miles show a decrease of 20.4%. This change in the actual gross production should be compared with the potential. The rating tonmiles show a decrease of 21.5%. This comparison indicates an improvement in loading to the locomotive rating. A glance at Item 14 shows an increase of 1.4% in the per cent of actual to potential. We note further, however, that the improvement occurred wholly in westward movement. The eastward performance shows a decrease in loading efficiency. The details by directions, under Items 5 and 6, show that the traffic is unbalanced, the prevailing direction being eastward. The percentages of decrease show that the loss in traffic both in gross and net (particularly in net) was relatively greater eastward than westward.

The next step is to compare the gross ton-miles with the train-miles. The percentages of change are 20.4% decrease in gross ton-miles and 29.0% decrease in train-miles. These figures indicate an improvement in the train-load. The results are shown in Item 9. The eastward gross trainload shows an increase of 6.3%, the westward load an increase of 23.8%, and in both directions combined, the increase is 12.2%.

Attention should now be directed to the relation between locomotive-miles and train-miles. The train-miles show a decrease of 29.0%. The decrease in principal and helper locomotive-miles is 30.7%. We note in passing that there has been a substantial saving in light locomotive-mileslocomotives run without trains. The relation be

tween the train-miles and locomotive-miles is seen in Item 9, which shows a decrease of 2.3% in the locomotive-miles per train-mile. It is evident, therefore, that the increase in the train-load was not due to the greater use of multiple locomotives.

It might be of interest in this case to ascertain why the locomotive-miles decreased relatively more than the rating ton-miles. A simple computation (Item 6-c divided by Item 3-c) shows that the average rating per locomotive in 1919 was 1,519 as against 1,341 in 1918. This difference indicates one or more of six things: (1) the acquisition of new locomotives of greater power; (2) the relatively greater use of heavier power and relatively smaller use of lighter power, the latter being stored; (3) the application of superheaters to locomotives not heretofore so equipped; (4) an upward revision of tonnage ratings; (5) relatively more traffic on the divisions which have the heavier tonnage ratings; or (6) grade revisions which permit of heavier train loading. In this particular case the increase in the average rating is due to a combination of four out of six reasons just suggested.

One reason for the better westward performance is seen in the car-miles. They show a heavy decrease in loads eastward, but westward we find an increase of 7.5%. It is of interest here to glance at the average car-load, Item 11. It shows a loss of 12.2%, with but little difference in the change as between directions. The difference between directions is greater, however, in the per cent of loaded to total car-miles. Eastward the proportion of loads decreased slightly while in

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UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION

DIRECTOR GENERAL OF RAILROADS

A. B. & C. RAILROAD

(Name of reporting carrier)

FREIGHT TRAIN PERFORMANCE

(Not including mixed, special, or motor car trains)

Month of MAY, 1919, compared with same month of previous year.

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3. Locomotive-miles (Note B):

(a) Principal and helper, east.. (b) Principal and helper, west (c) Total principal and helper,

east and west (d) Light, east (e) Light, west i) Total light, east and west.

(0) Grand total, east and west.. 4. Car-miles (thousands) (Note B):

(a) Loaded, east
(b) Loaded, west
(c) Loaded, total
(d) Empty, east
(e) Empty, west
(f) Empty, total
(0) Caboose, east
(h) Caboose, west
(i) Caboose, total
(j) Total, east
(k) Total, west
(1) Grand total

d

6,030
8,058
9,088

1,806 d 23.0

704 3,237 8,941

186 183

369 6,920 6,478 13,398

7,836 2,845 10,681

856
4,144
5,000

281
263

544
8,973
7,252
16,225

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d d d d d d d d d d

213 7.5 1,593 d 14.9

152 d 17.8 907 d 21.9 1,059 d 21.2

95 d 33.8 80 d 30.4 175 d 32.2 2,053 d 22.9

774 d 10.7 2,827 d 17.4

5. Gross ton-miles (thousands)

(Note C):
(a) East
(6) West
(c) Total

267,713 362,186
182,302 202,915
450,015 565,101

d 94,473 d 26.1
d 20,613 d 10.2
d 115,086 d 20.4

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