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terms, but they cannot be expected to regard with complacency the loss of identity and the limiting of their sphere of influence when their road is absorbed by a larger system. Communities, too, have prejudices against “absentee landlordism." Local pride and traditions demand that executive control shall not be allowed to go outside the state or section. Again, while the weak road may be very glad to end its worries by becoming a part of a stronger connection, and the larger company may not be unwilling to absorb the smaller, the views of the latter as to its value and as to the terms of consolidation may be widely at variance with those of the absorbing road. The indigent companies see promise of better terms under a comprehensive plan of consolidation, backed by the Interstate Commerce Commission, than in the former evolutionary process when the buyer could choose his time and frequently could dictate his terms.

These and other difficulties will probably retard the process of voluntary consolidation. The Commission has no power to enforce its recommendations. The bill as it passed the Senate called for compulsory consolidation, but in deference to the views of the House, the compulsory feature was eliminated in joint conference. Unless public opinion, awakened by the realization of the benefits to be derived from intelligent consolidation on a well-planned large scale, asserts itself and demands that the law be amended so that, with proper safeguards for property rights of both the strong and the weak companies, consolidation shall be compulsory, little toward the desired end will be accomplished under the 1920 Act.

This is unfortunate, because the new rule of rate-making cannot operate successfully for the railroads as a whole unless the problem of the weak road is solved in some such manner by merging the weak with the strong.

APPENDIX

THE PRESIDENT'S PROCLAMATION AND STATE

MENT TO CONGRESS, DecemBER 26, 1917.... Page 301 THE FEDERAL CONTROL Act, APPROVED March 21, 1918......

.....PAGE 310 THE STANDARD CONTRACT BETWEEN THE DIRECTOR GENERAL AND THE INDIVIDUAL CAR

PAGE 329 THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE U. S. RAILROAD

ADMINISTRATION IN UNIFYING AND STAND-
ARDIZING THE STATISTICS OF OPERATION
(REPRINTED FROM ANNALS OF THE AMER-
ICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND Social
SCIENCE)

PAGE 367

RIERS

THE PRESIDENT'S PROCLAMATION AND

STATEMENT TO CONGRESS

DECEMBER 26, 1917

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

A PROCLAMATION

W

HEREAS the Congress of the United

States, in the exercise of the constitu

tional authority vested in them, by joint resolution of the Senate and House of Representatives bearing date April 6, 1917, resolved:

That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.

And by joint resolution bearing date of December 7, 1917, resolved:

That a state of war is hereby declared to exist between the United States of America and the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government; and that the President be, and he is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to

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