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mode, and which custom exacts. It about the queen : He dined and supmatters little (for instance) whether ped and cohabited with the latter in a prince gives himself up to the more every apparent respect as if he had gross luxury of the west, or to the no mistress at all. Thus he raised a more refined luxury of the east; whe- great reputation: He was revered by ther he become the slave of a do. his subjects, and admired by his neighmestick harlot, or of a foreign queen ;A bours; and this was 'due principally in short, whether he forget himself to the art with which he managed in the arms of one whore, or of appearances, so as to set off his virtwenty; and whether he imitate An- tues, to disguise his failings and his thony, or a king of Achin, who is vices, and by his example and authoreported to have passed his whole rity to keep a veil drawn over the time in a seraglio, eating, drinking, futility and debauch of his court. chewing betel, playing with women, B His successor, not to the throne, and talking of cock-fighting. but to the sovereign power, was a

To draw to a conclusion: This mere rake, with some wit, and no decency, this grace, this propriety of morals; nay, with so little regard to manners to character, is fo essential them, that he made them a subject to princes in particular, that when

of ridicule in discourse, and appeared ever it is neglected, their virtues lose

in his whole conduct more profligate, a great degree of lustre, and their C if that could be, than he was in prindefects acquire much aggravation. ciple. The difference between there Nay more, by neglecting this decen- characters foon appeared in abomicy and this grace, and for want of a nable effects ; such as (cruelty apart) fufficient regard to appearances, even

might recal the memory of Nero, or their virtues may betray them into in the other sex, that of Mefalina, failings, their failings into vices, and and such as I leave the chroniclers their vices into habits, unworthy of Dof scandal to relate.. princes, and unworthy of men.

Our Elizabeth was queen in a The constitutions of governments, limited monarchy, and reigned over and the different tempers and charac- a people at all times more easily led ters of people, may be thought justly than driven ; and at that time capable to deserve some consideration, in de- of being attached to their prince and termining the behaviour of princes their country,' by a more generous in private life as well as in publick ; E principle than any of those which and to put a difference (for instance) prevail in our days, by offelin. between the decorum of a king of There was a strong prerogative then France, and that of a king of Grear- in being, and the crown was in pofBritain.

feffion of greater legal power. Po. Lewis the fourteenth was king in pularity was however then (as it is an absolute monarchy, and reigned now, and as it must be always ia over a people whose genius makes it F mixed government) the sole true fitter perhaps to impose on them by foundation of that sufficient authoriadmiration and awe, than to gain ty and influence, which other constiand hold them by affection. Accord- tutions give the prince gratis, and iningly he kept great ftate; was haugh- dependently of the people, but which ty, was reserved; and all he said or a king of this nation must acquirt. did appeared to be forethought and The wise queen faw it, and the faw plann'd. His regard to appearances G too how much popularity depends were such, that when his mistress was on those appearances that depend on the wife of another man, and he had the decorum, the decency, the grace, children by her every year, he en- and the propriety of behaviour of deavoured to cover her constant resi- which we are speaking A warm dence at court by a place the filled

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concern for the interest and honour

spreading the most extravagant noof the nation, a tenderness for her tions about kings in general, as if people, and a confidence in their af. they were middle beings, between fections, were appearances that run God and other men; and by comthro' her whole publick conduct, paring the extent and unsearchable and gave life and colour to it. She mysteries of their power and prero. did great things, and the knew how A gative to those of the divine Provito let them off according to their full dence. His language and his behaviour value, by her manner of doing them. were commonly suited to such foolish In her private behaviour the Mewed pretensions; and thus by assuming a great affability, the descended even claim to such respect and submission to familiarity, but her familiarity as were not due to him, he loft a was such as could not be imputed great part of what was due to him. to her weakness, and was therefore B In short, he begun at the wrong end; most juftly ascribed to her goodness. for tho' the shining qualities of the Tho' a woman, she hid all that was king may cover some failings and womanish about her ; and if a few

some vices that do not grow up to equivocal marks of coquetry appear- strong habits in the man, yet muit the ed on some occasions, they passed character of a great and good king be like flashes of lightning, vanished as founded in that of a great and good man. foon as they were discerned, and im- C A king wholives out of the sight of his printed no blot on her character. She subjects, or is never seen by them exhad private friendships, she had fa- cept on his throne, can scarce be devourites: But she never suffered her

spised as a man, tho' he may be hated friends to forget she was their queen, as a king. But the king who lives and when her favourites did, the more in their sight, and more under made them feel that she was so. their observation, may be despised

Her succesior, James the first, had D before he is hated, and even withno virtues to set off, but he had fail- out being hated. This happened to ings and vices to conceal. He could king James : A thousand circumnot conceal the latter ; and void of stances brought it to pass, and none the former, he could not compensate more than the indecent weaknesses he for them. His failings and his vices had for his minions. He did not therefore standing in full view, he endeavour to cure this contemps, and passed for a weak prince and an ill E raise his character only by afiecting man ; and fell into all the contempt what he had no pretensions to, as in wherein his memory remains to this the former case; but he endeavoured day. The methods he took to pre- likewise moit vainly to do it by serve himself from it, served but to affecting what was improper to his confirm him in it. No man can keep character and rank. He did not the decorum of manners in life, who endeavour, indeed, to disguise his nais not free from every kind of affecta. F tural pufillanimity and timidity ander tion, as it has been raid already: But the matk of a bully, nor wear a long he who affects what he has no preten- sword, look fierce, and talk big, fions to, or what is improper to his whilft he was imposed upon and incharadler and rank in the world, is sulted by all his neighbours, and a. guilty of most consummate folly: He bove all by the Spaniards; but he becomes doubly ungracious, doubly retailed the scraps of Buchanan, indecent, and quite ridiculous. James G affecied to talk much, figured in the first, not having one quality to church-controversies, and put on all conciliate the esteem or affection of

the pedantick appearances of a schohis people to him, endeavoured to lar, whilft he neglected all those of a impofe on their underflandings; and

great and good man, as well as king. to create a respect for himielf, by

Les

* Let not princes flatter themselves; fo in private ; and the prince who theywill be examined closely in grivate practises and exacts them, will amuse as well as in publick life; and those

himself much better, and oblige who cannot pierce further will judge those who have the honour to be in of them by the appearances they give his intiinacy, and to share his pleain both. To obtain true popularity,

fures with him, much more, than he that which is founded in eltcem and A could possibly do by the most absolute affection, they must therefore main- and unguardid familiarity. tain their characters in boih; and to That which is here recommended that end neglect appearances in nei- to princes, that constant guard on ther, but obferve the dicorum necessary their own behaviour, even in private to preserve the elteem, whilst chey life, and that constant decorum which win the affections, of mankind. Kings, their example ought to exact from they must never forget that they are B others, will not be found so difficult men: Men, they must never forget that in practice as may be imagined ; if they are kings. The sentiments which they use a proper discernment in the one of these reflections of course in- choice of the persons whom they admit spires, will give an humane and affa- to the nearest degrees of intimacy ble air to their whole behaviour, and

with them. A prince shou'd chule make them taste, in that high eleva- his companions with as great care as tion, all the joys of social life. The C his minifiers. If he trusts the sentiments that the other reflcction business of his state to these, he trusts suggests, will be found very compa- his character to those. Not only tible with the former; and they may general experience will lead men to never forget that they are kings, tho’ judge, that a fimilitude of character they do not always carry the crown

determin'd it; but if chance, inon their heads, nor the scepter in

dulgence to affiduity, good-nature, their hands. Vanity and folly must D or want of reflection had their share entrench themselves in a conítant af. in the introduction of men unworthy fectation of state to preserve regal of such favour, certain it is, that dignity: A wise prince will know they who judged wrong at first how to preserve it when he lays his concerning him, will judge right at majesty aside. He will dare to ap- last ; I mean, that the minds of pear a private man, and in that princes, like the minds of other men, character he will draw to himself a E. will be brought down insensibly to the respect less ostentatious, but more tone of the company they keep. real and more agreeable to him, than They are not triflers for instance : any which is paid to the monarch. Be it so: But if they take men of By never saying what is unfit for him mean characters, or of no characters, to say, he will never hear what is into their intimacy, they shew a difunfit for him to hear By never position to become such ; unless they doing what is unfit for him to do, he F break those habits early, and before will never see what is unfit for him to puerile amusements are grown up see. Decency and propriety of to be the business of their lives. manners are so far from lefening the A worse consequence even than pleasures of life, that they refine them, this, may follow a want of discernand give them an higher tafte: They ment in princes how to chuse their are lo far from restraining the free companions, and how to conduct and easy commerce of social life, that G themselves in private life. Silly kings they banish the bane of it, licentioul- have resigned them elves to their mi. nefs of behaviour. Ceremony is the nisters, have suffered there to fand barrier against this abuse of liberty between them and their people, and in publick : Politeness and decency are have formed no judgments, nor taken January, 1749

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an: measures on their own knowledge, medule in things at least as much a. but all implicitly on the representa- bove them, as those that have been tions made io them by those ministers. mentioned are below the others ? Kings of fuperior capacity have re- And are not princes who suffer them figned themselves in the fame man- to do 1o, unaccountably weak? !. ner to their favourites, male and fe- What shall I say further on this male, have suffered these to itund be. A head ? Nothing more is necessary. tween them and their most able and Let me wind it up therefore by alfaithful counsellors ; their judgments forting this great truth, that results have been influenced, and their from what has been already said. measures directed by insinuations of As he can never fill the character of women, or of men as little fitted as a Patriot King, tho' his personal women by nature and education, to great and good qualities be in every be hearkened to in the great affairs B other respect equal to it, who lies oof government. History is full of pen to the flattery of courtiers, to the such examples; all melancholy, seduction of women, and to the many tragical! sufficient, if attended partialities and affections which are to (one would imagine) to deter easily contracted by too great indulprinces from permitting the compa- gence in private life ; fo the prince nions of their idle hours, or the in- who is desirous to establish this chastruments of their pleasures, to exceed C racter, must observe such a decorum, the bounds of those provinces. Should and keep such a guard on himself, a minister of state pretend to vie with as may prevent even the fulpicion of any of these, about the forms of a being liable to such influences. For drawing-room, the regulation of a as the reality would ruin, the very ruelle, the decoration of a ball, or suspicion will lessen him in the óthe dress of a fine lady, he would be pinion of mankind ; and the opithought ridiculous, and he would be D nion of mankind, which is fame aftruly lo. But then are not any of these ter death, is superior strength and impertinent, when they pretend to

power in life.

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JOURNAL of the PROCEEDINGS and DEBATES

in the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from the APPENDIX, 1748, Page 605.

and, I think, he himself stands forth in the Debate begun in your Maga

an example of it, as strong as can any zine for December last, and conti- where be met with. I am persuaded, pued in your Appendix, the next there is no man more firmly attached Speciker afier Q. Salonius Sarra, E than he is to the protestant succession was Cn. Domitius Calvinus, the

now happily established in this kingPurport of whose Speich was as dom, and yet he has been bred up follows:

with such a regard for the church,

and such a jealousy of every thing Mr. Presidint,

that may have the least appearance SIR,

of an incroachment upon her rights THE Hon. and learned gen. F and privileges, that he would chuse

tleman who spoke lait, took to expose the protestant succession to

notice of the powerful in- be undermined by wolves in sheeps fluence which the prejudices of edu- cloathing, rather than allow the pare cacion have upon our way of think- liament to determine, who ihall be ing, od judging, in all ansirs of lile;

decnied

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deemed the proper instructors and man, who takes holy orders from a leaders of the people within his ma- nonjuring bilhop, is such a one as jesty's dominions.

has been bred up in the same princiSir, If the question now before ples with the bishop from whom he us were, whether ordination by a chases to receive holy orders, and popisn bishop, or hy one who is held consequently, must be presumed rea. io be a bishop amongit the nonjurors, A dy to inculcate those principles as ofwere such an ordinarion as might in. ten as he iately can, notwithPanding title a man to the character of a his having taken the oaths to the priest or a deacon in the church ; or present government; therefore the if we were to impower any civilju. parliament has wilely thought fit to dicatute to determine this question, exclude all such men from exerciiing I should be as zealous against our the office of priest or deacoa in Scotdetermining such a queition, or B land, where the people are naturally, granting such a power, as any gen- and without any initruction, but too tleman in this house; but neither apt to rebel; and where the vulgar of these is the case with respect have always been more under the into the clause now under considera. Auence of their preachers than in tion. We are only to determine, most other countries. that such an ordination is not proper It is true, Sir, that no man can for intitling a man to exercise the C publickly, in his fermons, inculcate function of prieit or deacon in any the principles of Jacobitism: it is eepiscopal meeting in Scotland; and qually true, that no man, who has that it may appear by whom every

taken the oaths to the government, man, who intends to exercise that can, with a good grace, inculcate funciion in Scotland, has been or. such principles in private condained, we have already ordered his versation; and it is likewiie true, lecters of orders to be registered in D that if you exclude such men from the court books of some of the civil publickly exercising their function, judicatures within the kingdom. they will probably exercise it in a

Neither of these, Sir, can in the private manner, and will then more leait interfere with any right or pri- zealously inculcate such principles, vilege belonging to the church. especially in Scotland, where, from is a question in politicks only, and several late events it is known, that with such questions, I think, the E the lower fort of people are not so molt zealous churchman cannot pie. ready to discover, or impeach, even tend, that the church has any thing for the highest rewards, as in some to do. For both these political re- other countries. But, Sir, tho' no gulations the learned gentleman has minister can publickly, in his ferhimself furnished us with a very mons, inculcate the principles of frong argument. The prejudices of Jacobitism, yet if he be a learned education are oi such force, that ve. F and eloquent preacher, he may, by ry few men ever get entirely the his sermons, gain a more commandbetter of them; and it has been ing influence over his hearers than found, by experience, that those he could ever overwile arrain to, and who have been bred up in Jacobite from thence may, with greaser principles from their 1.fancy, gene- weight, recommend whatever docTally retain a warm fide that way, trines, either in religion or politicks, and are too apt to thew it as often as G he pleases to inculc te in his privaie they safely can, notwithstanding their conversation or leclures ; nor will having taken the oaths to the present his having taken the oaths to the gogovernment. This, I say, has been vernment much diminish the weight bound by experience, and it is cer- of his recommendation ; for the peotainly to be preluncd, that every

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