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seems common to the aquatick crea. muft exist in some external agent, tion, having diffected the eyes of several whereas the attributing of it to the of its species, and found no considera. object's great distance, is a supposi. ble difference. The third tunick was tion of a property existing in matter a very thin membrane, and cover'd by no means el?ential thereto. on both sides with a tapetum, which For all bodies form'd of physical (as it has not been before disco. A causes are possessed of physical quaver'd, or at least taken notice of, lities, which we become sensible of according to its splendid appearance) by an emanation of fubtle corpuscles I denominate tunica fulgida: The emitted by way of transpiration in fourth of a fleshy consistence, which manner of radii. Ergo, the influenI likewise denominate tunica carneja: ces of these efluvia are more or less But as for the adnata, caroides, and perceptible to the body acted upon, retina, they are much the same as B in proportion to the squares of the in other species; but this must be ob. distances. This has been sufficiently served, the said eye was divested of demonstrated, and generally accepted; both uvea and ligamentum ciliare, therefore, to suppose the actuating which I presume is a ftrong argu- particles of matter most capable ment, that this ligament does not an- of affecting our organization, when swer the end generally assign'd, or remotely station'd, is, in my opinion, it would have been found in this C attributing a property to bodies, diaanimal, since its bulb (according to metrically opposite to a prior observation) is incompreslible. ception of matter, and introducing

But here it may be objected, that an argument clashing with reason, if this ligamentum ciliare confines the and the laws of nature; for tho' aqueous humour, then the want of we even suppose bodies capable of this ligament would render the this contrariety of action, yet this vitreous, and retina, liable to an D question will naturally occur, wiz. overflow of the said humour.

How these influences affect the ocular To which I answer, that nature muscles, fince allowing them a par. has wisely provided against that de fage into the eye, and from thence fect, by an additional viscidity in to the sensorium commune, is not a the said aqueous, which perhaps ex. fufficient authority for fuppofing ceeds that of any other species, and that the effect reaches the said muscles, is incapable of entrance or infring. E they having no connexion with the ing upon its adjacent parts : Then internal membranes: And to ascribe a again, as the crystalline hath no con- passage for this agent thro' the se. nexion with any thing but the vi. veral tunicks, and so to the muscles, is treous membrane, could not be to have recourse to a mere improrendered occasionally lenticular, be. bability; for some of its action being ing of itself globular.

spent in the penetration, together We'll even for the sake of argu. F with a proportionable part of its ment suppose, that some of these effect, (which we may be assured causes already objected against, may would be the consequence,) there. produce the phenomena of vision; in fore, according to its contracting order to introduce such arguments, property, would astringe the tunicks, as are requisite for the support of and render them less pliable to muj. my bypothefis, t'will be necessary to

cular operations. consider them as they really are, but G Or, suppose we apply these efSecondary causes, since by an abstract fees to the ligamentum ciliare, and enquiry they may with reason be sup- consider how far they may tend to posed to exist in some others remote. the crystallize's access and recesi, or to Ergo, If the eye be subject to any the alteration of its convexity : of these alterations, the primary cause


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Previous to this it must be ob. according to a proclamation before served, that this ligament is situated issued by the lords justices, on Tuefunder the uvula, and being its du- day, Nov. 29, when the session was plicature, is consequently of the opened by a molt gracious speech fame nature, and subject to the same from the throne, which the reader offifiion. Ergo, before the actuating may fee in our Magazine for last corrulles, productive of this effici, A year, p. 532. seach the said ligament, they first This speech being reported the operate on the iris, and uvea, which, same day by the lord chancellor to by contracting the pupilla, when the house of lords, an address was it should be dilated to receive a greater moved for by the earl of Powis, who multiplicity of rays, to visibilitate the was seconded by the earl of Kildare ; distant object, would render it less and the motion being agreed to withperspicuous.

B out opposition, an address was acUpon the whole, I have con- cordingly drawn up by a committee, fider'd the retina as the chief


which was approved of by the house, by which external objects accrue to and presented next day. This ad. our imagination, impressing their dress, with his majesty's molt graJpecies upon that membrane, by an cious answer, the reader may see in emanation of subtle corpufiles, imit. our said Magazine, P. 534. ted in monner of radii ; and have C As soon as the commons had reendeavoured to prove each sufficient. turned to their house, Mr. Speaker ly vivid, to represent its subject's ap- reported, that the house had attend. parent perspicuity to the mind ; and

ed his majesty in the house of peers, that an alteration in the eye's me- where his majesty was pleased to chanism, and the qualities of bo- make a moft gracious speech from dies producing this supposed effect, the throne to both houses of parliaact diametrically oppofite ; notwith-D ment, of which, he said, he had, to farding which, upon a supposition prevent mistakes, obtained a copy, of bodies enjoying these repugnant which he read to the house, and the principles to reason and our apprehen- fame being again read by the clerk fions of nature, I have considered their

at the table, the form of an address influences prepossessed with a contrac- was moved for by the lord Barringting property, and more detrimental ton, and seconded by Philip Yorke, to vifion, than all the advantages, E Esq; But as some of the expressions Supposed to arise from thence, could in the form proposed were objected poflibly compensate. The result of to by Robert Nugent, Efq, a debate all I humbly submit to your infinitely ensued, in which, beside the gentlesuperior judgment, determining men before mentioned, the chief whether or not these sentiments speakers were Mr. Solicitor General coincide with fact ; and beg leave, and Mr. Chancellor of the Exchewith all duty, fubmiflion, and re- F quer for the motion, and Sir Francis gard, to subscribe myself,

Dashwood, and Dr. Lee against it. Gentlemen,

The question however was carried in Your most obedient, and favour of the motion without a dimnoji bumble firvant, vilion, and an address being accordSAMUEL PALIN. ingly drawn up by a committee,

and next day approv'd of by the Å Summary of the most important Af-G house, it was presented, Dec. 1; a

fairs, that happened iajt Sefion of copy of which, with his majesty's Parliament.

molt gracious answer, the reader may HE parliament having been fee in our said Magazine, P. 535. tions, it assembled at Woji minjter,

A9 As to the controverted elections deter- and that for Milbourne-Pori, wherein yfmined this session, there were none but fery French, Esq; was the petitioner, and that for Aberdeen, &c. in Scolland, wherein Thomas Medlycott and Charles Cburchill David Scott, Esq; was petitioner, and Esqrs, fitting members, which was deterCbarles Maitland, Esq; the fitting member, mined by the committee of privileges and which was determined at the bar of the elections in favour of the fit:ing, mernbers, house, Feb. 6, in favour of the fitting mem- and their determination confirmed by the ber, the petitioner having withdrawn his house, Marcb. 14. petition : That for the county of Nortbum. The commistee of supply being establimberland, wherein Lancelot Allgord was peti. ed in the usual form, the following resolutioner, and the lord Odulfiton sitting mem- tions were therein agreed to, and after, ber, which was given up by the latter, and wards approv'd by the house, during the consequently determined in favour of the continuance of last session, viz. petitioner, at the bar of the house, Feb. 14 ; Marcb 17, Resolved to grant, his majesty; in which committee the following resolutions were agreed to, and afterwards approved by the house upon the report, viz.

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Dec. 6, Resolved, 1. That 17000 seamen be employ'd for 1749.

2. That for their maintenance, including the ordinary for sea-service, shere be granted,

Jan. 18, Resolved, 1. That 18857 land forces be employ'd for the year 1749. 2. That for their maintenance there be granted,

3. That for maintaining the forces in the plantations, Minorca, Gibraltar, &c. there be granted,

4. To grant for making good his majesty's engagements with the elector of Bavaria,

5. For ditto with the duke of Brunswick,
6. For ditto with the landgrave of Hellecasel,
7. For ditto with the elector of Mentz,

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Jan. 23, Resolved to grant, iFor the ordinary of the navy, including half-pay to sea officers, 2. For Greenwicb hospital, 3. For the office of ordnance for the land service, 4. For the extraordinary expence of ditto not provided for by parliament, 5. For the forces in Cape Breton and the East Indies,

6. For replacing to the sinking fund, one year's interest due at Micba. elmas on the million lent on the salt duties continued from 1753,

7. For replacing to ditto to make good the deficiency of the additional stamp duties,

8. For replacing to ditto to make good the deficiency of the duty on licences for retailing spirituous liquors,

9. For replacing to ditto to make good the deficiency of the additional duries on wines,

10. For replacing to ditto to make good the deficiency of the duty on sweets, &c.

11. For replacing to ditto to make good the deficiency of the duties on glass and spirituous liquors, at Midjunumer 1748,

12. For replacing to ditto to make good the deficiency of the new du. ties on houses, windows, and lights at Michaelmas 1748,

13. For making good the deficiency of the additional duties on wincs imported,

14. For making good the deficiency of the duties on glass and spirituous liquors at Cbriftmas 1748,

15297 11 st

13827 12 6

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March 15, Resolved to grant, 1. For making good the deficiency of grants for laft year,

2. For extraordinary expences of the land forces in Flarders, Nerib Britain and America ; and other services 1748, not provided for,

418128 18 10

888315 8 4

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4 1. For discharging navy, victualling and transport bills,

3000000 2. For discharging the debt of the office of ordnance,


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3233382 5


March 20, Resolved to grant,
For discharging the arrear claim'd by the queen of Hungary,

Marcb 22, Resolved to grant,
1. For seitling a colony at Nova Scotia,
2. For the out pensioners of Cbelsea hospital,



103274 6 3


31060 16 -
67226 18 4

April 14, Resolved to grant, 1. For discharging reamens wages, and other debts of the navy, due, Duc. 31, lait, not already provided for,

2. For making good the deficiency of the new duties on houses, &c. » Lady Day 1749,

3. For the pay of general and half officers,
4. For reduced officers of land forces and marines,

5. For officers and private gentlemen of the two troops of guards and regiment of horse lately reduc'd,

6. For the eff reckonings of the said two troops of guards, out of the favings from the money granted for provision of officers widows,

7. For pensions to half-pay officers widows, married before Dec, 25, 1716,

8. For building Westminster bridge,

5281 16

6039 103

3867 15 75

1 2000

1141476 17 4 April 21, Resolved to grant, For reimbursing the city of Glajgow the sums extorted from them by the rebels. (See p. 303.)

May 24, Resolved to grant, 2. For supporting the trade to Africa,

cao 2. For improving the colony of Georgia,

5304 3 4

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15304 3 4

Sum total of grants last session,

8088448 12 31 From this account the reader may see, how false and imperfect those accounts are, that have been lately published ; and we shall observe, that these grants ought to be diftinguished into, ift, Such as were for making good engagements enter'd into, or services undertaken, on account of the late war. 2dly, Such as were for paying off debts. 3dly, Such as were for making good deficiencies. And ihly, Such as were for the fervice of the current year.

Of the first fort, are the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th resolutions of Jan. 18; and 4th and 5th of Jan. 23 ; the 2d of March 15, that of March 20, and that of April 21, amounting in the whole to,

796513 3 7 Of the ad fort, are the two of March 17, and the first of April 14, amounting to,

423382 5 1 of the 3d fort, are the 6th and following of Jan, 23 ; the ift of Marcb 15, and the ad of April 14, amounting to,

687219 8 45 And of the 4th are those of the ad of Dec. 6; the 2d and 3d of Jan, 18; the ift, 2d and 3d of Jan. 23; the two of Marcb 22; the 3d and following of April 14 ; and the two of May 24, amounting in the whole to,

2374333 15 3

8088448 12 3 The first two resolutions of the committee of fupply having been reported and agreed to, Dec. 8, it was immerijately after resolved, that the house would next morning resolve itself in'o a committee of the whole house, to confider of ways and means for raiting the luptly granted to


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Dec. 9, Resolved, That the duties on malt, mum, cyder, and perry, be further continu. ed from June 21, 1749, to June 4, 17;°; which duties are computed to produce yearly,

7c0000 Jan. 25, Resolved, That 4s. in the pound be raised upon lands, &c. in Ergland, and a proportionable cels in Scotland, which tax is usually computed to produce yearly,

2000000 Mareb 20, Resolved, 1. That all persons, who mall be interested in, or intitled unto, any bill By bills payable in course, out of his majesty's offices of the navy, or victualling, or for transports, which were made out on or before Dec. 31, 1748, and who shall, on or before the 20th of April next, carry the same to the treasurer of his majesty's navy, to be marked and certified by him to the governor and company of the bank of England, Mall be intitled unto, and have an annuity for the principal and interest due on the said bills, after the rate of fl. per cent, per ann. to commence from the 25th day of this inftant Marcb, payable half yearly, in lieu of all other interest ; the Said annuity to be charged upon the linking fund, transferrable at the Bank of England, until redeemed by parliament. The amount of which bills were, it seems, computed at *,

3000000 – 2. That all persons, who Thall be interested in, or intitled unto, any debentures payable out of his majesty's office of ordnance, which were dated on or before the 31st of Deceoxber 1748, who Thall on or before the 20th day of April next, carry the same to the treasurer of his majesty's office of ordnance, to be certified by him to the governor and company of the Bank of England, shall be intitled unto, and have, an annuity for the principal and interest due on the said debentures, after the rate of 46 per cent. per ann. to commence from the 25th of this instant March, payable half yearly; the raid annuity to be charged upon the Anking fund, and to be transferrable at the Bank of England, until redeemed by parliament: The amount of which debentures were, it seems, computed at t, 230382 5

3230382 S April 19, Rosolved, 1. That there be issued and applied out of the finking fund the sum of 1000000

2. That his majesty be enabled to raise by loans, or exchequer bills, to be charged on the first aids of next reftion, the sum of,


2000000 -


Sum total provided for by this committee,

7930382 5 To be continued.]

confederated with the Mabomer an princes of Rise and Condition of pbe rbree Pirarical

Africa and fitted out little squadrons of States of Barbary, (See p. 272.) cruizing vessels, with which they took all HE cruel bigotry of the Spanish mo. the Spanish merchant Ahips that fell in their

narchs gave rise to these states. For way. As America was just then discover'd, the Moors of Spain having been dispofseffed and the Spaniards began to bring home che of their country, after the loss of Granada, riches of that new world, the prizes the about 1492, under Ferdinand the Carbolick Moors made were soon very confiderable ; and Isabella, they began to feuile among they also frequently landed on the coast o.. their antient countrymen on the north coaft

Spain, and brought away multitudes of the of Barbary. They were indeed obliged, natives, whom they condemn'd to perpeeither to change their religion, or transport tual Navery. themselves to that coast; and most of them Upon this Charles I. fbctter known by chose the latter.

his imperial title of Cbarles V.) breathed Those exiles, to revenge themselves on nochiog but deftruction against those cor. Mheir enemies, and supply their necessities, fairs. Tho' he was not successful in his


attempts . Sice before if resolution of March 17. t See before ad refolution of diuio.

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