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A little further he adds; Wherefore make ponefus ; but with what propriety I cannot a law to compel the services of II, when pretend to determine. many, many more are ready and willing to be A very exact geographical description of employ'd, than employment can possibly be a rude uncultivated country is not to be exfound for? Is it necefsary because there may pected : But the boundaries of this are not be a few aniongst them who do not chu e difficult to settle, as it is on ? Gdes lurto serve, and that therefore those may be rounded by the river of Sr. Laurence, the compelld to it? What, compel those to serve A gulph of the same name, the gut of Comfo, to the prejudice of others who are desirous Cape Sable Sbore on the Atlantick ocean, of serving? Are the services of such men, and the bay of Furdy. The division from who are press'd into the service in time New England has been sometimes laid of war, to be preferr'd to those, who would down by the course of $1. Jobn's river, willingly engage in it? Surely, no; or can which rising from the Lady Mountains, at the services of such men procure either ho. no great difance from the river of St. Launour or advantage to this nation? Yet, if rence, has a long south-easterly course into this 34th article gains the services of any, it the bay of Fundy. But a late order of couna can only be of such, unless the service is in- B cil fixes the boundary at the river of Holy tended to undergo as great an alteration as Cross, which falls into the bay more on the the discipline of it, and that employment is south. to be found for officers unworthy of them, Nova Scotia extends betwixt 60 and 66 and of their rank; if this is the case, com- degrees W. longitude from London, and 41 pullive laws to bring many oficers into it, and 49 į latitude north. Annapolis are most undoubtedly necessary, and in no Royal, at present the only fortress in the other light can I think them lo; either the country, stands in lat. almost 44 d. 40 m. service must be bad, or the officer must be C W. long. about 65. The south-eastern part so, that makes such laws necessary to engage

is a large peninsula, extending from southhim in it.

west to north east, and joined to the mainAnd he concludes thus: Let not this land by an ifhmus a little above the gut of country of liberty be defended by Naves,

Canso. but let them who are to protect it have The Frencb, since the property of this both their own and their country's liberty country has been vested in the English, afto animate them in its defence; and whilst fect to confine the name of Arcadia to the they are employ'd in that glorious work, peninsula only: But their own maps, made in which for a time they willingly and chear- D before the cession of this province, give it fully give up their freedom, let them liave the limits we have now assigned. I will this happy reflection, that when they re- add, that the words of the treaty do not turn on shore, they shall share with their contra&t it within narrower limits than countrymen the common blessings enjoy'd were before allowed to Accadia. by all; nor let any specious arguments According to this description, Nova Scotia prevail to urge a deed, which, when done, will be found to contain about 420 miles may be too late to repent of,

in length, and 380 in breadth ; which is an

E extent of land much larger than that of 011 As the Defeription in our Magazine for Scotland, or Norib Britain

December lafi, is only of that part of Nova Scotia las many rivers, some of Nova Scotia, to wbicb ibe French now them now navigated for a long coorse by confine obe Name of Accadia, we fall bere the natives. But for bays, harbours, and give our Readers an Account of ibe wbele convenient creeks, it is inferior to no counCountry. (See the MAP.)

try in the known world. The Cape Sable

Thore, which lies next to the fishing-banks, Ova Scotia is the most northerly and is peculiarly happy in this respect.


The bay of Clebukio, and ihe river that range on the continent, and consequently falls into it, bid fair, in the opinion of some, the nearest to Europe.

to become, in time, the principal port of It was called Nova Scotia by Sir William Nova Scotia, and the seat of its metropolis. Alexander, secretary of state for Scotland There is, over land, good communication under K. James I. and afterwards created by wheel-carriage with the bay of Minas, earl of Stirling. By means of Sir Ferdinando at present the chief settlement of the Gorge, president of the New England or Ply- French, with the rivers of Cobaquid and Pilamouth company, he obtained a royal grant G quid, and the best easterly parts of the proof this tract in 1621. When the Frencb vince. It is true, Annapolis Royal lies upgot poffeffion of it, they called it L' Accadie, on a fine baron, and is more commodious in allusion to Arcadia in the Grecian Pelo- for large inland vent and consumption : April, 1749.

Аа For its climate, air, soil, produce, fifbery, &c. what is faid in tbe description, of Des. laf, p. 556, may suffiss.



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But the country round it is bad, and the farther, and is mallow water. This is the tides of the bay of Fundy render the navi. landing place from Canada, where diftur. gation difficult.

bance from the Freneb is chiefly to be apUpon the opposite, or westerly shore of prehended, and ought peculiarly to be the bay of Fundy, are the rivers of Pasama- guarded against in the settlement of Nova quady and Holy Cross, being about 17 leagues Scotia. There are only 4 miles land carN. W. from the gut or entrance of the riage from this bay to Cbigneto river, which bason of Annapolis. The river of Holy Crofs, A runs by the French town of the fame' or St. Croix (as the French call it) was the name into the opposite bay, dividing the old boundary laid down betwixt Nova Scotia ifthmus in the narrowest part. It is proper government and Sagadabock, formerly the here to take notice, that on the fide of duke of York's property, but now annexed Chig nesto bay the tide flows 11 fathom : But to the New England government of Maf- on the gulph of St. Lourence, or Green sachuset's Bay.

Bay fide, the swell is not above 4 or 5 Further nothward, upon this shore, is feet the river of St. Jobri, 10 leagues distant Farther upwards, before we reach ille from the gut of Annapolis

. This is a very B Bonaventure and ine Perce, where the uefiul river, of long course, and has a con- Frencb, by the treaty of Utrecbr, have a siderable tribe of the Abnaqui Indians settled right to cure and dry cod-filh, we come to upon it : But they are at present, from the Miramicbi port, at the mouth of a long neglect of the Nova Scoria government, in river of the same name, where I do not the interest of the Canadan Frencb. There find any secrlement. There are some other are prodigious falls of tides in this river, small bays betwixt this and that of Cbaleurs near its mouth, of not less than 30 fathom; (so called by the Frencb) which runs a not properly cataracts, occasioned by a c great way into the land, and has a small course over rocks, but the effect of the inand at the bottom of it, besides leveral great head of water above, the channel others near the entrance. Then proceeding being here pent up betwixt two steep moun. towards the river of St. Laurence, below tains. By this river, and the help of some the south entrance of that river lies the bay land carriage, there is a communication of Gafpée, which is a deep and good hara with the river of St. Laurence, and a-cross bour. Here the French, contrary to treaty, that with Quebeck, the metropolis of Ca- have continued to carry on their fishery, nada.

and pretend to affume to themselves a right More northerly is Cape Doré, or Gili Dover the country behind it, which they diCape, about 30 leagues from Annapolis. ftinguish in their modern maps by the name Here is plenty of mineral coal for firing, of Gaspefie. This name they do indeed which must be esteemed a very great natu. sometimes extend so far, as to take off the ral advantage. Some years ago a company greatest part of Nova Scotia, and leave us was set on foot in New England, in order little, if any thing, more under the title of to work these mines : But tho that project Accadie, than the peninsula before mentiwas soon dropped with loss, a better use oned. Such a paper encroachment, if will, doubtless, be made of this treasure, E not well attended to, may, in time, be when Nova Scotia itsell comes to be in- construed into a fort of claim by prescriphabited. About the same cape are some tion : But as this province is now thought Nender veins of copper ore, some thin worthy the regard of the administration laminæ of virgin copper, and a gold sulphur it is to be hoped the true and antient limits marcafite.

of it will be properly asserted : For tho' we Upon the easterly Thore, or gulph of St. may not suddenly settle more of it than the Laurence, after we are past the point, is peninsula, yet an indulgence to our rivals, the gut of Canso, and a short and safe pas. in the other parts, will be a great check to fage from the British settlements to Canada F the industry of our new colonians. river, and to all the other ports of Nova Nova Scotia is at present divided into ten Scaria on this gulph. This gut is fix leagues or twelve diftri&ts. Each district annually long, and only one league broad: The chuses one deputy, to be approved by the navigation of it is very good, as appears commander and council at Annopolis : He from the journals of captain Gayton, who is a sort of agent for his countrymen, the palled it in 1746, on a cruize to Green Frencb, in that district, and reports the Bay.

ftate of it from time to time; but in what Twenty-five leagues beyond the gut is G manner, we need not be at a loss to deterTatamaganahou, a confidererable district or mine. There is, in fact, no civil power, settlement of the Nova Scotians, and a good either legislative or executive. The French road for vessels.

missionaries, who are not only appointed Green Bay, or Bay Verte, lies 14 leagues

by See tbe proposal for establishing a civil government sbere, and for ebe better peopling and fattling obe said province, in our Mag. før March lef, p. 119.

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by the bishop of Quebeck, but absolutely weeks sail from London ; in a great measure under his direction in their several districts settled and peopled already with Europeans, and villages, act as the role magistrates to the number of 7 or 8000, and confeor justices of the peace : But all complaints quently improved in some proportion : A may, if the parties think proper, be brought wholsome climate, well agreeing with a before the commander in chief and council Britis conftitution ; abounding with all at Annapolis: A liberty, which, if we con- necelaries of life, the seas and rivers with fider the state of these people, and their A stores of excellent it, and the woods with prejudices to the English, we may be cer- plenty of winged creatures and quadrupedes tain, is not often made use of.

fit for the table : The soil very capable of Sable island, as it lies within the lati. improvement, insomuch, that the husbandtude of the Cape Sable more, must be man and the fisherman may well vie with deemed within the jurisdiction of the one another for success in their respective province of Nova Scotia. It is 35 leagues vocations, and set their industry in compeS. E. from Canso to the middle of this isand, tition, to attain a grateful retreat for the which lies low, with small rifing elevations decline of life.

B of sand, called Downs. The form of it is 'Tis true, the present Nova-Scotians (exlike an arm bent, the hollow part towards cept the garison of Annapolis, and a few the N.E. The bite to the northwards is miles about that town are descendants of about 20 miles in length, and narrow. By

those French inhabitants, who became sub. reason of thoals of sand, small sides of only jects to the British crown, when that coun5 or 6 feet, and a great surf, it is inaccefli. try was ceded to us by the peace of Utrecht. ble, except in this bite, where boats may This, with their being profeffed Roman Can land. It has been fatal to thips, and for- tbolicks, inclines them of course to the interest merly some people of humanity put cattle of France, which they have adhered to from a-shore to breed on it, for the relief of those, the beginning, and aflifted in all enterpri. who might have the misfortune to be there zes upon that country. They joined in cast away. These cattle, by multiplying their late destruction of Canso, and likea-pace, fully answered, for some time, that wise in an unsuccessful fiege of Annapolis, benevolent and christian purpose : But at They corresponded with the Gallo-Bretons Jaft, fome wicked people from the New at Louisburgb, and transported their cattle England continent, guided by the most to them, which rendered provisions very brutal motives, fitted out an expedition a- dear at Annapolis and Canfo.

D gainst the poor animals, and destroy'd the As they are naturally attached to our ene. whole race of them, for the lucre of their mies, they will of course espouse their hides and tallow,

cause, and take every opportunity to join There are on this isand abundance of them, and support their intereft. This is foxes and seals, and some pieces of stand- the only inconvenience, that, in all appear. ing water. The snows fall heavily here in ance, will affect our own people ; and is the winter, but lie not long on the ground. really so great as to require the interposition

and wisdom of the legisature to remedy. To this Account we shall add tbe following E The uncharitableness of their religion, and

Pallages from ibe Old England Journalist, the craftiness of their priests, will, I doubt, wbo, after applauding ibe Sibeme, now render a coalition impracticable ; more going to be executed, of settling Nova Sco

especially, as Cape Breton is so near, which, tia, and erecting a Civil Government while it continues French, will always entbere; pewing tbe terrible Consequences of courage them to keep up a spirit of oppofia Military Government, and severely con- tion and dinike. To dispossess them would demning ibe iniquitous Practices of fucb, not, perhaps, be so unjust as unpolitick; for as would

make a Private Jobb of every F those who forfeit their allegiance, forfeit laudable Undertaking for obe Publick Good; the protection of the government they are

under ; and if they act as enemies, they E are not to forget, that these new ought to be treated as such : But the mira

adventurers will be altogether free chief of dispoffefling them, is, that it from the difficulties, which usually attend would be an unpopular transaction, and a. others in the like circumstances. They are gainst the faith of treaties, and must inevi. not going in search of an unknown country tably embroil us with France, who undoubtto settle in : No new seas to explore, or edly have a right to succour them, in virtue untrodden climates to risk their healths in: G of the treaty of Utrecbt. But that is not No inhabitants to fight with and drive all; for as the country wants inhabitants, away, and very little, if any, incertainty the loss of so many would become in a manto encounter with. On the contrary, they ner irreparable, as a country is reckon'd set out for a country long since discovered, wealthy in proportion to the number of well known, and familiar to many among the people. us, within the moderate diftance of fix

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goes on ibus ;

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This is a very nice affairs, and requires Lawns, &c. &c. But inftead of troubling
deliberate attention, Varicties of religions our Readers any further with such dry Cria
are productive of various evils, dislike, ticisms, we jhall insert ibe following Letter,
murmur, enmity and malice ; and yet we wbich scemis to be the most solid Piece ebat
find the Pensy vanians live in great amity has been wrote on ibe Subječt.
together, notwithstanding their various
ways of wornip, and the professions of all

the religions in Europe among theme Thece Boobabiy fancy them'elves quijer than

Bserving that -bodies, who

and religious
charity towards one another, and consider, their betters, tho they are modeft enough
that iho' they differ in form, they are all in to rank themselves in the rumber of Fools t,
motion towards the same point; and who begin already to spy out fiaws in the cam-
worships in sincerity in any way whatsoever, brick-act, I humbly take leave to hoot my
is esteemed a good man and honest neigh- bolt along with hem, little doubting, but
bour. If it were practicable to bring over that I may come as near the mark as any of
the Gallo-Scotians into a sensibility of uni- those cavillers.
versal charity in religion, like these wie B

Upon a presumption that honefly, in this
people of Pensylvania, and to entertain a degenerate age, may yet in speculation pass
guod opinion of Britih government, Nova for the bift policy, I will venture to ob-
Scoria would become altogether as happy. serve, that every governinene that is desi-
But how to effect it, is the great point to be rous of maintaining its dignity at home,
considered. I own I despair of success, as and infuence abroad, Mould make the pre-
well from the tenets of their religion, and servation of the people's morals the first and
their natural propension to France, as from chiefest part of its audy. When the bulk
the vicinity of the French garison at Cape C of a nation is virtuous, honest and industri-
Breton, which will always countenance and ous, it must of course be rich; and if rich,
support their separation : But however, if it matters not much, if they do consume
they continue untractable, and carry on an and wear a little of the products and ma-
illicit commerce and correspondence with nufactures of other countries.
their countrymen, so as to disturb or pre- But 'tis too melancholy a truth, that
judice the peace and welfare of the colony, this is far from being our condition : We
I see no reason why they should not be put are neither rich, nor sober, nor virtuous,
under the restraint of such laws, as may re- nor honeft : As for industry, there is in-
duce them into proper obedience, and the D deed a great deal ftill left, and I wish I
condition of bewers of wood and drawers of could say it is mostly of the laudable kind.
water, under the natural subjects of the Hence arises the neceflity of keeping the
mot ber couniry.

ftate alive by petty expedients and quack As, from the civil government which is to medicines ; such as Javing 2 or 300,000 1. be establimhed, I have a high opinion of the annually laid out with our enemies, and undertaking in agitation, Mall appropriate pouring at the same time millions into their a competent number of my eyes * to watch lap; witness Cape Breton and the Woollen over and guard it against jobbers of all kinds;


Manufactury! and as long as old Argus writes, it hall Every measure, that is really calculated never want a friend to detect and expose to distress our hereditary and inveterate foe, their practices. I hope therefore my read. deserves the highest commendations, and ers will favour me with hints, as often as ought to meet with the hearty concurrence they are apprized of the approach of such of every true Englishman; but the act in cormorants, or of any other abuse that may

question, whatever end it was design'd for, be attempted upon this infant colony ; more does not answer this purpose, and therefore especially, for the leffening the civil, or ex- I shall make no encomiums on it, were it tending the military power there. F only for this fingle conlideration, that with

out a multitude of informers it cannot be A great deal bas been said, and many Doubts put in execution ; and even there, it seems,

and Difficulties furied, in relation to the being sensible of the difficulty of proceeding Cambrick Act, whicb :f well founded, siem legally, muft exceed the limits of their func10 render it almost impoljible to put it in Ex- tion, in turning street-robbers, and frightecution ; fucbasibe Neceflity, in many Cascs, ening ignorant women out of their aprons, of a double Convillion, first of the learer, caps &c. thus enforcing a new law, by and then of the Vender ; tbe Ambigaily of G breaking a law older than the Ne man ebe Word Cambrick, and the great Difficulty conquest. Whether such illegal practices of diflinguishing some of our fine Linen Maa are encourag'd by those who have the greatest zufaciures from Cambricks and French

interest The writer of ibis Journal files Limself Argus Centoculi. t Because the remarks que bave mentioned, were fent io sbe autbor of tbe London Gazetteer, zubo calls bimself The Fool, ibo' be coas wije enougb to lay but little firess upon them,




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interest in the sale of mens, might be in lewdness, corruption, and immorality. worth while to inquire.--But let us wave From whence this change, my countryit, and propose something to mend the men, this dreadful alteration ? Surely, some matter.

Ny serpent in power began with golden As nobody will deny, that it is much baits to charm you from your happiness, more eligible to do business without calling and, like the treacherous (pider for the unin the aid of the dregs of mankind, the very wary fly, seduced you into bondage, and scum of the earth, I submit it to superior A tempted you to barter away your lijudgments, whether it would not better berty for gold : How unequal the exanswer the end, to leave the wearer entirely change! What is the use of this all-adored out of the question, and absolutely forbid metal? Is it not to procure us such things, the importation of Frencb cambricks and which we either have a necessity for, or a lawns ? The importer, upon conviction, defire of? Do you covet grand palaces, might be fined in double or treble the value superb equipages, and all the costly delicaof the goods, or forfeit Mhip and cargoe, as cies in dress and diet? It will procure them; in the wisdom of the legislature may seem but then you must retain your liberty, for most expedient : And as to the shopkeeper, B such houses, equipages, dress and diet, are the penalty for selling this Frencb manu. not the property of Naves ; Naves have no facture might be made 50 or 1ool. which property. would be a sufficient inducement to make It was a custom for the commons not to him extremely cautious how he dealt in unsuring their purses, till their grievances such goods. A law on this plan might be were redressed; but now, afk Mr. P-t, effectually put in execution with the ar- we have no grievances at all, no debts, fistance of very few informers; the penalties no taxes ! How ftrangely this gold unemwould fall only on such as made great pro- C barrasses the memory! How often did that fits by this clandestine trade ; and fo in a false patriot complain of those grievances, few years we should see no more Frencb cam- in order, no doubt, to sell his country at a bricks and lawns in this kingdom. But to higher price, and to enhance the value of render it still more effectual, the example the odious bargain ? It was a true saying of of the great would be requisite, and the a very eminent statesman, That England court in particular should lead the way. could never be undone but by parliaments;

and it is equally as true, That our constiFrom the London Gazetteer, April 11. tution can never regain its once glorious

D and happy form but by parliaments.
To the FOOL.

To what a fummit of hope and expec-

tation was the drooping spirit of this poor Fall forms of government, the anO

nation raised, when Pamy apoftatized ? tient constitution of England may No Barb can wath his crime away ; but to justly claim the preference ; in that most all succeeding ages, as often as the annals happy frame, all the beauties and advan. of these times are read, his grand apostary tages of aristocracy, democracy, &c. Thall stain the guilty page. 'Twas his were united, and all their separate failings E example, ro illustriously evil, that rendered and deformities omitted; in that, the king, it more facile for those inferior spirits, 3-S, whilst he did not endeavour to encroach G-, S-b, P-, to throw off all thew of upon the people, was one of the happiest love for their country, and even to make and greatest of all monarchs, the nobles a mockery of its honour, and has caused were truly noble, and the people were the very name of patriotism to be suspected, truly free.

and the people doubtful whether there was Sed quantum mutatus ! Alas! How indeed lo sublime a virtue extant. But, changed, how fallen! If our forefathers, as a tempest is often succeeded by a calm, who spilt their blood to maintain this hap- F and as the blackest night sometimes prepy form, were to rise, and take a view of cedes the brightest day, fo, in that sacred their once loved country, would they know place, where the guardian genius of the it? and, if they did, would they own it? British nation dwells, there does again apSurely, a juft indignation at their childrens pear a dawn of hope, a ray of that divine strange degeneracy would make them in. fame, which animated our glorious ancestors Nantly retire, and leave us to undergo all to perform in their country's cause all that those Navish miseries, which our degenerate was great and good. Proceed, brave Brio baseness has deserved. Our constitution, in ions


and may the spirit of our forefathers its purity, may be compared to a beautiful smile upon, affift, and fire you with this young country virgin, decorated with constant sen That no blessing is lovely innocence, and all-bewitching mo. comparable to liberty, and that, of all virdesty. Its present state, to that very virgin tues, the love of our dear country is the deluded, and contaminated in the stews most sublime ! and brothels of the town, totally drenchid


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