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A little further he adds: Wherefore make ponefus ; but with what propriety I cannot a law to compel the services of II, when pretend to determine. many, many more are ready and willing to be A very exact geographical descriution of employ'd, than employment can poflibly he a rude uncultivated country is not to be exfound for? Is it neceisary because there may pected : But the boundaries of this are not be a few aniongst them who do not chué difficult to settle, as it is on ? Gdes fura to fer ve, and that therefore thote may be rounded by the river of St. Laurence, the compellid to it? What, compel those to serve A gulph of the same name, the gut of Comfo, to the prejudice of others who are desirous Cape Sable Sbore on the Orlantick ocean, of serving? Are the services of such men, and the bay of Furdy. The division from who are press'd into the service in time New England has been sometimes laid of war, to be preferr'd to those, who would down by the course of St. Jobn's river, willingly engage in it? Surely, no; or can which rising from the Lady Mountains, at the services of such men procure either ho. no great distance from the river of St. Launour or advantage to this nation? Yet, if rence, has a long south-easterly course into this 34th article gains the services of any, ic the bay of Fundy. But a late order of couna can only be of such, unless the service is in- B cil fixes the boundary at the river
of Hle! tended to undergo as great an alteration as Cross, which falls into the bay more on the the discipline of it, and that employment is
south. to be found for officers unworthy of them,
Nova Scotia extends betwixt 60 and 66 and of their rank; if this is the case, com. degrees W. longitude from London, and 41 pulsive laws to bring many oficers into it, and 49 latitude north. Annapolis are most undoubtedly necessary, and in no Rosal, at present the only fortress in the other light can I think them lo; either the country, stands in lat. almost 44 d. 40 m. service must be bad, or the officer must be C W. long. about 65. The south-eastern part so, that makes such laws necessary to engage
is a large peninsula, extending from southhim in it.
west to north east, and joined to the main. And he concludes thus: Let not this land by an ifhmus a little above the gut of country of liberty be defended by naves, Canso. but let them who are to protect it have The Frencb, since the property of this both their own and their country's liberty country has been vested in the English, afto animate them in its defence; and whilst fect to confine the name of Accadia to the they are employ'd in that glorious work, peninsula only : But their own maps, made in which for a time they willingly and chear- D before the celion of this province, give it fully give up their freedom, let them have the limits we have now assigned. I will this happy reflection, that when they re- add, that the words of the treaty do not turn on shore, they shall share with their contract it within narrower limits than countrymen the common blessings enjoy'd were before allowed to Accadia. by all ; nor let any specious arguments According to this description, Nova Scotia prevail to urge a deed, which, when done, will be found to contain about 420 miles may be too late to repent of,
in length, and 3 So in breadth ; which is an
E extent of land much larger than that of oi As the Description in our Magazine for Scotland, or Norib Britain *.
December last, is only of bat Part of Nova Scotia has many rivers, some of Nova Scotia, to wbicb ibe French now them now navigated for a long course by confine the Name of Accadia, we fall bere the natives. But for bays, harbours, and give our Readers an Account of ibe whole convenient creeks, it is inferior to no coun. Country. (See the MAP.)
try in the known world. The Cape Sable
shore, which lies next to the hthing-banks, Ova Scotia is the most northerly and N
is peculiarly happy in this respect. easterly province of all the English
F The bay of Clebutio, and ihe river that range on the continent, and consequently falls into it, bid fair, in the opinion of some, the nearest to Europe.
to become, in time, the principal port of It was called Nova Scotia by Sir William Nova Scotia, and the seat of its metropolis. Alexander, secretary of state for Scotland There is, over land, good communication under K. James I. and afterwards created by wheel-carriage with the bay of Minas, earl of Stirling. By means of Sir Ferdinando at present the chief settlement of the Gorge, prelident of the New England or Ply- Frencb, with the rivers of Cobaquid and Pisameurb company, he obtained a royal grant G quid, and the best easterly parts of the proof this tract in 1621. When the Frencb Vinco. It is true, Annapolis Royal lies upgot possession of it, they called it L' Accadie, on a fine baron, and is more commodious in allusion to Arcadia in the Grecian Pelo- for large inland vent and consumption April, 1749.
But For its climate, air, soil, produce, fishery, &c what is said in tbe description, or Des. laft, P. 556, may fuffiss.
But the country round it is bad, and the farther, and is shallow water. This is the tides of the bay of Fundy render the navi. landing place from Canada, where diftur. gation difficult.
bance from the French is chiefly to be apUpon the opposite, or westerly shore of
prehended, and ought peculiarly to be the bay of Fundy, are the rivers of Pasama- guarded against in the settlement of Nova quady and Holy Cross, being about 17 leagues Scotia. There are only 4 miles land carN. W. from the gut or entrance of the riage from this bay to Chignello river, which bason of Annapolis. The river of Holy Cross
, A runs by the French town of the fame' or St. Croix (as the French call it) was the name into the opposite bay, dividing the old boundary laid down betwixt Nova Scotia ifthmus in the narrowest part. It is proper government and Sagadobock, formerly the here to take notice, that on the fide of duke of York's property, but now annexed Chigneēto bay the tide flows s 1 fathom : But to the New England government of Mal- on the gulph of St. Laurence, or Green Sacbufet's Bay.
Bay fide, the swell is not above 4 or 5 Further nothward, upon this shore, is feet the river of Sr. Jobn, io leagues distant Farther upwards, before we reach ille from the gut of Annapolis. This is a very B Bonaventure and ine Perce, where the uefiul river, of long course, and has a con- Frencb, by the treaty of Utrecbe, have a siderable tribe of the Abnaqui Indians settled right to cure and dry cod-filh, we come to upon it : But they are at present, from the Miramichi port, at the mouth of a long neglect of the Nova Scotia government, in river of the same name, where I do not the interest of the Canadan Frencb. There find any settlement. There are some other are prodigious falls of tides in this river, small bays betwixt this and that of Cbaleurs near its mouth, of not less than 30 fathom; (so called by the Frencb) which runs a not properly cataraťts, occafioned by a c great way into the land, and has a small course over rocks, but the effect of the inland at the bottom of it, besides several great head of water above, the channel others near the entrance. Then proceeding being here pent up betwixt two steep moun. towards the river of St. Laurence, below tains. By this river, and the help of some the south entrance of that river lies the bay land carriage, there is a communication of Gafpée, which is a deep and good harwith the river of St. Laurence, and a-cross bour. Here the French, contrary to treaty, that with Quebeck, the metropolis of Ca- have continued to carry on their fishery, nada.
and pretend to affume to themselves a right More northerly is Cape Doré, or Gilt Dover the country behind it, which they diCape, about 30 leagues from Annapolis. ftinguish in their modern maps by the name Here is plenty of mineral coal for firing, of Gaspefie. This name they do indeed which must be esteemed a very great natu. sometimes extend so far, as to take off the ral advantage. Some years ago a company greatest part of Nova Scotia, and leave us was set on foot in New England, in order little, if any thing, more under the title of to work these mines : But tho that project Accadie, than the peninsula before mentiwas soon dropped with loss, a better use oned. Such a paper encroachment, if will, doubtless, be made of this treasure, E not well attended to, may, in time, be when Nova Scotia itself comes to be in- construed into a fort of claim by prescriphabited. About the same cape are some tion : But as this province is now thought Nender veins of copper ore, some thin worthy the regard of the administration *, laminæ of virgin copper, and a gold sulphur it is to be hoped the true and antient limits marcasite.
of it will be properly asserted : For tho' we Upon the easterly shore, or gulph of St. may not suddenly settle more of it than the Laurence, after we are past the point, is peninsula, yet an indulgence to our rivals, the gut of Canso, and a short and safe pas. in the other parts, will be a great check to fage from the British settlements to Canada F the industry of our new colonians. river, and to all the other ports of Nova Nova Scotia is at present divided into ten Scotia on this gulph. This gut is fix leagues or twelve districts. "Each district annually long, and only one league broad : The chuses one deputy, to be approved by the navigation of it is very good, as appears commander and council at Annapolis : He from the journals of captain Gayton, who is a sort of agent for his countrymen, the palled it in 1746, on a cruize to Green Frencb, in that district, and reports the Bay.
ftate of it from time to time ; but in what Twenty-five leagues beyond the gut is G manner, we need not be at a loss to deterTatamaganabou, a confidererable district or mine. There is, in fact, no civil power, settlement of the Nova Scotians, and a good either legillative or executive. The French road for vessels.
miffionaries, who are not only appointed Green Bay, or Bay Verte, lies 14 leagues
by See the proposal for establishing a civil government tbere, and for the better peopling and fettling obe said province, in our Mag. før March las, p. 119.
by the bishop of Quebeck, but absolutely weeks fail from London ; in a great measure under his direction in their several districts settled and peopled already with Europeans, and villages, act as the role magistrates to the number of 7 or 8000, and conse. or justices of the peace : But all complaints quently improved in some proportion: A may, if the parties think proper, be brought wholsome climate, well agreeing with a before the commander in chief and council British conftitution ; abounding with all at Annapolis: A liberty, which, if we con- necedaries of life, the feas and rivers with lider the state of these people, and their A stores of excellent fish, and the woods with prejudices to the English, we may be cer- plenty of winged creatures and quadrupedes cain, is not often made use of.
fit for the table : The soil very capable of Sable island, as it lies within the lati. improvement, infomuch, that the husbandtude of the Cape Sable shore, must be man and the fisherman may well vie with deemed within the jurisdiction of the one another for success in their respective province of Nova Scotia. It is 35 leagues vocations, and set their industry in compeS. E. from Canfo to the middle of this isand, tition, to attain a grateful retreat for the which lies low, with small rising elevations decline of life. of sand, called Downs. The form of it is
'Tis true, the present Nova Scotians (exlike an arm bent, the hollow part towards cept the garison of Annapolis, and a few the N.E. The bite to the northwards is miles about that town) are descendants of about 20 miles in length, and narrow, By those French inhabitants, who became sub. reason of Moals of sand, small tides of only jects to the British crown, when that coun5 or 6 feet, and a great surf, it is inacceffi- try was ceded to us by the peace of Utrecht. ble, except in this bite, where boats may This, with their being professed Roman Can land. It has been fatal to ships, and for- Ibolicks, inclines them of course to the interest merly some people of humanity puc cattle C of France, which they have adhered to from a-thore to breed on it, for the relief of those, the beginning, and affifted in all enterpria who might have the misfortune to be there zes upon that country. They joined in cast away. These cattle, by mukiplying their late destruction of Canso, and likea.pace, fully answered, for some time, that wise in an unsuccessful fiege of Annapolis, benevolent and christian purpose : But at They corresponded with the Gallo-Bretons laft, some wicked people from the New at Louisburgb, and transported their cattle England continent, guided by the most to them, which rendered provisions very brutal motives, fitted out an expedition a. dear at Annapolis and Canfo.
D gainst the poor animals, and destroy'd the As they are naturally attached to our enewhole race of them, for the lucre of their mies, they will of course espouse their hides and tallow,
cause, and take every opportunity to join There are on this isand abundance of them, and support their intereft. This is foxes and seals, and some pieces of stand- the only inconvenience, that, in all appear. ing water. The snows fall heavily here in ance, will affect our own people ; and is the winter, but lie not long on the ground. really so great as to require the interposition
and wisdom of the legiNature to remedy. To ibis Account we shall add the following E The uncharitableness of their religion, and
Pallages from ebe Old England Journalist, the craftiness of their priests, will, I doubt, wbo, after applauding ibe Scbeme, now render a coalition impracticable ; more going to be executed, of settling Nova Sco.
especially, as Cape Breton is so near, which, tia, and creating a Civil Government while it continues French, will always enibere ; pewing the terrible Consequences of courage them to keep up a spirit of oppofia Military Government, and severely con- tion and dinike. To dispofsess them would demning tbe iniquitous Praktices of sucb, not, perhaps, be so unjust as un politick; for as would make a Private Jobb of every F those who forfeit their allegiance, forfeit laudable Undertaking for obe Publick
Good; the protection of the government they are
under ; and if they act as enemies, they E are not to forget, that these new ought to be treated as such : But the mira
chief of dispofseffing them, is, that it from the difficulties, which usually attend would be an unpopular transaction, and a. others in the like circumstances. They are gainst the faith of treaties, and must inevi. not going in search of an unknown country tably embroil us with France, who undoubtto settle in : No new seas to explore, or edly have a right to succour them, in virtue untrodden climates to risk their healths in: G of the treaty of Utrecbt. But that is not No inhabitants to fight with and drive all ; for as the country wants inhabitants, away, and very little, if any, incertainty the loss of so many would become in a manto encounter with. On the contrary, they ner irreparable, as a country is reckon'd fet out for a country long fince discovered, wealthy in proportion to the number of well known, and familiar to many among
the people, us, within the moderate distance of ex A 2 2
goes on ibus ;
This is a very nice affairs, and requires Lawns, &c. &c. But instead of troubling deliberate attention. Varieties of religions our Readers any furtber with such dry Criare productive of various evils, dillike, ticisms, we shall insert ibe following Letter, murmur, enmity and malice ; and yet we wbich jems to be the most solid Piece that find the Perfy variars live in great amity
has been wrote on obe Subjeet, together, notwithstanding their various ways of wornip, and the professions of all
SIR, people entertain a laudable and religious
probably fancy themselves arijir than charity towards one another, and consider, their betiers, tho they are modeft enough that tho' they differ in form, they are all in to rank themselves in the rumber of Fools t, motion towards the same point; and who begin already to spy out flaws in the camworships in fincerity in any way whatsoever, brick act, I humbly take leave to choot my is eftdemed a good man and honest neigh- bolt along with hem, listle doubting, but bour. If it were practicable to bring over that I may come as near the mark as any of the Gallo-Scotians into a sensibility of uni. those cavillers. versal charity in religion, like these wile B
Upon a presumption that honely, in this people of Pensylwania, and to entertain a degenerate age. may yet in speculation pass guod opinion of Britih government, Nova for the best policy, I will venture to obScotia would become altogether as happy. serve, that every governinent that is defiBut how to effect it, is the great point to be rous of maintaining its dignity at home, considered. I own I despair of success, as and influence abroad, mould make the prewell from the tenets of their religion, and servation of the people's morals the first and their natural propension to France, as from chiefest part of its ftudy. When the bulk the vicinity of the French garison at Cape C of a nation is virtuous, honest and industriBreton, which will always countenance and ous, it must of course be rich; and if rich, support their separation : But however, if it matters not much, if they do consume they continue untractable, and carry on an and wear a little of the products and maillicit commerce and correspondence with nufactures of other countries. their countrymen, so as to disturb or pre- But 'tis too melancholy a truth, that judice the peace and welfare of the colony, this is far from being our condition : We I see no reason why they should not be put are neither rich, nor sober, nor virtuous, under the restraint of such laws, as may re- nor honeft : As for industry, there is induce them into proper obedience, and the D deed a great deal fill left, and I will I condition of bewers of wood and drawers of could say it is mostly of the laudable kind. water, under the natural subjects of the Hence arises the neceflity of keeping the mot ber couniry:
ftate alive by petty expedients and quack As, from the civil government which is to medicines ; such as Javing 2 or 300,000 l. be established, I have a high opinion of the annually laid out with our enemies, and undertakirg in agitation, I shall appropriate pouring at the same time millions into their a competent number of my eyes* to watch
lap; witness Cape breton and the Woollen over and guard it against jobbers of all kinds;
Manufactury ! and as long as old Argus writes, it shall Every measure, that is really calculated never want a friend to detect and expose to distress our liereditary and inveterate foe, their practices. I hope therefore my read. deserves the highest commendations, and ers will favour me with hints, as often as ought to meet with the hearty concurrence they are apprizcd of the approach of such of every true Englishman; but the act in cormorants, or of any other abuse that may question, whatever end it was defign'd for, be attempted upon this infant colony ; more does not answer this purpose, and therefore especially, for the lessening the civil, or ex- I Thall make no encomiums on it, were it tending the military power there. F only for this fngle consideration, that with
out a multitude of informers it cannot be A great deal bas been said, and many Doubts put in execution ; and even there, it seems,
and Difficulties buried, in relation to the being sensible of the difficulty of proceeding Cambrick Act, whicb:f well founded, frem legally, muft exceed the limits of their func10 render it almost impoffible to put it in Ex- tion, in turning street-robbers, and frightecution ; fucbasibe Neceflity, in many cases, ening ignorant women out of their aprons, of a double Conviftior, firit of the learer, caps &c. thus enforcing a new law, by end ber of the Vinder ; tbe Ambigay of G breaking a law older than the Ne man ebe Word Cambrick, and the great Difficully conqueft. Whether such illegal practices of diflinguishing some of our fine Linen Ma
are encourag'd by those who have the greateft qufactures from Cambricks and French
intereft • The writer of his Journal files bimself Argus Centoculi. + Because the remarks we bave mentioned, were sent io ibe author of tbe London Gazetteer, zubo calls bimself The Fool, tba' be was wije enough to lay but little foress upon them,
interest in the sale of m-l-ns, might be in lewdness, corruption, and immorality. worth while to inquire.--But let us wave From whence this change, my country. it, and propose something to mend the men, this dreadful alteration ? Surely, some matter.
ny serpent in power began with golden As nobody will deny, that it is much baits to charm you from your happiness, more eligible to do business without calling and, like the treacherous spider for the unin the aid of the dregs of mankind, the very wary fly, seduced you into bondage, and scum of the earth, I submit it to superior A tempted you to barter away your lijudgments, whether it would not better berty for gold : How unequal the exanswer the end, to leave the wearer entirely change! What is the use of this all-adored out of the question, and absolutely forbid metal? Is it not to procure us such things, the importation of French cambricks and which we either have a necessity for, or a lawns ? The importer, upon conviction, defire of ? Do you covet grand palaces, might be fined in double or treble the value superb equipages, and all the costly delicaof the goods, or forfeit ship and cargoe, as cies in dress and diet? It will procure them; in the wisdom of the legislature may seem but then you must retain your liberty, for most expedient : And as to the shopkeeper, B such houses, equipages, dress and diet, are the penalty for selling this French manu- not the property of Naves ; Naves have no facture might be made so or rool, which property. would be a sufficient inducement to make It was a custom for the commons not to him extremely cautious how he dealt in unftring their purses, till their grievances such goods. A law on this plan might be were redressed; but now, afk Mr. P-t, effectually put in execution with the af. we have no grievances at all, no debts, Gistance of very few informers; the penalties no taxes ! How ftrangely this gold unemwould fall only on such as made great pro- barrasses the memory! How often did that fits by this clandestine trade ; and so in a false patriot complain of those grievances, few years we should see no more French cam- in order, no doubt, to sell his country at a bricks and lawns in this kingdom. But to higher price, and to enhance the value of render it fill more effectual, the example the odious bargain? It was a true saying of of the great would be requisite, and the a very eminent statesman, That England court in particular should lead the way. could never be undone but by parliaments;
and it is equally as true, That our conftiFrom the London Gazetteer, April 11. tution can never regain iis once glorious
D and happy form but by parliaments.
To what a summit of hope and expec-
tation was the drooping spirit of this poor Fall forms of government, the an. O
nation raised, when my apoftatized ?
No Batb can wath his crime away ; but to justly claim the preference ; in that mort all succeeding ages, as often as the annals happy frame, all the beauties and advan. of these times are read, his grand apostaly tages of aristocracy, democracy, & C. Thall stain the guilty page. 'Twas his were united, and all their separate failings e example, so illustriously evil, that rendered and deformities omitted; in that, the king, it more facile for those inferior (pirits, S-S, whilft he did not endeavour to encroach G-, S-b, P-, to throw off all Thew of upon the people, was one of the happiest love for their country, and even to make and greatest of all monarchs, the nobles a mockery of its honour, and has caused . were truly ble, and the people were the very name of patriotism to be suspected, truly free.
and the people doubtful whether there was Sed quantum mutatus ! Alas! How indeed ro sublime a virtue extant. But, changed, how fallen! If our forefathers, as a tempest is often succeeded by a calm, who spilt their blood to maintain this hap- F and as the blackest night sometimes prepy form, were to rise, and take a view of cedes the brightest day, so, in that sacred tbeir once loved country, would they know place, where the guardian genius of the is? and, if they did, would they own it? British nation dwells, there does again apSurely, a juft indignation at their childrens pear a dawn of hope, a ray of that divine strange degeneracy would make them in. fame, which animated our glorious ancestors Atantly retire, and leave us to undergo all to perform in their country's cause all that thore Navish miseries, which our degenerate was great and good. Proceed, brave Brio baseness has deserved. Our constitution, in
and may the spirit of our forefathers its purity, may be compared to a beautiful G (mile upon, affift, and fire you with this young country virgin, decorated with constant sentiment, That no bieffing is lovely innocence, and all-bewitching mo. comparable to liberty, and that, of all virdeity. Its present state, to that very virgin tues, the love of our dear country is the deluded, and contaminated in the stews most sublime ! and brothels of the town, totally drenched