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comfortable wordes. And so Master Buttes departed with speede to Asshur; after whom the king sent doctor Cromer the Scot, doctor Clement, and doctor Wotton, to consulte with Master Buttes for my lorde's recovery.'

However unaccountable the conduct of the King, Wolsey has fully explained his own, in a conversation which, it appears, he held with his faithful attendant, in the course of his journey to his Archbishopric of York, to which the courtiers had procured his dismissal. These notes of Cavendish have an high historical importance.

“I cannot chose but to declare unto you a notable communication had at Mr. Fitzwilliams house, between my lorde and me, which was this: My lord walking in the garden at Mr. Fitzwilliams his house saying his evensong with his chapleine, and I being there attending upon him, after he had finished his praiers, he commaunded his chapleine that bare up his gowne traine to deliver the same to me, and to goe aside; and after the chapleine was gone, he spake to me in this wise, calling me by my name, 'Ye have bine lately at London,' quoth he; · Forsoothe my lord,' quoth I, 'not since I was there to buy your liveries for your servants. “And what newes was there then,' quoth he; · heard you no communication of me? I pray you tell me. Then perceiving that I had a good occasion to speake my mind unto him, I said, 'Sir, if it please your grace, it was my chaunce to be at dinner in a certaine place, where I also supped, and many honest worshipful gentlemen, who were for the most parte of mine old acquaintance, and therefore durst the bolder participate with me in conversation of your grace, knowing that I was still your servant; and they asking of me howe ye did, and how you accepted your adversity and trouble, I answered that you did well, and accepted all things in good parte; and as it seemed to me, they were your indifferent friends, of whome they said none evill, but lamented your decay and fall very sore, doubting much the sequell not to be good for the common wealth. Also they mervailed much that you, being of such excellent witt, and of such high discretion, would so simply confesse yourselfe guilty unto the king, as you did. For, as they understode by reporte of some of the kings counsell, your case being well considered, you have great wronge: to the which I could make no direct apswer.' Is this,' quoth he, 'the opinion of wise men ? · Yea forsothe, my lord,' quoth I, and commonly of all men else.' "Well then,' quoth he, 'for all their wisdome, they perceived not so much as I. For I considered, that mine enemies had brought the matter so to passe against me, that they conveied and made it the kings matter and case, and caused the king to take the matter into his owne hands; and after he had once the possession of all my goods, being the kings only case, rather than he would have delivered me my goods againe, and taken a foile or overthrow therein at my hands, without doubte he would not have missed (by the setting forthe ayd procurement of my evil-willers) to have imagined my undoing and destruction therein; whereof the best had bine perpetual imprisonment, or the daunger of my life. I had rather confesse the matter, as I did, and to live at large, like a poor vicar, than to live in prison with all the goods and honors I then had. And therefore it was for me the better way to yeild unto the kings mercy and clemency, than to stand stiffe against him in triall of the wronge which I sustained; wherein the king would have bine bothe to have bine noted, and in my submission, the king, I doubt not, had a conscience, wherein he would rather pitty me than maligne me. And also, there was the night-crowe, that cried ever in his ears against me; and if she might have perceived any obstinacy in me, she would not have failed to have set it forthe with such vehemence, that I should rather have obtained the kings indignation, than his lawful favor : and his favor once lost (which I then knewe that I then had done) would never have bin by me recovered. Therefore I thought it better to kepe still his favor, with losse of goods and dignity, than to win his indignation with all my wit, truthe, and policy. And this was the cause (which all men know not) that I yealded myselfe so soone guilty to the premunire ; wherein the king hath since conceived a conscience; for he knoweth, and allwaies did, more the effect thereof than any other person living, and whether I offended him therein or no, to whose conscience I commit the truthe of my cause.' And thus we lefte the substance of our communication in this matter; although we had much more talke : yet this is sufficient to make you understande, as well bothe the cause of his confession in the premunire, as also the occasion of the losse of his goods.”

As he proceeded to the north, he spent a considerable time at Southwell, near Newark, where was a bishop's palace, belonging to the See of York, and acquired, by his affability and hospitality, great popularity in the neighbourhood. From thence he removed to Scroby, and then to the palace at Cawood, in Yorkshire.

After Wolsey had been some time in residence, he prepared for his installation in the Cathedral Church, according to what he was informed was the invariable practice of his predecessors. Such, however, was the alteration which the change in his fortunes had produced in his mind, that he chose to forego the pomp and splendour with which the ceremony had always been celebrated. When told that it was usual for the Archbishop to walk from a chapel without the city to the minster, upon cloth spread over his path, he said, “ although that our predecessors did goe upon cloth, soe we intend to go on foote from thence without any such glory, in the vaumpes of our hosen.” During his progress to the north, he had also plainly marked the humiliation of his mind-he had begun to wear sackcloth next his skin-was upon the watch for omens-had confirmed immense numbers of children on the road, with the

: The extinguish when at Caw

earnestness and devotedness of an apostle; and when at Cawood, set himself to appease quarrels and extinguish feuds, with great skill, industry, and success. The installation, however, never took place. Every preparation was made, and though the Cardinal himself took no part in it, yet such was his popularity in the county, that provisions and game of all kinds were sent in as for a splendid festival. On the Friday before the Monday which was fixed for the taking place of the ceremony, the Earl of Northumberland, the very Lord Percy, whose match with Anne Boleyn, Wolsey had been the means of breaking off, arrived with Mr. Walche, of the King's Privy Chamber. The Earl took possession of the gates, and the Cardinal, hearing of his arrival, and deeming it a visit of courtesy, met him on the stairs and regretted that his dinner was nearly over, but offering, at the same time, such cheer as he could make him on so short a notice, and chiding him for not sending word of his intention. This, and many more kind and courteous words being said, he took the Earl by the hand and led him into a chamber.

“ And they beinge there all alone, save only I, who kept the dore, according to my duty, being Gentleman-Usher; these two lordes standing at a windowe by the chimney, the Earle, trembling, saide unto my Lorde, with a soft voice (laying his hand upon his arme), 'My Lorde, I arrest you of highe treason. With which wordes iny Lorde was marvailously astonied, standing bothe still without any more wordes a good space. But at the last, quoth my Lord, 'What authority have you to arrest me?'Forsothe my Lorde,' quoth the Earle, I have a commission so to doe.' · Where is your commission,' quoth my Lord, that I may see it ? •Nay, sir, that you may not,' saide the Earle. "Well, then,' quoth my Lord, hold you contented; then will I not obey your arrest: for there hath bine between your auncestors and my predicessors great contentions and debate of an auncient grudge, which may succede in you, and growe unto the like inconvenience, as it hath done betwene your auncestors and my predicessors. Therefore, without I see your authority from above, I will not obey you.' Even as they were debating this matter betwene them in the chamber, so busy was Mr. Walche in arresting of Doctor Augustine, at the dore in the pallace, saying unto him, Go in traitor, or I shall make thee.' And with that, I opened the portall dore, perceiving them both there. Mr. Walche thrust Doctor Augustine in before him with violence. These matters on bothe sides astonied me very much, musing what all this should meane; untill at the last, Mr. Walche, being entered my Lorde his chamber, began tú plucke off his hoode, which he had made him of the same clothe, whereof his coate was, which was of Shrewesbury cotton, to the intent he would not be knowne. And after he had plucked off his hoode, he kneled downe to my Lorde, to whome my Lord sayd, “Come hether gentleman, and let me speake with you,' commanding him to stand up, saying thus, 'Sir, here my Lorde of Northumberland hathe arrested me, but by whose authority or commission he sheweth me not; but saith, he hath one. If ye be privy thereto, or be joined with him therein, I pray you shewe me.' . Indeede, my Lorde, if it please your Grace,' quoth Mr. Walche, 'he sheweth you the truthe.' "Well, then,' quoth my Lord, 'I pray you let me see it.' 'Sir, I beseeche you,' quoth Mr. Walche,

hold us excused. There is annexed to our commission certaine instructions which ye may not see, ne yet be privy to the same.' *Why,' quoth my Lorde, be your instructions suche that I may not see them? peradventure, if I mighte be privy to them, I could helpe you the better to perform them. It is not unknowne, but I have been privy and of counsell in as weighty matters as these be: and I doubte not for my parte, but I shall prove myselfe a true man, against the expectation of all my cruell enemies. I see the matter whereupon it groweth. Well, there is no more to doe. I trowe ye are one of the King's Privy Chamber; your name is Walche. I am content to yelde to you, but not to my Lord of Northumberland, without I see his commission. And also you are a sufficient commissioner in that behalfe, in as much as ye be one of the King's Privy Chamber; for the worst there is a sufficient warrant to arrest the greatest pere in this realme, by the King's only commáundement, without any commission. Therefore I am at your will to order and to dispose: put therefore your commission and authority in execution : spare not, and I will obey the King's will. I feare more the malice and cruelty of my mortall enemies, than I doe the untruthe of my allegiance; wherein, I take God to my judge, I never offended the King in worde ne dede; and therein I dare stand face to face with any man alive, having indifferency, without partiality.'

“Then came my Lord of Northumberland unto me, standinge at the portall dore, and commaunded me to avoide the chamber : and being lothe to departe from my master, I stode still, and would not remove; to whome he spake againe, and said unto mee, 'There is no remedy, ye must departe. With that I loked upon my Lord (as whoe would say, shall I goe?) upon whome my Lorde loked very heavily, and shoke at mee his heade. And perceiving by his countenaunce it boted me not to abide, I departed the chamber, and went into the next chamber, where abode many gentlemen of my fellowes, and other, to learne of me some newes; to whome I made reporte what I sawe and hearde; which was great heaviness unto them all."

It was required of the Cardinal to proceed to London. On the next day, the eve of his departure, Northumberland sent for Cavendish, and told him, it was the King's pleasure that he should still remain about the person of the Cardinal upon certain conditions, which Cavendish promised on oath to observe. He was then desired to go in and attend upon his master.

“ And then I resorted unto my lorde, where he was sitting in a chaire, the tables being spred for him to goe to dinner. But as soon

as he perceived me to come in, he fell out into suche a wofull lamentation, with such rutheful teares and watery eies, that it would have caused a finty harte to mourne with him. And as I could, I with others comforted him; but it would not be. For, quoth he, “ Nowe I lament, that I see this gentleman, (meaning me) how faithefull, how dilligent, and how painfull he hath served me, abandonning his owne country, wife, and children; his house and family, his rest and quietnesse, only to serve me, and I have nothinge to rewarde him for his highe merittes. And also the sighte of him causethe me to call to my remembrance the nomber of faithfull servauntes, that I have here with me; whom I did intend to preferre and advaunce, to the best of my powre, from time to time, as occasion should serve. But now, alas ! I am prevented, and have nothing here to rewarde them; all is deprived me, and I am left here their miserable and wretched master. Howbeyt,' quoth he to me (calling me by my name), “I am a true man, and ye shall never have shame of me for your service.' 'Sir,' quoth I unto him (perceiving his heaviness), ' I doe nothing mistruste your truthe: and for the same will I depose bothe before the king, and his honnorable counsell. Wherefore, sir,' (kneeling upon my knee)

comforte yourselfe, and be of good cheere. The malice of your ungodly enemies can, ne shall not prevaile. I doubt not but comming to your aunswer, my hearte is suche, that ye shall clearely acquit yourselfe, so to your commendation and truthe, as that, I trust, it shall be much to your great honnour, and restitution unto your former estaie.'

Yea,' quoth he, “if I may come to my aunswer, I feare no man alive; for he liveth not that shall look upon this face (pointing to his owne face), that shall be able to accuse me of any untruthe; and that knowe well mine enemies, which will be an occasion that they will not suffer me to have indifferent justice, but seeke some sinister meanes to dispatch me.' "Sir,' quoth I, 'ye neede not therein to doubte, the king being so muche your good lorde, as he hath alwaies shewed himselfe to be, in all your troubles. With that came up my lorde his meate; and so we left our former communication, and I gave my lorde water, and set him downe to dinner; who did eate very little meate, but very many times sodainely he would burste out in teares, with the most sorrowfull words that have bine hearde of any woefull creature. And at the laste he fetched a great sighe, and saide this texte of scripture in this wise, ' O constantia Martirum laudabilis! O charitas inextinguibilis! O pacientia invincibilis,quæ licet inter pressuras persequentium visa sit despicabilis, invenietur in laudem et gloriam ac honorem in tempore tribulationis. And thus passed he forthe his dinner in great lamentation and heaviness, who was fed more with weping teares, than with any delicate meates that were set before him. I suppose there was not a drie eie among all the gentlemen that were there attending upon him. And when the table was taken up, we expected continually our removing, untill it drewe to nighte; and then it was shewed my lorde that he could not goe away that nighte, but on the morrow, by God's grace, he should departe. “Even then,' quoth he,' when my lord of Northumberland shall be pleased.' Wherefore it was concluded, that he should tarry untill the next day, being Sonday.”

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