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to bear with calmness; and that of the Emperor, which is rendered less afflicting by the accession of two promising" young sovereigns to the supreme power. The empire is r-scued from all its perils by the rxertions of the veteran ivro; and, by a concurrence of most unexpected circumstances, all who deserve to prosper are made most wonderfully happy.
This Tomance abounds with the same principles of outr«geous loyalty and submissive humility to the will of princes, which have distinguished the latter works of Madame DR Genlis; and which, in the instance of Belisarius, appear to have been but too conformable to the truih of history. The high minded chief talks of the loss of the monarch's favour as his own ruin and degradation, and of the deprivation of power and office as if it could lessen the value of his own character. This is too much lik^ the language of our own times, which hails the premier (whoever he may be) as the great mm of the day, and says, when a statesman resigns his place * from an alleged conscientious motive, "that the course of his greatness is e'er."—This lady also takes some pains to txhibit her orthodoxy, by making Gelimer, the king of, the Arian Vandals, a good catholic in his heart; which a little surprised us. when we recollected that he refused to accept the rank of senator, on account of h e objections to the Athanasian creed. The difficulty, however, is not ill reconciled by the royal hermit's assertion :—though at the time of re!using the proffered dignity, says he, "I was perfectly disposed to renounce errors, which had been exploded from my mind even in my childhood, the idea of trafficking my conscience inspired me with horror. .Of all earthly goods, my honour alone Wjs left me; and I was d*termined to preserve it pure and spotless" This is certainly human nature, and the best part of hum*' nature; and it may furnish an useful hint to those who fancy that a religion is to be put down hy a system of exclusions. ,
We must not conclude with- ut remarking a resemblance to two celebrated lines in Thompson's Agamemnon, which, if accidental, is curious; and if designed, is a judicious and happy imitation. We all remember the description of his feelings given by the faithful subject of the Argive king, when left alone on a desolate island bw the hired banditti of JEgisthus; "All ruffians as they were, I never heard A sound so dismal as their parting oars." Belisarius, speaking of his abandonment in the wilderness, exclaims: How can I paint what I underwent at that moment?
* See Mr. canning's song, delivered at the celebration of Mr. Fill's birth-day, when that statesman was out of office.
Hh 3 Judge /
Judge of it, when I tell yon that the idea of that dreadful separation from all nature filled me with such horror, that I trembled when I heard the satellites of the tyrant quit me and retire with precipitation; the flight of my assassins appeared like a desertion!"
An historical notice is subjoined to this story, which we are •orry to describe as rather a vehicle of spleen against other writers, especially Marmontel, than as a very useful collection of facts connected with the tomance.
Art. V. Hiit'ire Naturelle dtt Crust act t, &c; i.e. The Natural His« tory of Crustaceou* Animals, &c. By M. Latreille.
'he fourth, fifth, and sixth volumes of this elaborate pub
-*- lication are devoted to a new and summary exposition of the crustaceous animals; hitherto an ambiguous title, which had long perplexed the cultivators of systematical arrangement. As the reasons which have at length induced M. LaTreille to assign to them a separate station result from an examination of their external and internal structure, they appear to us to be perfectly legitimate and satisfactory. In fact, our present state of physiological knowlege will warrant the conclusion, that the organization of the Crustacea is of an order superior to that of insects \ since it usually, comprizes a heart, or at least a system of circulation, gills instead of stigmata, a hard and calcareous case for antenna, a more complex apparatus of feeding instruments, and a less transient existence, than are allotted to the bulk of insects, properly so Called. Proceeding on these data, and keeping in view the discriminations and discoveries of his immediate precursors, Lamarck and Cuvier, the present author extends his definition of Crustacea so as to include under that term both the Entotnostraca of Muller, Lamarci, &c. and the Malacostraca of the anticnt Greek naturalists; Crustacea thus denoting a class, and the two other denominations its principal divisions, or (as the author, somewhat unphilosophically, designs them) tub classes.
British readers will, perhaps, expect that we should here pause for a moment, and enter our protest against the admission of all harsh sounds and uncouth phraseology in. the nomenclnure of science. With respect, however, to the composition of such works as that which is now before us, remonstrance would be equally tardy and unavailing; for the evil ie not oaly committed but sanctioned. Fabrichu was the da
[Atticle concludedfrom the last Appendix, p. 498.3
ring innovator; and the continental car seems not only to have acquiesced1 in the rugged erudition of his vocabulary, but to welcome every new and pedantic term, regardless of its length, or the jarring of its elements. Hence the disciples of the Linnean school, if they are solicitous to comprehend the writings of some of our most eminent entomologists of the present day, must encumber their memory with a novel and heavy jirgon, and study to recognize their old acquaintances under some disguised, or very unfamiliar appellation. That many of the proposed alterations, in point of arrangement, are founded on accurate principles, we are willing to admit: but we must be allowed to regret that the language, in which they are announced, is so remote from simplicity, and from the easy comprehension of the uninitiated. Having premised thus much, in the wny of general objection, wc relume our analysis.
The crustaceous tribes, according to M. Latreillb, are composed of animals ' destitute of vertebrae, with articulated feet, which aTe often ten in number, apterous, invested with a calcareous covering, furnished with four antenna, palpigerous mandibles, with several jointed and imbricated pieces beneath, and feet destined only for walking, or swimming; sometime* they are covered with a horny or soft substance, with not more than the usual number of antenna, and rarely arty, mandibles naked, and unprovided with the numerous jointed pieces beneath, feet hookless, some of them appaiently furnished with branchial processes, and two or four of them sometimes antenniform.'—This is a straggling and rather clumsy definition: but it embraces both the subordinate divisions already announced, and lays down some of the most prominent external characters,—a circumstance of infinite benefit to the practical student.
I. In the prosecution of his plan, M. Latreille first treats the Entomostraca, which he thus characterizes! 1 Mandibles always naked, or wanting. ' Four jaws at most. Body often inclosed in an univalve or bivalve case, more horny than calcareous or membranous, terminating in a point, or setigerous tail; eyes usually sessile; antenna for the most part wanting, or apparently supplying the place of gills j feet clawless at the extremity; and some of them, at least, seemingly furnished with branchial appendages, and sometimes shaped like antenna' As the animals of this description, with a few exceptions, are very minute, and all of them inhabit the water, they are still very imperfectly understood. Most of the particulars, however, which Swammerdam, de Geer, Geoffrey, Mailer, fee, have been enabled to observe relative either to their
H h 4 strucstructure or their modes of existing, are here stated with fairness
and precision} and this recapitulation is followed by a brief notice of the methods of managing them, adopted by Linnc, Fabricius, Cuvier, an;! Lamarck. We then enter on the regular devtlopement of the author's own scheme of distribution of his fir%t subordinate class, which he disposes into sections, orders, genera, and species. The two sections are intitled Optrculated and Nakeds and the first is subdivided into C/ypeacetus and Ostracbodes. Before we proceed, therefore, we are again under the necessity of explaining terms. The first section comprizes all those individuals which are covered with a crust, or operculum. When this operculum presents the form of a shield, of buckler, the animal belongs to the Chpeaceout division: but, when it more nearly resembles a bivalve shell, its inhabitant is termed an ostrachode. The second section seems to be improperly denominated, since the animals belonging to it are not destitute of a crustaceous covering, though it is disposed in the form of a series of rings, of which the first is the? largest. The orders comprehended under the first section are, JCipbosura, Pneumonura, and Pbyllopcda; and those under the second, Osiracheda, Pjeudjpedti, and Cepbalota.
I. Xiphosura. This term, which is equivalent to Sivordtailed, has been, retained in compliment to Scbceffer, who first introduced it, as well as on account of its characteristic propriety. This family is chiefly distinguished by the presence of mandibles, and by simple feet, formed for walking or swimming: but, for its critical history, and the modifications of structure which exclusively characterize it, we must refer our readers to M. Latreille's minute and masterly details. Its only genus is limultfs, whose definition, in course, accords with that of the ordtr. The species here particularized are heterodactylus, Moluccapus, polypbemus, and rotundicauda,- of which ihc first and last are described from dried specimens in the P-irisUn Museum; and the two intermediate were formerly included under Monoculus Polyphemus Lin. They are all natives of the seas of both the Indies, and are very common about the Moluccas, the coasts of China and Japan, and especially the West indies and Carolina. The inhabitants of the last mentioned country ascribe a poisonous quality to the sting of the tail but Bosc, who had frequent opportunities of observing and handling them, suspects that this is the language of pr'judite j and their motions are so slow and circumscribed, that their contact, if hurtful, may be very easily avoided. In the hot summer evenings, they often approach the shore, and remain all night, half emerged from the water, the male usually resting on the back of the female, and both equally
careless careless of every thing but very instant danger. Some of them have been known to measure two feet in length, including the tail. A very small part of their flesh is eatable: but their 'eggs, which are numerous, are reckoned a great delicacy. They are frequently killed merely by turning them on their back in the sunshine, or by a fracture in their crust which usually proves mortal.
2. The Pneummura are so denominated, because their tail seems to be furnished wiih branchial, or respiratory appendages. Their feet are simple, and formed for walking. They are parasitical animals, adhering to various fishes, frogs, tadpoles, &c. from which they draw their nourishment. They are all oviparous, and very small, the largest not exceeding four lines in length. This order comprehends three genera, viz. Caligus, with the tail formed of filaments, or tubes ; Binoculus, with the tail of feathered laminse, and no inflated feet; and Osolus, with the same sort of foliaceous and feathered tail, and two inflated feet. The species are very few, and their history is generally obscure: but Qzolus. gasterostri has been well described by Cuvier under the denomination of Monoculus Gyrini.
3. The Phyllopoda, or leaf-footed, have all their feet foliaceous, or branchial, and formed only for swimming or breathing. The general observations on this order are avowedly translated from the monography of the laborious Schocfer 1 and the summary account of its solitary genus Apus is, in like manner, borrowed from Base's inten sting history of the Crustacea. Here we cannot help remarking, much to M. Latreili.e's credit, that he uniformly avails himself of the most respectable sources of information, and is never ash.imed to quote them. The two species of Apus, viz cancriformts and product us, are described with neatness and precision.
4. The Ostrarboda have their body covered with a crust, resembling a bivalve shell, particularly that of the oyster, but more of a horny than calcareous consistence. From the anterior part of their body procetd two hairy filaments, disposed in a pencil, or branched like arms. Some have two distinct eyes, and others onlv one. The genera are, Lynceus, Dophnia, Cypris, and Cytbere.
The characters of Lynceus are, pencilled antenna, and two eyes. This genus, and its nine species, were instituted by Muller, and seem to have been unknown to former writers. Through their transparent bodies, the heart and intestinal canal are said to be discernible, though the largest species is only about two lines in length.