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however, recommend grain which has been exposed to frost as proper for seed: but advises that good corn should be im> ported from more southerly climates for this purpose; and, so far from acceding to the opinion that lean corn should be employed for raising crops, while the most heavy should be converted into flour, he decides on the fitness of sowing the best seed of every kind. We believe that he is right.
Plan and Description of Lime Kilns; h/ilt in iSat, by Brigadier-General Dirom, of Mount Annan, &c. &c. &c.— These kilns, which are copied in a great measure from a small lime-kiln in the late Mr. Jameson's soap-work at Leith, are constructed with the view of saving foe!, of calcining the stones equally, and t>f giving the burner the command of the heat: but the plan and section are necessary to elucidate t,he description.
Account of the improvement of a tract of barren ground covered with Heath, in an elevated situation of the county of Peebles, by Mr. Isaac Allan.—The quantity of land, on which this experiment was made, consisted of sixty one acres, 422 feet above the level of the sea, and worth in its natural state not more than 2s. 6d. per acre: but, by Mr. Allan's improvements, it is now reported to,be worth between 15s. and 20s. per acre. A similar improvement of a Moor, near Tranent', East Lothian, by Mr. Robert Hay, at Standerts, is reported in. the subsequent paper.
An Essay on the Grasses and other native plants most deserving of culture in Scotland, for Hay or Pasture, by the Rev. William Singers, minister of Kirkpatrick juxta, Dumfriesshire.—Mr. S. is persuaded that to Scotland, as 'a land of flocks,' the contents of his paper will be peculiarly interesting, and particularly as his communications are the result of experience. His observations are arranged under four heads:
* 1 st. On the present state of the culture of our native plants, for the purposes of hay or pasture.
* 2dly. On the particular plants which answer these purposes best, and are therefore most deserving of culture.
< 3dly. On the most valuable combinations of these plants in our hay grounds or pasture fields.
* 4thly, On the easiest and most effectual modes of cultivating them in 'different soils.' . ....
Many pages are occupied by this essay. In the 2d part, a list is given of plants best adapted for hay or pasture in Scotland, with patticular observations on each. They arc thus enumerated;
'I St. Trifolium ; trefoil; clover ; broad red; white, and perennial red.
'2d. Lclium; darnel, rye grass, or ray grass; perennial and annual.
'3d. Ho/cut lanatut f soft meadow, or wooly grass. ,
* 4th. Poa trivialit; common poa, or rough stalked meadow grass. ,
'5th. Cynnsurus crhtatus ; crested dog's tail grass. '6th, Anthoxanthum odoratum j scented vernal grass. '7th. Plant ago lanceolata; narrow leaved plantain, rib grass, or ribwort.
'kith. Achillea millefolium ; common yarrow, or milfoil.
'91b. Jgrostis i bent; fly bent, common, fine, and creeping bent.
'10th. J uncus arliculatus ; spratt.
* nth. Aira ; hair grass. Flexuosa, waving ; and Cespitoia, turfy. « rath. Fe-tuca, fescue; F. Fluitcns, floating; F. Ovina, sheep's,
and F. Pratensit, meadow fescue.
'13th. Vicia saliva ; common, sowing vetch.
• 14th. Bellis perennit; field daisy.
4 15th. Lotus corniculalus; bird's-foot trefoil.'
On the Holctts lanatus, or soft meadow grass, Mr. S. bestows a degree of commendation which will not be guaranteed by English farmers, nor by all Scotch agriculturists, as the next paper testifies. QIAchillea Mitlefolitim, Milfoil or Yarrow,.he says,
• In pasture there is not any plant that is more closely eaten down than this, by every domestic browsing animal. I have remarked with surprise, -that spots of rich dry land, which were almost wholly filled with yarrow, were eaten down barer than even white clover. It is a strong rooted perennial, having many fine leaves, of a strong aromatic smell, and is considered not only very acceptable, but uncommonly healthy, or even medicinal, both for sheep and black cattle.
• it flowers late, commonly in August. But if cattle are admitted, not a stalk is permitted to rise into flower. The seeds must therefore be obtained from some rich dry spot, well stored with this plant; and if the soil be composted with good mould, I hate found that the yarrow may be made into strong hay, whence it is easy to obtain seeds, which are of a peculiar winged form and appearance.
* I have not observed this plant in haughs, nor in wet sails, in abundance. But for dry rich soils, I am of opinion, that few plants deserve the preference before yarrow for the purpose of being depastured.*
To advert to all the hints and suggestions contained in this, practical treatise is impossible: but, as a general recommendation of them to the Scotch farmers, it is sufficient to state that the author assures us that, by following the methods here suggested, he has himself both increased the quantity and vtaproved the quality of his hay.
With a declaration of his passion for botanical pursuits, Mr. G. Don, Gardener at Edinburgh, prefaces his Observations on some of the indigenous grasses of Britain, which seem deserving of culture for pasture or hay. His given list of plants' for the improvement of barren soils is as follows: I. Pea fiemoralis.' 2. Poa glauca. 3. Poa alpina. 4. Poa compressa, 5. Poa pratensis. 6. Poa trivialis. 7. Festucu rubra. 8. Festuc* duriuscula. <j. Festuca pratensis. 10. Alopecurus pratensis. II. Holcus lanatus. 12. Anthoxanthum odoratum. 13. Sesleria cxrulea. 14. Vicia cracca. 15. Medicago sativa.
The first three grasses here mentioned, Mr. .Don says, have been in a great measure overlooked by agricultural writers, but have attracted his notice in his botanical excursions. We shall transcribe his account of the Poa Alpina:
'This grass 13 also new to the agriculturist. I first found it in 1788, on a high rock called Corbie Craig, in the parish of Tannadice, and among stones near Airly castle in Angus-shire. It is also found near the summit of several of the Highland Alps; but in these very elevated situations it is always viviparous: that is, its flowers become perfect minute plants, which drop off and strike root in the ground ; an admirable provision of nature for the propagation of the plant in such alpine regions, where the severity and continual moistness of the climate would in general prevent the seeds from ripening. Even in the most lofty and barren situations this plant would make excellent pasture; and I am certain that many soils and situations which could never be turned to account otherwise, might be Tendered valuable as pasture by the introduction of this grass. It forms a good foggage, and even continues to grow through the winter. In short, the Poa alpina is one of the best grasses for establishing a green sod for pasture on upland grounds, where few good grasses would vegetate. It is true, that a hay crop could not be expected from it ; but would it not amply repay ih&expence of labour, by converting sterile heaths into profitable sheep walks, and green fields for cattle? The enterprising and ingenious farmer might thus be en. abled to improve immense tracts, at present not worth a shilling each acre annually, but which might in many cases become*of fifty times that value.'
Though Mr. Don has admitted the Holcus lanatus into his catalogue, he gives it no commendation, but expressly calls it an inferior grass.
The remainder of the essay is employed in specifying the purposes to which the above-mentioned grasses may be applied, and in tendering the author's assistance to the Society and to the Scotch farmer in the collection of grass seeds.—An appendix treats of some indigenous plants and grasses not eligible for cultivation. Thus Mr. Don rounds his advice, pointing out £htid sit pulchrum, quod turpe, quid utile, quid non.
General Observations on the practice and principles of Irrigation^ by the Rev. WiUiam Singers.
Report of a survey of Watered Meadows situated on or near tie rivers Esk, Ewes, Tiviet, Etterici and Farrow, made in J804 and 1805, by the same.
Above a hundred pages are devoted to these two papers on Irrigation, which are illustrated by three plates: but the details and reports are too numerous for transcription. The practice is recommended by an estimate of the benefits of the watered meadows which were the objects of Mr. Singers's survey:
'jst. The expencc of laying out and inclosing these meadows is the principal obstacle. But when this expence is moderate, and the meadow succeeds well, a single year's crop almost or entirely defrays the charges. When matters are less favourable, they may still be liquidated in two or three seasons.
'2d. The attention which-becomes necessary to the watered meadows, in upholding them, and conducting the watering process, is mentioned as an incumbrance. 1 admit the fact, but what dees the farmer obtain without attention?
'3d. The danger of occasioning the rot among' sheep has been, mentioned as an objection to irrigation j but this was done only by such as were not properly informed.
'4th. I have heard it alleged that the hay of watered meadows is not wholesome food for horses; that it breaks their wind ; and that a carrier rejects it on this account. In reply to this allegation, it may be stated, that instances are given in the survey, of respectable persons having fed horseB with such hay from their watered meadows, as they judged proper to give them, without any dctrimentbeingsustained,
* In behalf of the system of watering, the following arguments occur, which it is hoped will be admitted to be well grounded, viz.
'1st. There is an increase in the quantity of hay, which enables the farmer to sell pait of it for money.
« 2. If the farmer prefer wintering cattle, he may support a greater number, or he may feed them in a more liberal manner. And in this district in summer so fertile in grass, and in winter so abounding in storms, this consideration is of material importance; as a well wintered beast yields more nett profit, than any two which have been, poorly fed,, in that inclement season.
4 3d% The additional hay raised, increases the quantity of farm manure; the advantages of which are soon perceived in the superior produce of the manured crops. .
* 4th, If an early growth of meadow grass enables the farmer to put in weak ewes during spring, he may find such a convenience of great value, for the preservation of the lambs.
'5th. The pasturage of these meadows after the hay is removed, is generally found to be so profitable, as to balance the original pasturage of the meadow grounds, throughout the year.
« 6th To feed sheep, the hay of these meadows is of importance, in so far as it saves the expence of snow retreats; which, for these numerous stocks, are now hardly to be obtained. But
« 7th. 'I he risk is a more serums matter in such a case, than the expeneei to be incurred ; and this risk is always obviated to a certain extent, by means of the meadow hay. Should the store-master neither ther be able 'to find hay, nor to bespeak a Tetreat for his flock, vtiat would he then give to obviate the risk of immediate loss of sheep through famine, or of heavy losses in spring, occasioned by the reduction which want causes, in the health and condition of his flock?
It is repeatedly observed, in the course of these volumes, that to obtain an ample supply of provender for the win* ter months should be the great object of the Northern farmer.
A. treatise on the diseases of Sheep; drawn tip from original communications presented to the Highland Society of Scotland: by Andrew Duncan, jun. M.D. F. R.S-E. and A.L.S. L.— Several treatises having been sent to the Society in consequence of the premium offered for the best essay on the accidents and disorders to which sheep are liable, and no one of them being so complete in itself or so superior to the others as to be deemed worthy of the whole prize,—though they furnished, taken together, much original and valuable information,—the Society wisely determined on putting the whole into the hands of some professional gentleman, for the purpose of collecting the matter which they severally contained, into one general treatise. Dr. Duncan was selected for this undertaking, and appears to have judiciously executed it, in a paper which extends through nearly 200 pages. The ample information which it affords, respecting symptoms of diseases and modes of prevention and cure, muse be highly acceptable to the grazier: but even the titles of the sections are too numerous for us to transcribe them. An appendix contains distinct papers on the annual losses of sheep; on the different ways of rearing hogs (wedder kogs), on the varieties of sheep pastures; and an account of Mr. Brydon, whose name is deservedly recorded as a great improver of sheep-farming in Scotland. The merit of this farmer consisted in converting grounds, that had been rejected ■ on account of the rot and fake which they gave to sheep fed on them, into healthy and valuable pastures.
On the introduction of sheep farming into the Highlands, and on the plan of Husbandry adapted to the soil and climate, and to the general and solid interests of that country: by the Rev. William Singers. It does not appear that the important points connected with the subject of this concluding essay have been at all determined; and its industrious author has cotnmendably endeavoured to "lighten the darkrress" of his countrymen, by inquiring into the effects produced by ..sheep* farming in the Highlands j by ascertaining the limits of sherphusbandry; by giving directions for the management of gheep and black cattle, and for determining their comparative yalue; and by specifying the leading o.bjects which should