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Ae sadden transfer of every virtue to the sinner by the simple act of faith. Righteousness by faith considered in one meaning is very intelligible, and in the other it is downright nonsense.
No other instance is necessary to prove that Dr. H. has not weighed the meaning of the terms which he employs, than his sage remark that * everlasting could not commence' in time.' If this doctrine be true, how can he hope for everlasting life?
In order to shorten this controversy, we are anxious for the settlement of some previous questions, since otherwise it will be a mere strife of words. We wish these matters to be arranged previously to the examination and quotation of scripture, because no one will presume to quote the word of God to prove a position which he ha* aHowed to be utterly impossible. We theref re invite the Evan■ gelical Preachers and their advocates to define all iheir favourite terms.
Art. 32. A Defence of the principal Doctrines of Evangelical Religion, in a Letter to " A Barrister ;" occasioned by his "Hints on the Nature and Effects of Evangelical Preaching." By a Layman. 8vo. pp. 112. 3s. Williams and Smith.
When Layman meets Layman, even in theological warfare, we might reasonably expect less theological prejudice and rancour than from Divines by profession and habit : but this letter-writer is abund. antly more enraged'with the Barrister than even Dr Hawker; not only suspecting him of ' guilty design and malignant perversion,' but pronouncing his pamphlet to be a ' foul and atrocious libel.' The motive, however, of that author is with us less a matter of inquiry than the accuracy of his statements and the strength of his arguments ; and if these be overturned he must succumb, whether hit object in presenting them to the public be good or bad. As the doctrines termed Evangelical are to be fairly put to the test, it it necessary that they should be clearly understood; and we think that nothing would facilitate this object so much as the substitution of some equivalent or equipollent expressions, in the room of those which are commonly employed in setting them forth; since thus we •hould perceive in what sense words are employed, and, as in an algebraical equation, we should obtain the precise value of each term in the proposition. It is begging the question to tell us, as this letter-writer does, that the doctrines of the Evangelical Preachers 'are as c/^ as Paradise,' and to quote in proof of this position the passage which declares that " by faith Abel offered," &c. ; for the. Barrister and the present Layman have different notions of the tetm faith, which roust be nicely defined before we can obtain any correct result from their debate. If it signifies a persuasion of the truth of the promises of God, the above quoted text will of necessity express no more than that Abel was instigated by this persuasion to the practice of righteousness; a principle which is, in truth, at old a* Paradise, but which the Evangelical Divines cannot appropriate to themselves*.
* That Faith in the instances adduced in Heb. xi meant a persuasion of the truth uf revealed religion, and not any mysterious
If writers and preachers would endeavour accurately to conceivethe nature of virtue and vice, they would never talk of 'the transfer of transgression,' nor of 'the pacifying efficacy of the blood of Jesus on the conscience in taking away a sense of guilt.' This is the •language of Evangelical Divines, but they have not borrowed it from' the Evangelists, nor from any part of the O. or N. T. ; passages from which the Laymnn liberally quotes, without endeavouring critically to understand them. This gentleman has therefore blotted many pages to little eflrct; for if by some texts it can be proved that
• the guilt of Christ's ptople was imputed to him,' by others it can be as satisfactorily shewn that the bodily diseases of which he healed multitudes were also imputed to him. When, however, it is once ascertained that moral imputation is utterly impossible in the very nature of things, we shall be led to the only true sense which can be affixed to the passages that represent the Saviour as bearing our . sins, &c.
We were not prepared, after this Layman's philippic against nvorbs as not contributing to justification, to find it admitted ' that there is a sense, in uhich it may, with propriety, he said, that a Man is justified by bis tuorh;' and surelv this admission is fatal to his whole hypothesis, for if in any ser.se works justify, the doctrine of the Evange ical Preachers falls to the ground. If justifying righteousness can only be obtained by a kind of transfer, we cannot understand how in any case it can subsist in act or obedience.
In many other instances the Layman appears to us to reason weakly and superficially: but, as the Barrister will probably reply to his opponents, we leave to him the task of combating the heavy charges here preferred against him, and ol shewing that the Kvangel'uat Preachers have not sufficiently examined the nature and tendency of those doctrines, the truth of which they so vehemently assert.
P. S. Since we wrote the above, we have seen the second. Part of the Barrister's Hints, but we have not had time for perusing it.
Art. 33. The Boob of Common Prayer, and Administration of the Sacraments, and other Rites and Ceremonies of the United Church of England and Ireland; together with the Psalter, or Psalms of David. To which is prefixed an Introduction, comprising a history nf the English Liturgy, a sketch of the Reformation of Religion in England; and a view of the English Translations of the Holy Scriptures. The Calendar, Rubrics, Services, and Book of Psalms, are accompanied with Notes, historical, explanatory, and illustrative. By the Rev. Richard Warner. 8vo. 13s. Boards. Wil
• kie and Robinson.
We chearrully bear testimony to the utility of this publication, which is calculated to assist the member^ of "the Established Church ki understanding our National Liturgy. Mr. Warner has brought together and exhibited with .much brevity a great variety of curious
feeling or impulse, is clear from the definition of it in verse 1. and the-explanation in verse 6. In the latter place, its connection with pbe» dienct is regarded as a ptinciple in which the outward act originates.
Information respecting the Tahlei, Rules, and C/iknd/tr; and he has given an account of the occasions on which the different Rubrics were established, as well as notices of the sources whence the various .Vrr-vices of the Church have been compiled, with the time of their introduction into the places which they now respectively occupy. With these notes are incorporated familiar explanations ot the obscure and difficult passages in the Epistles, Gospels, and Psnlms. Such appendages to the Book of Common Prayer must be highly acceptable to those who wish "to pray with the spirit and the understanding also"
The history of the Liturgy, and of the alterations which it underwent till it assumed its present form, constitutes a valuable and amusing Introduction. Mr. Warner distinctly specifies the originals whence fhe different prayers, collects, &c. were taken; and he states, on the authority of Dr. Bennet, who made a curious calculation to ascertain the point, that not more than a fourteenth part of our present offices has been borrowed from the Popish Liturgies. The reader will find that, previously to the reign of Elizabeth, the following harsh deprecation made a part of" the Litany: "From the tyranny of the bishop of Rome and rfll his detestable enormities, good Lord deliver us."
Though this annotator is a warm admirer of the Establishment, he speaks with great candour of the Puritans, as having obtained, from the prejudice which ran strong against them, a character which they t>y no means deserved. He brings down the history of the Liturgy to 1662, the period of its final adjustment, and then adds: ' From this time, the Liturgy of the Church of England has not been altered*. It then received the form in every respect in which it is now found in our Book of Common Prayer: a model of simplicity and majesty ; of loveliness and sublimity ; claiming the prayers of all those who enjoy its use, that the Divine blessing would ever continue to watch over and preserve it; nor suffer even "the gates of hell to prevail against it."
We shall glance at some of the notes, though we cannot he expected to advert to the merit of all that occur in this volume. They are very properly inserted at the bottom of the pate. In those on the Lord'* Prayer, Mr. W. lias not informed us why •which is there preserved, while who occurs in every other address to «ur heavenly Father, from the 3d Collect for Grace to the end of the Service.—On the Apostle's Creed, he observes that, in its most antient and original form, it wanted the following articles, viz. "He descended into Hell;" "the Communion of Saints;" and «' the Life Everlasting "—The Creed of St. Athanasius is acribed by Mr. W. and others to Vigilius Tapsensis \ and an apology (said to be ingenious) is inserted in the note, for those of the clergy who omit the recitation of it in their churches. To the ingenuity of this apology, however, wo cannot subscribe, and we think that a much better justification of
* Excepting, he should have said, in a word or two, as (perhaps") h for the disgraceful Tea in Ps. lxviii. 4. and, recently, dominions jtingdgmt, in the prayer for the High Court of Parliament.
its omission might have been assigned. —Of the most beautiful prayer in the whole Liturgy, viz. "the General Thanksgiving," Bishop Sanderson i<j known to be the author.—The Saeramentarium of Gregory is reported to contain most of our Collects.—In a long note snbjoined to "the Order for the Burial of the Dead," we are reminded of the sage regulation of the Roman law, that no corpse hhould be buried or burnt within the city; (in uric ne icpcTtto, neve ur'tio ;) a regulation which we have not only disregarded hy admitting burial gronnds within towns and cities, but even by making our churches the repositories of the dead. The words in this service, *' ashes to ashes,'' Mr. W. supposes to refer to the custom of burning the dead, to which the early Christians were often compelled by the Romans.
To Mr. W. as a commentator we do not generally object: but we must affix our veto to his explanation of St. Paul's "coalt of
fire" in the Epistle for the 3d Sunday after Epiphany, 011 Rom. xii. 20. viz. 'If he be not affected and softened by this unexpected and unmerited behaviour, Cod will punish him hereafter in proportion to his obstinacy and implacable temper.' We know that Dr. Whitby gives nearly the same gloss: but it is strange that it never occurred to Dr. W. and Mr. Warner that such a reason for being apparently generous to an enemy is the most malignant and unchristian that can be supposed. The Devil could be charitable on this ground. It it evident that the expression is figurative; and the meaning of the Apostle must be, that by such acts towards an enemy as he prescribes
• we shall melt the most obdurate heart, as metals are fused by coals of fire.
It is, however, more surprising that a man of Mr. Warner's learning and taste should assert in a note on the Psalter, that ' the translation of the Psalms in James the First's reign (which we have in our present Bible) is by no means so accurate or beautiful as that which is retained in our prayer-book.' On the other hand, we assert, without fear of being contradicted by the biblical critic, that it is infinitely more accurate and more beautiful. The Psalter psalms are often bald, low, unrythmical, and not in close accordance with the original Hebrew; whereas the Bible Psalms not only closely follow the literal sense but even the rythm of the Hebrew. "Tush," ** Most Highest," "runnegates," &c. do not occur in the Bible Psalms. It were easy to shew, in a multitude of instances, the superiority of the Bible version of the Psalms, and which the late Bishop of London allows : but we shall satisfy ourselves with quoting a bingle example. Psalm xix. 2. stands thus in the Psalter Psalms. "One day telleth another ; and one night certifieth another," which is a passage almost without meaning, and is no translation of the Hebrew, nor of the Septuagint, nor of the Vulgate; whereas Ps. xix. 2. in the Bible literally follows the Hebrew and is perfectly intelligible; viz. "Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowlcge."
We have often noticed the high and extravagant praises which clergymen confer on the language and phraseology of ihe Common Prayer; but we never observe them making any attempts to imitate It iti their own style; though we should not remark this dissonance between their commendation and their practice, if the former did not help to uphold a version in common use, which ought to be supplanted by a superior translation that has obtained the sanction of the Church.
Art. 34. Remarks rn the Proposals made to Great Britain, for opening Negociations for Peace in the Year 1807. By William Roscoe, Esq. 2d Edition. 8vo. pp.88.. 3'. 6d. Cadell and Davies. l8c8. The talent's and accomplishments of Mr. Roscoe are scarcely disputed by any, though his judgment as a politician is with some a problem, and by others is altogether denied. With us it has been matter of great surprize, to witness the animosity which has been testified against him, on account of the sentiments professed by him in a former tract, and which he manfully avows and ably defends in the present. Be it that he errs, why must his understanding be called in question, and his motives be impeached? Why is discussion to be shut out only on the topic of peace and war; why may not wise men consdp entiously differ on this as on other political matters; and why tr.ay not each party state and vindicate their opinions, and truth be in that way elicited? The intolerance manifested on this subject appears tells to be absolutely incomprehensible.—-We intended to have given a summary of the arguments contained in this tract, with some specimens of them: but we have forborne doing this, becaustwe apprehend that the highly interesting events, which are now passing in Spain, will for a time at least indispose to peace the vaoA sanguine of its friends, without excepting even the amizble author before us; and we shall only farther observe that the ingenuity and candour, which are habitual to Mr. Roscoe, are conspicuous in the discussion contained in these pages.
Art. 35. An Address to the Roman Catholics of Great Britain and Ireland; occasioned by the present awful Appearance of Public Affairs. By the Rev. W. Cockburn, A.M., Christian Advocate in the University of Cambridge, and late Professor of St. John'* College. 8vo. is. Hatchard. 1807.
Mr. Cockburn endeavours to justify the imposition and continuance of a Test, on the principle of maintaining «the peace and securitv of -the prevailing party :' but this argument labours under the misfortune of proving too much, since on this ground the exclusion of separatists from the House of Commons, and from every civil privilege, might be vindicated. Indeed, if the largest religious sect has a right, on the plea of security, to engross to itself all civil honours and emolument*, the Catholics of Ireland, since they come under this description, may claim, in that country, all the offices of the state. To counteraat this obvious inference, Mr. C. adverts to the history of Ireland, where, he tells us, * the religion of victory was established;' and he avails himself of the Union, to abet his first position of reserving political power in the hands of the dominant sect of the Empire In conclusion, he thinks that, before the claim of the Catholics be admitted, they ought to be able to persuade the majority of the people to