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system, referring to plate 18, with that of the profiles belonging to it.
The rest of this performance is occupied, from page 82 to the end, with the construction of embrasures and platforms, of barbet batteries erected at the flanked or saliant angles of bastions, of a powder magazine in an empty bastion according to Vauban's dimensions, of a redoubt in the re-entering place of arms, of a horn-work before a curtain, of a detached horn-work before a bastion, of a crown-woik before a curtain, of a detached crown-work before a bastion, of lunettes, tenaillons, and bonnets, of counter-guards, detached lunettes, fleches, or arrows, the advanced ditch and the advanced covert-way. A- to making extracts from the methods of construction, our readers would not understand them without consulting the plates to which they refer; and the limits, which we are obliged to prescribe to ourselves in reviewing so small and imperfect a work, will not permit us to follow Mr. L. through all the minutiae, nor to point out every error into which he has fallen. We have therefore confined our observ.itii ns to such as are most striking and palpable. The book contains certainly nothing new but the author's mistakes; and it never ran be read with pleasure or satisfaction by any one who is even moderately acquainted with the principles of mi. litary construction.—We should be wanting in that duty which we owe to the community at large, if we did not observe that it would have been for the credit of the Royal .Acaoemy at Woolwich, had this performance never made its appearance; since it can only tend to make the public apprized of the defective state of military instruction at present in this country, and to shew them how much it calls for improve, went. To make the gentlemen cadets form drawings from these plates can only tend to occasion an unprofitable consumption of their time, and to retard their progress in the knowlege of fortification. Not a single reason is given in the work for the propriety of any one construction: nor are any observations inserted that mignt point out the advantages or disadvantages of the component pitts of the methods delivered in it, or that are calculated to lead young minds to study the jrationalia of the profession. Such a tedious mechanical exercise, without reasoning on the operation during the progress of it, must be irksome and unsatisfactory to themselves; and although it may prepare them for becoming in some measure draftsmen, it never can contribute to render them able, intelligent, and useful engineers. We cannot therefore refrain from expressing our surprise that the Inspector of that academy, who is always on the spot, and whose ''' peculiar
peculiar duty it is to attend most seriously to the mode of instruction carried on in it, has not earnestly represented to his superiors the absolute necessity of amending it, as far at least as fortification is concerned.
A«t. VI. Tie Costume of Great Britain. Designed, engraved, and written by W. fi. Pyne. Elephant ^to. Niue Guineas. Boards. Miller. 1808.
'the Costumists (if we may be allowed to coin a word for the * occasion,) having made the tour of China, Turkey, Russia, and Austria, at last visit our own island, and have displayed in a very splendid volume those traits of rank, profession, character, and circumstance, which mark the appearance, manners, pursuits, and opinions of the British people. Well might the present author complain of being embarrassed by the multitude of objects which offer themselves, and of the difacuJiy which he felt in making a proper selection. Here his British purchasers will be able to decide with Tespect both to his judgment and his accuracy. As to the drawings, whence are taken this series of coloured engraving*, little objection will be urged, since they are in general executed with sufficient neatness and fidelity: but few prrsons, we apprehend, will be entirely satisfied with the choice which Mr. Pyne has made, and the subjoined explanations are very obnoxious to criticism.
According to the publisher's preface, it has beeti attempted *to include all classes of society, and consequently delineations are given from the most elevated ranks of public functionaries, down to the lowest gradation of mechanical and iaborious avocation : but has this aim been accomplished? When the reader comes to peruse the list of plates, will he be contented that this volume, expensive as it is, shall travel into foreign countries as an adequate representation of British Costume? In the Costume of Turkey, we had a delineation of the Grand Signior; and ought notour Sovereign, in his coronation-robes, to have found a place in a costume of Great Britain i Will not the foreigner, moreover, expect to meet with an English Lady and Gentleman, with a Clergyman, Barrister, 8cc? Besides, the Royal State Coach, Mail-Coach, and a Waggon, do not properly belong to the subject; and if they did, why was it necessary to give the Lord Mayor's State Coach in addition, or why were we not presented with a view of the gentleman's private carriage, and the ordinary post-chaise or stage-coach ?—A very poor and limited idea of our agricultural habits and implements, also* is conveyed by depicting a clown using a Grass Roller.
Principally, however, we arc dissatisfied with the execution of the letter-press department. When great pains are taken and great ex pence is incurred to invite attention, peculiar care ought to be exerted to prevent disappointment. The Costumist opens a very costly school of instruction; and if his lectures be necessarily short, that which is given ought to be pithy and correct. Two pages constitute the utmost extent of the historical and illustrative matter, and often it scarcely occupies one quarter of this space. Little can thus be told: but we repeat that this little ought to be accurately told, and with as much fullness as the circumstances of the publication will admit. In both of these respects, Mr. Pync has been often very deficient. Sixty plates (with a vignette in the title-page) form the whole of the pictorial embellishments of this volume; the subjects of which ate
'I. Pottery. 2. Leather Dressing. 3. Yeomen of the King's Guard. 4 Fireman. 5. Woman selling Salop. 6. Herald. 7. Chelsea Pensioner. 8. Wardmote Inquest. 9. Welsh Peasants Washing. 10. Country Fair. 11. Halfpenny Show-man. is. Brewers (the best drawings of the whole). 13. Woman churning butter, 14. Coal-heavers. 15. Beadle of the Church. 16. Lord Mayor. 17 Serjeant Trumpeter. 18. Slaughterman. 19. Brickmaker. 20. Knife grinder. 21. Alderman. 22. Bishop. 23. Doctor of Laws. 24. Milk Woman. 25. Fisherman at a Capstan. 26. Knight of the Garter. 27. Waterman to a Hackney Coach Stand. 28. Dust-man. 29 Lamp-lighter. 30. Pillory. 31. Guy Faux. 32. Admiral. 33. Rabbit Woman. 34. Judge. 35. Barges. 36. Speaker of the House of Commons. 37. Peer of the Realm. «,8. Waggon. 39. Water Cart. 40. Grass Roller. 41. General Officer on Horseback. 42. British Fishery. 43. Bill Sticker, 44. City State Barge. 45. Round-about. 46. Baron in Coronation Robes. 47. Baker. 48. Worsted Winder. 49. Highland Shepherd. 50. Prison Ships. 51. Lord Mayor's State Coach. 52. Smithfield Drover. 53. Dragoon. 54. Royal Mail. 55. Life Boar. 56- Royal State Carriage. 57. Lottery Wheel. 58. Country Butcher. 59. Female Shrimper. 60. Highland Piper.'
These are the sights which you shall see in this nine-guinea* 6how-box; and specimens of the chief exhibitor's mode of lecturing during the representation may be obtained in a few extracts. We begin with the illustration of the first plate:
'Pottexy. The useful and elegant art of pottery is of great antiquity: convenience alone, it is likely, dictated the operations of those who first formed vessels of clay; but as facility of execution disposes the mind to improvement, it is not improbable that ornamental works of this material were produced among the early efforts of human ingenuity. The Egyptians excelled in this art; and there are various beautiful allusions to the potter interspersed in the Sacred Writings'.
* The many antique vases, lamps, ornaments, utensils of sacrifice, Ice. discovered during the last century in subterraneous iesearchc» made in Italy and Greece, prove what exquisite perfection this art had attained near thtee thousand years ago The Chinese trace their knowltge of pottery to very high antiquity. The manufacture of porcelaine was practised by them as early as the fifth century . it wai for agei made entirely colourless, when they discovered that a deep blue, a species of lapis lazuli, would unite with it. 'This they em. ployed for many years in ornamenting their ware, till perseverance in experiment at length enabled them to enamel their works with all the tints of the rainbow The process for making this china they preserved with impenetrable scciecy for several centuries ; its fame, however, spreading, and the demand for it increasing in the different parts of the world, induced the ingenious of various countries to attempt the discovery, and many men highly eminent for science exerted themselves in the pursuit. The clue to this secret was no doubt given by the Jesuit missionaries, sent to China by the Duke of Tuscany; but the Saxons claim the honour of making the discovery. The Dresden ware having been the first of the European manufacture, which soon attained such perfection as to possess notne qualities superior to the true china, and produce larger prices. Since this, manufactories have been established for making porcelaine in most European countries, with various success. The Dresden china has been long celrbrated; the French is famous for its admirable whiteness; Italy has produced excellent copies ef the antique figures by this process; Delft, in Holland, established a ware which experienced an extensive circulation ; and England, in addition to her various manufactures of China ware,wuich aremuch admired, has had the honour of restoring to the world the process of making the antique pottery, in imitation of the Etruscan and Greek. We owe the levival of this invaluable branch of that art to the ingenuity of Mr. Josiah Wedgwood, who, with the assistance of Mr Bentley, analrzrd every fragment of the antique he could procure, with unceasing perseverance, tul the discovery was complete. Since which time, the modern Etruria has sent out an immense number of urns, vases, figures, vessels, and ornaments, composed with great spirit and beauty, and executed with surprising delicacy. He engagtd artists of high repute to make copies of the finest specimens of the antique, and also to model original classic wotks, which were manufactured of various texture. Hence our houses aie now decorated with ornaments, the simplicity and grace of which have contributed, in a high degree, to the improvement of the public taste.
« Formerly a great passion existed, in this country, for collecting vases, jars, cups, and other ornaments of porcelaine, which were purchased at immense prices; some of the jars were several feet high. Jt vias customary to have them in the apartments of the great, and ladies placed Chinese vases in their dressing rooms, filled with odoriferous herbs and flowers. There were collectors of Delft ware also; a pair of jars of this ware, and of no great magnitude, has produced three hundred guineas at a sale. This taste for the grotesque forms «f the Chinese happily gave place to the beauty and justness of proportion, portion, so obvious in the antique, and the China ornament it sow
principally confined to the museum of the virtuoso.
* The subject of the plate is employed in making the red pottery, nnd was selected, in preference to any other, from the picturesque simplicity of the wheel, &c.'
This account is neither so full nor so correct as w* expected to find it. When we were informed that th* English China manufacturers have rivalled the foreign, we imagined that we should hear of our Chelsea china, and that our present most celebrated manufactories of the elegant and ornamental kinds, viz. at Derby, Worcester, and Colebrook-Dalet would have been specified; even if the author had not chosen to enumerate those places at which the common blue and white ware, which has superseded the use of Nankirf, is produced.
To the genius and persevering exertions of the late Mr, Wedgwood, the warmest praise is due, and great are the obligations which the country owes to his en;inent talents: but we believe that, if he were alive, he would not assert that his discovery of the art of the Etruscan potter was complete. The form and colour of the antique vases he could exactly imitate, and express the figures which were painted on them: but the lightness of the earthen ware of the antients is not to be found in his productions. By handling the antique and the modern imitation, the difference of weight may be immediately perceived.
As to the decoration of elegant apartments with foreign chins, such is stilt the fashion; large sums are new given for very fine old jars, beakers, &c; and beautiful Chinese ornamental china is not 'principallyconfined to the museum of the virtuoso.' In many of our noble mansions, the Sevre, which is extremely expensive, and fine pieces of our own domestic manufactures, are preferred: but in others the very beautiful old China preserves its ground.
The explanation appended to the plate representing a Country Fair is very little ad rem; and the engraving which professes to represent Brick-making exhibits little of the process, while the description is equally defective. In No. 12, the Brewers, however," some appropriate information is afforded, for the reader is told that
• Our breweries of the first class are conducted upon a very extensive plan, and afford employment for a great number of men and horses. The machines, coppers, vats, and casks, which have been constructed for the purposes of brewing, as exhibited on some premises, are upon a stupendous scale. One cask, for containing porter in the brewery of Messrs. Mcux and Co. in Liquor-pond-strect, tt 6jI feet in diameter, and 25^ feet high 5 it is composed of 314