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ADVERTISEMENT TO THE SECOND EDITION. THI
HE approbation with which the first edition of this book has been re
ceived by the Public, has operated as an encouragement to improve it. It has been judged proper to change the form and size from a duodecimo to an cilavo; not only for the sake of giving it a more agreeable appearance, but also of adding to the quantity and variety of the contents. Some extracts have in. deed been omitted, to make room for new matter ; but the additions, upon the whole, are very considerable.
The utility of the collection is obvious. It is calculated for classical schools, and for those in which English only is taught. Young persons cannot read a book, containing so much matter, without acquiring a great improvement in . the English Language; together with ideas on many pleasing subjects of Taste and Literature; and, which is of much higher importance, they will imbibe, with an increase of knowledge, the purest principles of Virtue and Religion.
The book may be employed in various methods for the use of learners, ac. cording to the judgment of various instructors. The pupils may not only read it in private, or in the school at stated times, but write out paragraphs in their copy books; commit passages to memory, and endeavour to recite them with " the proper action and pronunciation, for the improvement of their powers of utterance. With respect to the Art of speaking, an excellence in it certainly depends more on pradice, under the superintendance of a matter, than on written precepts; and this book professes to offer matter for practice, rather than systematic inftruations, which may be more advantageously given in a rhetorical treatise or viva voce. To learn the practical part of speaking, or the art of managing the voice and gesture, by written rules alone, is like learning to play upon a mufi. cal inftrument, with the bare assistance of a book of directions without a master.
The books from which these Extracts are taken, are fit for the young readers libraries, and may be made the companions of their lives; while the present compilation offers itself only as an humble companion at school. In the cha racter of a companion, it has a great deal to say to them; and will probably improve in the power of affording pleasure and intruction, the more its acquaintance is cultivated.
ADVERTISEMENT TO THE THIRD AND FOURTH EDITIONS.
ance of that approbation with which it has been already received, has induced the Editor to enlarge and improve it in the present, as well as in every preceding edition.
To the first book a great variety of moral and religious extracts has been added, with a design to furnish a salutary employment for schools and families on a day which affords peculiar leisure. In the subsequent books have been inserted Orations, Characters, entertaining Essays on men and manners, pleasing passages on Natural History, a collection of old Proverbs, and other pieces, conducive to the prime purpose of uniting the useful with the agreeable.
The volume thus improved, together with the enlarged edition of ELEGANT EXTRACTS IN VERSE, will, it is hoped, be highly agreeable to young persons in their vacant hours, as well as useful to them in the classes of a school, and under the tuition of a preceptor.
As the book unavoidably became large by successive additions, it was judged proper to insert a Title Page and ornamental Design, nearly in the middle, that it may be optional to the purchaser to bind the Collection either in one, or in two volumes, as may best correspond with his own ideas of convenience.
five look, or a passionate cry, unaccomTOW much stress was laid upon Pro- panied by words, conveys to others more
nunciation, or Delivery, by the most forcible ideas, and roures within them eloquent of all orators, Demotthones, ap. stronger passions, than can be communicatpears
from a noted saying of his, related ed by the most eloquent discourse. The both by Cicero and Quinctilian; when be- fignification of our sentiments, made by ing asked, What was the first point in ora tones and gestures, has this advantage tory ? he answered, Delivery; and being above that made by words, that it is the asked, What was the second ? and after- language of nature. It is that method of wards, What was the third ? he fill an- interpreting our mind, which nature has swered, Delivery. There is no wonder, dictated to all, and which is understood by that he should have rated this so high, and all; whereas words are only arbitrary, that for improving himself in it, he hould conventional symbols of our ideas; and, have employed those asiduous and painful by consequence, must make a more feeble labours, which all the Ancients take so impression. So true is this, that, to render much notice of; for, beyond doubt, no words fully significant, they must, almost thing is of more importance. To superfi- in every case, receive some aid from the cial thinkers, the management of the voice manner of Pronunciation and Delivery, and gesture, in public speaking, may ap- and he who, in speaking, should employ pear to relate to decoration only, and to be bare words, without enforcing them by one of the inferior arts of catching an au proper tones and accents, would leave us dience. But this is far from being the case. with a faint and indistinct
pression, often It is intimately connected with what is, or with a doubtful and ambiguous conception ought to be, the end of all public speak- of what he had delivered. Nay, so close ing, Perfuafion; and therefore deserves is the connection between certain sentir the study of the most grave and serious ments, and the proper manner of prospeakers, as mach as of those, whose only nouncing them, that he who does not proaim it is to please.
nounce them after that manner, can never
one of an attempt to poison him, but en-
In Shakespear's Richard II. the Dutchess speaker may render his voice louder, withof York thus impeaches the fincerity of our altering the key; and we shall always her hubund:
be able to give most body, moit persever
ing force of sound, to that pitch of voice, Pleads be in earnei-Look upon his face, to which in conversation we are accustomIt s eyes du drop no tears; his,'rayers are jest; ed. Whereas, by setting out on our high His words come from his miuib; cuis, from
et pitch or key, we certainly allow oure He prays bus ta'ntly, and would be denied; felves les compass, and are likely to strain We pray with hea.I and soul.
our voice before we have doue. We ihall
fatigue ourselves, and speak with pain ; and Bu:, I believe it is needless to say any whenever a man speaks with pain to himmore, in order to Mew the high impor- felf, he is always heard with pain by his tance of a good Delivery. I proceed, audience. Give the voice therefore full therefore, to such observations as appear strength and swell of found; but always to me most useful to be made on this pirch it on your ordinary speaking key. had.
Make it a constant rule never to utter a The great objects which every public greater quantity of voice, than you can affpeaker will naturally have in his eye in ford without pain to yourselves, and withfuiming his Delivery, are, first, to speak out any extraordinary effort. As long as so as to be fully and easily understood by you keep within these bounds, the other al who hear bim; and next, to speak with organs of speech will be at liberty to difgrace and force, so as to please and to charge their several offices with ease; and more his audience. Let us consider what you will always have your voice under comis most important with respect to each of mand. But whenever you transgress these those ..
bounds, you give up the reins, and have no la order to be fully and easily under- long r ary management of it. It is an ficod, the four chief requisites are, A due useful rule too, in order to be well heard, degree of loudness of voice; Liilincinets; to fix our eye on some of the most distant Sicwness; and, Propriety of Pronuncia. persons in the asembly, and to confider tion.
ourlelves as speakiug to them. We natuThe first attention of every public freak- rally and mechanically utter our words er, doubtleis, mult be, to make himself be with such a degree of strength, as to make heard by all those to whom he speaks. lie ourselves be heard by one to whom we admuftendeavour to fill with his voice the dress ourselves, provided he be within the Ipuce occupied by the affembls. This reach of our voice. As this is the case in pover of voice, it may be thought, is common conversation, it will hold also in woliv a natural talent. It is to in a good public speaking. But remember, that in, rezere'; but, however, may receive con- public as well as in conversation, it is poffiderable afil tance from art. Much de- fible to offend by speaking too loud. This pends for this purpose on the proper pitch, extreme hurts the ear, by making the and ir.ara gement of the voice. Every man voice come upon it in rumbling indistinct has three pitches in his voice; the Ligh, mafies; besides its giving the speaker the the middle, and the low one. The high, disagreeable appearance of one who endeais that which he uses in calling aloud to vours to compel asient, by mere vehefone one at a distance. The low is, where mence and force of sound. hs approaches to a whisper. The middle In the next place, to being well heard, is, tha: which he employs in common con- and clearly understood, distinctness of artiversation, and which he should generally culation contributes more, than mere loud. vie in public discourse. For it is a great nels of iound. The quantity of sound nemilake, to imagine that one must take the cessary to fill even a large space, is inaller higheit pitch of his voice, in order to be than is commonly imagined; and with well heard by a great assembly. This is distinct articulation, a man of a we ik voice conti dinding two things which are diffe- will make it reach farther, than the strongrect, loudnels, or strength of sound, with est voice can reach without it. To this, the key, or note on which we speak. A therefore, every public speaker ought to • On this wholc fubje&t, Mr. Sheridan's Lec. found which he utters its due proportion,
pay great attention. He must give every tares in Elocurica are very worthy of being and make every syllable, aud even every Ginute.; and several hints are here taken tom
letter in the word which he pronounces,
be heard diftin&ly; without slurring, whif- ever long; and the genius of the language pering, or suppressing any of the proper requires the voice to mark that fyllable by sounds.
a stronger percussion, and to pass more In the third place, in order to articulate nightly over the rest. Now, after we have distinctly, moderation is requisite with re. learned the proper seats of these accents, it gard to the speed of pronouncing. Preci. is an important rule, to give every word pitancy of speech confounds all articula- just the same accent in public speaking, as rion, and all meaning. I'need scarcely ob- in common discourse. Many persons err in serve, that there may be also an extreme this respect. When they speak in public, on the opposite side. "It is obvious, that a and with solemnity, they pronounce the lifeless, drawling pronunciation, which al. fyllables in a different manner from what lows the minds of the hearers to be always they do at other times. They dwell upon outrunning the speaker, must render every them, and protract them; they multiply discourse insipid and fatiguing. But the accents on the same word; from a mistaken extreme of speaking too fast is much more notion, that it gives gravity and force to common, and requires the more to be their discourse, and adds to the pomp of guarded against, because, when it has public declamation. · Whereas, this is one grown up into a habit, few errors are more of the greatest faults that can be committed difficult to be corrected. To pronounce in pronunciation; it makes what is called a with a proper degree of nowness, and with theatrical or mouthing manner; and gives full and clear articulation, is the first thing an artificial affected air to speech, which to be studied by all who begin to speak in detracts greatly both from its agreeableness, public; and cannot be too much recom- and its impresion. mended to them. Such a pronunciation I proceed to treat next of those higher gives weight and dignity to their discourse. parts of Delivery, by studying which, a It is a great aslistance to the voice, by the speaker has something farther in view than pauses and rests which it allows it more merely to render himself intelligible, and easily to make; and it enables the speaker seeks to give grace and force to what he to swell all his sounds, both with more utters. These may be comprised under four force and more music. It allifts him also heads, Emphasis, Pauses, Tones, and Ges. in preserving a due command of himself; tures. I.ei me only premise in general, to whereas a rapid and hurried manner, is apt what I am to say concerning them, that atto excite that futter of spirits, which is the tention to these articles of Delivery, is by greatelt enemy to all right execution in the no means to be confined, as some might be way of oratory. “ Promptum fit os,” says apt to imagine, to the more elaborate and Quinctilian,, « non præceps, moderatun, pathetic parts of a discourse; there is, pernon lentum.”
haps, as great attention requisite, and as After these fundamental attentions to much skill displayed, in adapting emphases, the pitch and management of the voice, pauses, tones, and gestures, properly, to to distinct articulation, and to a proper de. calm and plain speaking: and the effect of gree of flowness of speech, what a public a juft and graceful delivery wiil, in every Speaker muft, in the fourth place, study, is part of a subjeci, be found of high imporPropriety of Pronunciation; or the giving tance for commanding attention, and ento every word, which he utters, that sound, forcing what is spoken. which the most polite usage of the language Firit, let us consider Emphasis; by this appropriates to it; in opposition to broad, is meant a stronger and faller found of vulgar, or provincial pronunciation. This voice, by which we distinguish the accentis requisite, both for speaking intelligibly, ed fyllable of some word, on which we and for speaking with grace or beauty. design to lay particular stress, and to show Instructions concerning this article, can be how it affects the rest of the sentence. given by the living voice only. But there Sometimes the emphatic word must be difis one observation, which it may not be tinguished by a particular tone of voice, as improper here to make. In the English well as by a stronger accent. On the right language, every word which consists of more management of the emphasis, depends the syllables than one, has one accented syl. whole life and spirit of every discourse. lable. The accent rests sometimes on the If no emphasis be placed on any words, vowel, sometimes on the consonant. Sel not only is discourse rendered heavy and don, or never, is there more than one ac lifeless, but the meaning left often ambicenied syllable in any English word, how: guous. If the emphasis be placed wrong,
we pervert and confound the meaning rehearsed in private, with this particular wholly. To give a common instance ; such view, to search for the proper emphases a fimple queition as this: “Do you ride before they were pronounced in public; to town to-day?” is capable of no fewer marking at the same time, with a pen, than four different acceptations, accord- the emphatical words in every sentence, ing as the emphasis is differently placed or at least the most weighty and affecton the words. If it be pronounced thus: ing parts of the discourse, and fixing them Do you ride to town to-day? the answer well in memory. Were this attention may naturally be, No; I send my fervant in oftener bestowed, were this part of promy stead. If thus; Do you ride to town nunciation studied with more exactness, to-day? Answer, No: Í intend to walk. and not left to the moment of delivery, as Do you ride to town to-day? No; I ride is commonly done, public speakers would out into the fields. Do you ride to town find their care abundantly repaid, by the le-day? No; but I shall to-morrow. In remarkable effects which it would produce like manner, in solemn discourse, the whole upon their audience. Let me caution, at force and beauty of an expreslion often the same time, against one error, that of depend on the accented word; and we multiplying emphatical words too much. may present to the hearers quite different It is only by a prudent reserve in the use views of the same sentiment, by placing of them, that we can give them any the emphasis differently, In the follow- weight. If they recur too often; if a ing words of our Saviour, observe in what speaker attempts to render every thing diferent lights the thought is placed, ac- which he says of high importance, by a cording as the words are pronounced. multitude of strong emphases, we soon “ Judas, betrayelt thou the Son of Man learn to pay little regard to them. To with a kiss?” Betrayeft thou-makes the crowd every sentence with emphatical reproach turn, on the infamy of treachery. words, is like crowding all the pages of a --Betrayeft thou-makes it reft, upon Ju- book with italic characters, which, as to das's connection with his master. Betrayeft the effect, is just the same with using no thou the Son of Man-rests it, upon our such distinctions at all. Saviour's personal character and eminence. Next to emphasis, the Pauses in speakBetrayest thou the Son of man with a ing demand attention. These are of two kiji? turns it upon his proftituting the fig- kinds; firft, emphatical pauses; and next, nal of peace and friendship, to the purpose such as mark the diftinctions of sense. of a mark of destruction.
An emphatical pause is made, after someIn order to acquire the proper manage thing has been said of peculiar moment, ment of the emphasis, the great rule, and in and on which we want to fix the hearer's deed the only rule possible to be given, is, attention. Sometimes, before such a thing that the speaker study to attain a just con: is said, we usher it in with a pause of this ception of the force and spirit of those nature. Such pauses have the same effect sentiments which he is to pronounce. For as a strong emphasis, and are subject to to lay the emphasis with exact propriety, is the same rules; especially to the caution a constant exercise of good sense and ac- just now given, of not repeating them too tention. It is far from being an incon. frequently. For, as they excite uncomsiderable attainment. It is one of the mon attention, and of course raise expecta. greatelt trials of a true and just taste; and tion, if the importance of the matter be mult arise from feeling delicately our- not fully answerable to such expectation, felves, and from judging accurately of they occasion disappointment and disgult. what is fittest to strike the feelings of But the most frequent and the principal others. There is as a great difference be. use of pauses, is to mark the divisions of tween a chapter of the Bible, or any other the sense, and at the same time to allow piece of plain profe, read by one who the speaker to draw his breath; and the places the several emphases every where proper and graceful adjustment of such with taste and judgment, and by one who pauses, is one of the most nice and difficult begleets or mistakes them, as there is be- articles in delivery. In all public speak. tween the fame tune played by the most ing, the management of the breath remasterly hand, or by the moft bungling quires a good deal of care, so as not to be performer.
obliged to divide words from one another, In all prepared discourses, it would be which have so intimate a connection, that of great use, if they were read over or they ought to be pronounced with the