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The mightiest of thy greatest enemies,
With Cain go wanderthrough the shade of night, Richard of Bourdeaux, by me hither brought. And never shew thy head by day nor light. Boling. Exton, I thank thee not; for thou hast Lords, I protest, my soul is full of woe, wrought
! hat blood should sprinkleme, to make me grow: A deed of slander, with thy fatal hand,
5 Come, mourn with me for what I do lament,
Boling. They love not poison, that do poison need, To wash this blood off from my guilty hand:-
[Ereunt omnes. But neither my good word, nor princely favour:
KING HENRY IV'.
King HENRY the Fourth.
Sir WALTER BLUNT. HENRY, Prince of Wales,
Sir JOHN FALSTAFR.
sons to the King John, Duke of Lancaster,
Poins. Earl of WORCESTER.
GADSHILL. Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND.
Lady Percy, wife to Hotspur, sister to More ARCHIBALD, Earl of Douglus.
timer. Owen GLENDOWER.
Lady MORTIMER, daughter to Glendower, and Sir RICHARD VERNON.
wife to Mortimer. Earl of WESTMORELAND.
Quickly, hostess of a tavern in Eastcheap. Sheriff, Vintner, Chamberlain, Drawers, two Carriers, Travellers, and Attendants, &c.
$ CE N E I.
To be commenc'd in stronds afar remote.
No more the thirsty entrance of this soil
Shall daub her lips with her own children's blood; Enter King Henry, Earl of Westmoreland, Sir
No more shall trenching war channel her fields, Walter Blunt, and others.
5 Nor bruise her flowrets with the armed hoofs K. Hen. SO shaken as we are, so wan with care, Of hostile paces: those opposed eyes,
Find we a time for frighted peace to Which, like the meteors of a troubled heaven, pant,
All of one nature, of one substance bred,And breathe short-winded accents of new broils Did lately meet in the intestine shock
'The transactions contained in this historical drama are comprised within the period of about ten months: for the action conimences with the news brought of Hotspur having defeated the Scots under Archibald earl Douglas at Holmedon, (or Halidown-hill), which battle was fought on Holyrood-day (the 14th of September) 1402; and it closes with the defeat and death of Hotspur at Shrewsbury'; which engagenient happened on Saturday the 21st of July (the eve of St. Mary Magdalen) in the year 1403. Dr. Johnson remarks, that “Shakspeare has apparently designed a regular connection of these dramatic histories from Richard the Second to Henry the Fifth. King Henry, at the end of Richard the Second, declares his purpose to visit the Holy Land, which he resumes in this speech. The complaint made by king Henry in the last act of Richard the Second, of the wildness of his son, prepares the reader for the frolicks which are here to be recounted, and the characters which are now to be exhibited.” Mr. Steevens says, it should be Prince John of Lancaster, and adds, that the persons of the drama were originally collected by Mr. Rowe, who has given the title of Duke nf Lancaster to Prince John, a mistake which Shakspeare has been no where guilty of in the first part of this play, though in the second he has fallen into the same error. K. Henry IV. was himself the last person that ever bore the title of Duke of Lancaster. But all his sons ('till they had peerages, as Clarence, Bedford, Gloucester) were distinguished by the name of the royal house, as John of Lancaster, Humphry of Lancaster, &c. and in that proper style, the present John (who became afterwards so illustrious by the title of Duke of Bedford) is always mentioned in the play before us,
And furious close of civil butchery:
The earl of Douglas is discomfited; Shall now, in mutual, well-beseeming ranks, Ten thousand bold Scots, two-and-twenty koights, March all one way; and be no more oppos'd Balk'do in their own blood, did Sir Walter see Against acquaintance, kindred, and allies : On Holmedon's plains: Of prisoners, Hotspur tos The edge of war, like an ill-sheathed knife, 5 Mordake the earl of Fife, and eldest son No more shall cut his master. Therefore, friends, To beaten Douglas; and the earls As far as to the sepulchre of Christ,
of Athol, Murray, Angus, and Monteith. (Whose soldier now, under whose blessed cross And is not this an honourable spoil? We are impressed and engag'd to tight)
A gallant prize? ha, cousin, is it not?
[C Forthwith a power of English shall we levy!; 10 West. 'Faith, 'tis a conquest for a prince to it Whose arms were moulded in their mothers' wombs K. Henry. Yea, there thou mak'st me sail, are To chase these pagans, in those holy fields,
mak'st me sin
Who is sweet fortune's minion, and her pride :
That some night-tripping fairy had exchang'd West. My liege, this haste was hot in question, Ir. cradle-cloths our children where they lay, And many limits of the charge set down And call'd mine-Percy, his—Plantagenet ! But yesternight: when, all athwart there came Then would I have his Harry, and he mine. A post from Wales, loaden with heavy news; 25 But let him from my thoughts: What think you, Whose worst was,-that the noble Mortimer, Leading the men of Herefordshire to fight Of this young Percy's pride? The prisoners, Against the irregular and wild Glendower, Which he in this adventure hath surpriz'd, Was by the rude hands of that Welchmau taken, To his own use he keeps'; and sends me word, And a thousand of his people butchered: 30 I shall have none but Mordake earl of Fife. Upon whose dead corps there was such misuse, West. This is his uncle's teaching, this is Wor. Such beastly, shameless transformation,
Malevolent to you in all aspects; [cester, By those Welshwomen done, as may not be, Which makes him prune' himself, and bristle up Without much shame, retold or spoken of. [broil The crest of youth against your dignity.
K.Henry. It seems then that the tiding of this 35 K. Henry. But I have sent for him to answer this; Brake off our business for the Holy Land. [lord ; And, for this cause, awhile we must neglect
West. This, match'd with other, did, my gracious Our holy purpose to Jerusalem. For more uneven and unwelcome news
Cousin, on Wednesday next our council we Came from the north, and thus it did import. Will hold at Windsor, so inform the lords: On Iloly-lood day, the gallant Ilotspur*there, 40 But come yourself with speed to us again; Young Harry Percy, and brave Archibald', For more is to be said, and to be done, That ever-valiant and approved Scot,
Than out of anger can be uttered. At Holmedon met,
West. I will, iny liege.
[Ereunt. Where they did spend a sad and bloody hour;
An apartment belonging to the Prince.
Enter Henry, Prince of Wales, and Sir John Falstorf Anci priile of their contention did take horse, Ful. Now, Hal, what tinie of day is it, lad: Unceria 11 of the issue any way.
[friend. P. Henry. Thou art so tat-witted, with drinking K.11nry Here is a clear and true-industrious 50 fold sack, and unbuttouing thee after supper, and Sir Walter Plunt, new-lighted froin his horse, sleeping upon benches after noon, that thou hast Stain’d with the variation of each soil
orgotten to demand that truly which thou would'st Betwixt that loimedon and this seat of ours; truly know. What a devil hast thou to do with And hebat brought us smooth and welcome news. leheiime of the day? unless hours were cups of sack
Mr. Steerens proposes to read lead for lety. ?i. e. expedition. Limits for estimates. * Holinshed in his llistory of Scotland says, “This Harry Percy was surnamed, for his ofien pricking, Tinryllotspur, as one that seldom times rested, if there were anie service to be done abroad." s Archibald Douglas, carl Douglas. A balk signifies a bunk or hill. Balk'd in their own blood, may therefore mean, lay in heups or hillochs, in their own blood. Mr. Tollet observes, that by the law oʻarms, every man who had taken any captive, whose redemption did not exceed ten thousand crowns, dia lliin clearly for himself, either to acquit or ransom, at his pleasure. Whom (Mr. Steevens adds) Percy could not refuse to the king, as being a prince of the blood royal, (son to the duke of Albany, brother to king Robert III.) and whom Henry might justly claim by his acknowledged military preFogative. Dr. Johnson says, to prune and to plume, spoken of a bird, is the same,
and minutes capons, and clocks the tongues of thy quips, and thy quiddities? what a plague have bawds, and dials the signs of leaping-houses, and I to do with a buil jerhin? the blessed sun hiniself a fair hot wench in flame. P. Henry. Why, what a pox have I to do with colour'd taffata; I see no reason, why thou should'st my hostess of the tavern? be so superfluous to demand the time of the day. 5 Fal. Well, thou hast call'd her to a reckoning, Fal. Indeed you come near me now, Hal: for
many a time and oft. we, that take purses, go by the moon and seven P. Henry. Did I ever call thee to pay thy part? stars; and not by Phæbus, -he, that wandring Fal. No; I'll give thee thy due, thou hast paid knight so fair. And, I pray thee, sweet wag, all there. when thou art king, -as, God save thy grace, 101 P. Henry. Yea, and elsewhere, so far as my coin (majesty, I should say; for grace thou wilt have would stretch; and, where it would not, I have none.)
us'd my credit. P. Henry. What! none?
lal. Yea, and so us'd it, that, wereit not hereapFal. No, by my troth ; not so much as will parent that thou art heir apparent,-But, I pr'yserve to be prologue to an egg and butter. 15 thee, sweet wag, shall there be gallows standing in
P, Henry. Well, how then? come roundly, England when thou art king? and resolution thus roundly,
fobb’d as it is, with the rusty curb of old father anFal. Marry, then, sweat wag, when thou art tick the law. Do not thou, when thou art king, king, let not us, that are squires of the night's Thang a thief. body, be call'd thieves of the day's beauty'; let 4420 P. Henry. No; thou shalt. be—Diana's foresters, gentlemen of the shade', Fal. Shall I? () rare! By the Lord, I'll be a minions of the moon: And let men say, we bi brave judge. men of good government; being governed as the P. Iliury. Thou judgest false already: I mean, sea is, by our noble and chaste mistress the moon, thou shalt have the hanging of the thieves, and so under whose countenance we-steal.
25 become a rare hangman. P. Henry. Thou say'st well; and it holds well Fal. Weil, Hal, well; and in some sort it jumps too: for the fortune of us, that are the moon's with my humour, as well as waiting in the court, men, doth ebb and flow like the sea ; being go
I can tell
you. verned as the sea is, by the moon. As for proof,
P. Henry. For obtaining of suits'? dow: A purse of gold most resolutely snatch'd on 30 Fal. Yea, for obtaining of suits”; whereof the Monday night, and most dissolutely spent on Tues- hangman hath no lean wardrobe. 'Sblood, I am as day morning; got with swearing-lay by® ; and melancholy as a gibcat, or a lugg'd bear. spent with crying-bring in : now, in as low an P. Henry. Or an old lion; or a lover's lute. ebb as the foot of the ladder; and, by and by, in Ful Yea, or the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe. as high a flow as the ridge of the gallows. 35 P. Henry. What say'st thou to a hare', or ihe
Fal. By the Lord, thou say'st true, lad. And is melancholy of Moor-ditch ? not my hostess of the tavern a most sweet wench; lal. Thou hast the most unsavoury similies; and
P. Henry. As the honey of Hybla, my old lad of art, indeed, the most comparative', rascalliest,the castle. And is not a butf jerkin a most sweet sweet young prince --But, Hal, I prythee, trouble robe of durance"?
40 me no more with vanity. I would to God, thou Fal. How now, how now, mad wag? what, in and I knew where a commodity of good names
Mr. Steevens is of opinion, that our poet, by the expression thieres of the day & beauty, meant only “Let not us who are body squires to the night, i.e. adorn the night, beculleda disgruce to the day." He afterwards adds, that a squire of the body signified originally, the attendant on a knight: the person who bore his head-piece, spear, and shield; and that it became afterwards the cant terni for a pimp. ?i. e. swearing at the passengers they robbed, lay by your arms; or rather, luy by was a phrase that then signified stand still, addressed to those who were preparing to rush forward. Warburton, in cominenting upon this passage, says, “ This alludes to the name Shakspeare first gave to this buttoon character, which was sir John Oldcastle ; and when he changed the name he forgot to strike out this expression that alluded to it. The reason of the change was this: One sir John Oldcastle having suffered in the time of Henry the Fifth for the opinions of Wickliff, it gave offence, and therefore the poet altered it to Falstaff.” Mr. Steevens, however, has, we think, very fully and satisfactorily proved that sir John Oldcastle was not a character ever introduced by Shakspeare, nor did he ever occupy the place of Falstaff
. The play in which Oldcastle's name occurs, was not, according to Mr. Steevens, the work of our poet, but a despicable piece, prior to that of Shakspeare, full of ribaldry and impiety from the beginning to the end, and was probably the play sneeringly alluded to in the epilogue to the Second Part of Henry IV.-for Oldcastle died å martyr. * The sheriff's officers of those times were clad in buff. The meaning therefore of this answer of the Prince to Falstail's question is, “ whether it will not be a sweet thing to go to prison by running in debt to this sweet wench.” Shakspeare here quibbles upon the word suit. The prince uses it to mean a petition; Falstaff, to imply a suit of cloaths. The cloaths of the offender being a perquisite of the executioner. i. e. an old he-cat, Gilbert, or Gib, being the name formerly appropriated to a cat of the male species. Dr. Johnson says, that "a hare may be considered as melancholy, because she is upon her forin always solitary: and according to the physick of the times, the flesh of it was supposed to generate melancholy. • Alluding, perhaps, to the melancholy appearance of its stagnant water. 'i. e. the most quick at comparisons.
were to be bought : An old lord of the council good fellowship in thee, nor thou cam'st not of rated me the other day in the street, about you, sir; the blood royal, if thou dar’st not stand for ten but I mark'd him not: and yet he talk'd very shillings. wisely; but I regarded him not: and yet he P. Henry. Well then, once in my days I'll be a talk'd wisely, and in the streets too.
5 mad-cap: P. Herry. Thou didst well ; for wisdom cries Fal. Why, thats well said. out in the streets, and no man regards it.
P. Henry. Well, come what will, I'll tarry at Fal. O, thou hast damnable iteration'; and art, home. indeed, able to corrupt a saint. Thou hast done Fal. By the Lord, I'll be a traitor then, whea much harın upon me, Hal,-God forgive thee for 10 thou art king. it! Before I knew thee, Hal, I knew nothing; P. Henry. I care not. and now am I, if a man should speak truly, little Poins. Sir John, I pr’ythee, leave the prince better than one of the wicked. I must give over and me alone; I will lay him down such reasous this life, and I will give it over; by the Lord, an for this adventure, that he shall go. I do not, I am a villain; I'll be clain'd for never 15 Fal. Well, may'st thou have the spirit of pera king's son in Christendoin.
suasion, and he the ears of profiting, that what P. Henry. Where shall we take a purse to- thou speak’st may move, and what he hears may morrow, Jack?
be believed, that the true prince may (for recreaFal. Where thou wilt, lad, I'll make one; an I tion sake) prove a false thief; for the poor abuses do not, call me villain, and baffle’ me.
20 of the time want countenance. Farewel: You P. Henry. I see a good amendinent of life in shall find me in East-cheap. thee; from praying, to purse-taking.
P. Henry. Farewei, thou latter spring! faretrel, Fal. Why, Hal,"tis my vocation, Hal; 'tis no All-hallown' summer!
[Erit Falstar. sin for a man to labour in bis vocation. Poins ! Poins. Now, my good sweet honey lord, ride Now shall we know, if Gadshill have set a match. 25 with us to-morrow; I have a jest to execute, that O, if men were to be sav'd by merit, what hole in I cannot manage alone. Falstatt, Bardolph, Peto, hell were hot enough for him?
and Gadshill, shall rob those men that we have Enter Poins.
already way-laid ; yourself and I will not be This is the most omnipotent villain,that ever cry'd, there: and when they have the booty, if you and Stand, to a true man.
301 do not rob them, cut this bead froin my P. Henry. Good morrow, Ned.
shoulders. Poins. Good inorrow, sweet Hal.-What says P. Henry. But how shall we part with them in monsieur Remorse? What says Sir John Sack-and-setting forth? Sugar? Lack, how agrees the devil and thee about Poins. Why, we will set forth before or after thy' soul, that thou soldest him on Good-Friday 35 them, and appoint them a place of meeting, wherelast, for a cup of Madeira, and a cold capon's leg? in it is at our pleasure to fail ; and then will they
P. Henry. Sir John stands to his work, the devil adventure upon the exploit themselves: which shall have his bargain; for he was never yet a they shall have no sooner atchieved, but we'll set breaker of proverbs, He will give the devil his due.
Poin. Then art thou damn'd, for keeping thy 40 P. Henry. Ay, but, 'tis likely that they will word with the devil.
know us, by our horses, by our habits, and by P. Henry. Else he had been damn'd for cozen- every other appointment, to be ourselves. ing the devil.
Poins. Tut! our horses they shall not see, I'll Poins. But my ladi, my lads, to-morrow morn- tie them in the wood; our visors we will change, ing, by four o'clock, early at Gads-hill: There are 45 after we leave them; and, sirruh, I have cases of pilgrims going to Canterbury with rich offerings, buckram for the nonce', to immask our noted and traders riding to London with fat purses: 1
outward garments. have visors for you all, you have horses for your P. Henry. But, I doubt, they will be too hard selves: Gadshill lies to-night in Rochester; I have bespoke supper to-morrow night in East-cheap: 50 Poins. Well, for two of them, I know them to we inay do it as secure as sleep: If you will go, be as true-bred cowards as ever turn'd back; and will suit your purses full of crowns; if you will not, or the third, if he tight longer than he sees reason, tarry at home, and be liang'd.
I'll forswear arms. The virtue of this jest will be, Ful. Hear ye, Yedward; if I tarry at home, the incomprehensible lies that this same fat rogue and go not, I'll hang you for going.
155 will tell us, en we meet at supper: how thirty, Poins. You will, chops ?
at least, he fought with ; what wards, what blows; Ful. Hal, wilt thou make one?
what extremities he endured; and in the reproof P. Henry. Who, I rob? Ia thief? Not I, byl of this lies the jest.
P. Henry. Well, I'll go with thee: provide us Fal. There's neither honesty, manhood, nor bolall things necessary, and meet ine tu-morrow night
'The meaning, according to Dr. Johnson, is, thou hast a wicked trick of repeating and applying holy text; alluding to the prince having said in the preceding speech, wisdom cries out, &c. ? See note?, p. 415. 'i. e. All-saints' day, which is the first of November. Shakspeare's allusion is designed to ridicule an old man with youthful passionk. si. e. for the occasion. si. e. confutation.