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Modred wes heore ælder.'
Tha’ thiderward gon' ride

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Arthur the riche +
Mid unimete folke,
Væie thah hit weore.5
Uppe there Tambre
Heo tuhte o to-Somne,”
Heven here-marken,
Halden to-gadere;
Luken sweord longe,
Leiden on the helmen,
Fur ut sprengen,

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Speren brastlien; 13
Sceldes gonnen scanen,
Scaftes to-breken.15
Ther faht 18 al to-somne
Folc unimete.
Tambre wes on flode 18
Mid unimete 19 blode.
Mon i than fihte
Non 20 ther ne mihte
I-kenne nenne kempe, 21
No 22 wha dude 23 wurse, no wha bet,24
Swa that withe wes imenged; 28562
For ælc 27 sloh 28 adun riht,
Weore he swein,ze weore he cniht.30
Ther wes Modred of-slawe 31
And idon of lif-dawe 32
**

in than fihte.
Ther weoren of-slawe 31
Alle tha snelle, 34
Arthures hered-men,35

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Heye and lawe,
And tha Bruttes 37 alle
Of Arthures borde,
And alle his fosterlinges 30
Of feole kineriches, 40
And Arthur forwunded
Mid wal-spere brade. 41
Fiftene he hafde
Feondliche wunden; 42
Mon mihte i thare lasten 43

28580

Twa gloven ithraste.

Tha ? nas ther na mare
I than fehte to lave 3
Of twa hundred thusend monnen
Thas ther leien to-hauwen?
Buten 8 Arthur the king ane
And of his cnihtes tweien.10
Arthur wes for-wunded
Wunder ane swithe. 11

Ther to him com a cnave 28590
The 13 wes of his cunne;
He wes Cadores sune,
The Eorles of Cornwaile.
Constantin hehte 15 the cnave;
He wes than 18 kinge deore.
Arthur him lokede on,
Ther he lai on folden,"?
And thas word 18 seide
Mid sorhfulle heorte:
“Constantin, thu art wilcume! 28600
Thu weore

18 Cadores sone!
Ich the bitache here 20
Mine kineriche; 21
And wite 22 mine Bruttes
A to thines lifes; 23
And hald heom 24 alle tha lawen
Tha habbeoth istonden a mine dawen, 28
And alle tha lawen gode
Tha bi Utheres dawen stode.
And ich wulle varen to Avalun 28610
To vairest 28 alre 28 maidene,
To Argante there 30

quene,
Alven swithe sceone;'
And heo 32 scal mine wunden
Makien alle isunde, 33
Al hal 34 me makien
Mid haleweiye drenchen 35
And seothe 36 ich cumen wulle
To mine kineriche 37
And wunien 38 mid Brutten

28620 Mid muchelere wunne." 39

Æfne than worden 10
Ther com of se wenden 41
That wes an sceort bat lithen, 42

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was their leader 2 then

great 5 fey though they were o they came 7 together

8 raised battle-standards rushed 10 locked long swords "I laid on, struck upon 12 made fire leap out 13 rattled spears 14 shields did shiver 15 shafts broke to pieces

fought 17 together 18 a-flood 1 measureless 20 man in the fight 21 recognize no warrior 25 conflict 20 confused

27 each

28 struck 29 swain 30 knight 31 slain 32 and put from life-days

A line or more is missing here. 34 the brave tainers 39 high and low 37 the Britons

38 table wards many kingdoms 41 with broad slaughterspear dreadful wounds 13 in the least

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1 thrust ? then 3 in the fight remaining 6 who lay ? hewed to pieces 8 but o alone 11 wondrously much 12 young man 15 was named

16 to the 17 the ground words 19 thou wert 20 I commit to thee here 21 kingdom 22 defend

23 ever during thy life 24 keep for them customs, laws

20 that have stood in my days

28 fairest 29 of all very beautiful 32 she 33 well 34 whole 35 with healing draughts 36 afterwards 37 kingdom 38 dwell

39 with great joy even with these words 41 from the sea moving 12 that was a short boat gliding

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Sceoven mid uthen; 1
And twa wimmen ther-inne
Wunderliche idihte.2
And heo nomen Arthur anan,
And an eovste hine vereden,
And softe hine adun leiden,
And forth gunnen lithen.“

Thao wes hit iwurthen ?
That Merlin seide whilen,
That weore unimete care
Of Arthures forth-fare. 10

Bruttes ileveth yete That he bon on live 13 And wunnien 13 in Avalun Mid fairest alre 14 alven; And lokieth evere Bruttes yete Whan Arthur cumen lithe. 15

Nis naver the mon iboren, Of naver nane burde icoren,17 The cunne

of than sothe 19
Of Arthur sugen mare.20
Bute while wes an witeye
Mærlin ihate,23
He bodede 24 mid worde -
His quithes 25 weoren sothe 20
That an Arthur sculde yete
Cum Anglen to fulste.27

28

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Ne sunne upon bischine.
Fairer nis non thane he was;
He was brigt so the glas,
He was whit so the flur,
Rose-red was his colur.2
In none kinge-riche 3
Nas non his iliche.'
Twelf ferenhe hadde
That he with him ladde,
Alle riche mannes sones,
And alle hi were faire gomes,
With him for to pleie.
And mest he luvede tweie;
That on him het' Hathulf child,
And that other Fikenild.
Athulf was the beste
And Fikenylde the werste.

Hit was upon a someres day,
Also 10 ihc you telle may,
Murri the gode king
Rod on his pleing"
Bi the se side,
Ase he was woned 12 ride.?
He fond bi the stronde,
Arived on his londe,
Schipes fiftene,
With Sarazins kene,13
He axede what hi sohte 14
Other to londe brohte.
A payn 15 hit of-herde 18
And hym wel sone answerde,
“Thi lond-folk we schulle slon 17
And alle that Crist leveth 18

upon,
And the selve 18 rigt anon;
Ne schaltu 20 todai henne gon."
The kyng ligte of his stede,
For tho 22 he havede nede,
And his gode knigtes two;
Al to fewe he hadde tho.22
Swerd hi 23 gunne 24 gripe
And to-gadere smite.
Hy 23 smyten 25 under schelde,
That sume hit yfelde.28
The king hadde al to fewe
Togenes so vele schrewe. 27
So fele 28 mihten ythe 20
Bringe hem thre to dithe. 30
The pains 31 come to londe
And neme

32 hit in here honde.

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1 impelled by the waves a wondrously attired 8 they took Arthur at once and in haste bore him 6 did glide 6 then

7 fulfilled

& whilom, formerly that there should be measureless sorrow

10 death 11 believe yet 12 is alive 13 dwells 14 of all come 16 is never

17 of never no (i.e. of no) lady chosen 18 who can 19 the truth 20

say more once 22 wizard 23 named 24

announced 25

sayings true 27 come for a help to the English 30 in the west

was named

32 fairer might none be nor any rain rain upon

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1 shine 2 After this line other MSS. insert two other lines. 3 kingdom * like 6 companions 6 led fellows

was named
14 they sought pagan

16 heard 18 believe 19 thyself 20 thou shalt not 21 hence 22 then 23 they 24 did smote 26 felled 27 against so many wicked 28 many easily 30 death 31

pagans

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17 slay

28 they

29 listen

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That folc hi gunne quelle ?
And churchen for to felle.
Ther ne moste libbe 2
The fremde 3 ne the sibbe,
Bute hi here lawe asoke 5
And to here toke.

Of alle wymmanne
Wurst was Godhild thanne.
For Murri heo weop' Sore
And for Horn yute & more.
He 10 wenten ut of halle,
Fram hire maidenes alle,
Under a roche of stone.
Ther heo livede alone.
Ther heo 10 servede Gode,
Agenes the paynes

11 forbode. 12
Ther he 10 servede Criste,
That no payn hit ne wiste.18
Evere heo bad for Horn Child,
That Jesu Crist him beo myld.

Horn was in paynes honde
With his feren 15 of the londe.
Muchel was his fairhede, 16
For Jhesu Crist him makede.
Payns him wolde slen 17
Other al quic flen. 18
Gef his fairnesse nere, 10
The children alle aslawe
Thanne spak on Admirald,
Of wordes he was bald, 21
“Horn, thu art wel kene, 22
And that is wel isene;
Thu art gret and strong,
Fair and evene long. 24
Thu schalt waxe more,
Bi fulle seve yere,
Gef thu mote

go,
And thine feren 15 also.
Gef hit so bi-falle,
Ye scholde slen 17 us alle;
Tharvore thu most to stere,?
Thu and thine ifere.15
To schupe schulle ye funde 30
And sinke to the grunde. 31
The se you schal adrenche;
Ne schal hit us noht of-thinche. 20
For if thu were alive,

With swerd other with knive
We scholden alle deie,
And thi fader deth abeie." I

116
The children hi brohte to stronde,
Wringinde here honde, 2
Into schupes borde
At the furste worde.
Ofte hadde Horn beo wo,
Ac- nevere wurs than him was tho.5 122
The se bigan to flowe
And Hornchild to rowe.

128 The se that schup so faste drof, The children dradde ther of; Hi wenden to-wisse Of here lif to misse,

132 Al the day and al the niht, Til hit sprang dai liht, Til Horn say' on the stronde Men gon in the londe.

136 “Feren,” 8 quath he, “yinge, Ihc telle you tithinge. Ihc here fogeles 10 singe And that gras him springe.

140 Blithe beo we on lyve, Ure schup is on ryve.' Of schup hi gunne funde 12 And setten fout 15 to grunde." 144 Bi the se side Hi leten that schup ride. Thanne spak him Child Horn, In Suddene he was iborn,

148 “Schup, bi the se flode Daies have thu gode; Bi the se brinke No water the na drinke.16

152 Gef thu cume to Suddenne, Gret thu wel of myne kenne; 16 Gret thu wel my moder, Godhild, quen the gode. And seie the paene 17 kyng, Jesu Cristes withering,"

160 That ihcam hol and fer 19 On this lond arived her. And seie that hi 20 schal fonde 21 The dent of myne honde.”

164

" 11

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were.

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I did kill ' there might not live 3 foreigner

6 theirs • kinsman 6 unless they forsook their faith she wept & yet • See note on l. 16. 10 she 11

13 knew prohibition

14 prayed

18 companions 16 fairness

18 flay alive 19 if it were not 20 slain

22 brave for his beauty

very evident

seven 24 of good height greater

28 alive 21 mayst

31 bottom

go to ship *0 go * drown 33 repent

17 slay

12 did

23

21 bold

' pay for ? wringing their hands & been sad but 8then See note on 1. 16. * they expected certainly

10 birds

11 shore
8 companions I
14 ground
16 drown

pagar go 19 sound

21 experience

22 sh 23 thought

7 saw

16 kin 17

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13 foot 18 enemy

20 they

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That heo 1 havede there.
Heo ' sette him on bedde,
With Athulf child he' wedde.?

316
Ons hire armes tweie
Athulf heo gan“ leie.
“Horn,” quath heo, “wel longe
Ihc habbe the luved stronge. 320
Thu schalt thi trewthe plihte
On myn hond her-rihte,
Me to spuse holde,
And ihc the lord to wolde.” 7

324 Athulf sede on hire ire, So stille so hit were, “Thi tale nu thu lynne, 10 For Horn nis noht her inne. Ne beo we noht iliche," Horn is fair and riche,

332 Fairer bi one ribbe 12 Thane eni man that libbe.13 They " Horn were under molde, Other elles 15 wher he wolde, Other henne 18 a thusend mile, Ihc nolde 17 him bigile.” Rymenhild hire biwente,18

339 And Athelbrus fule 1' heo schente.20 “Hennes 18 thu go, thu fule theof, Ne wurstu 2 me nevere-more leof.23 Went ut of my bur,28 With muchel mesaventeur.

344 Schame mote 26 thu fonge 27 And on hiye rode 28 anhonge. 29 Ne spek ihc noht with Horn, Nis he noht so unorn.30 Horn is fairer thane beo he, With muchel schame mote thu deie.” 31

Athelbrus in a stunde 32 Fel anon to grunde.

352 “Lefdi, min owe,33 Lithe

me a litel throwe.35 Lust 30 whi ich wonde 37 Bringe the Horn to honde. For Horn is fair and riche, Nis no whar his iliche. 11 Aylmar, the gode kyng, Dude 38 him on mi lokyng:58 Gef Horn were her abute,90

With him ye wolden pleie
Bitwex you selve tweie.'
Thanne scholde withuten othe?
The kyng maken us wrothe.
Forgef me thi tene,
Lefdi, my quene,
And Horn ihc schal the fecche,
Wham-so hit recche." 5

Rymenhild, yef he cuthe, Gan lynne ? with hire muthe. 7

372 Heo 8 makede hire wel blithe, Wel was hire that sithe. “Go nu,” quanh heo, “sone," And send him after none," On a squieres wise, Whane the kyng arise, To wude for to pleie. Nis non that him biwreie;

380 He schal with me bileve 13 Til hit beo nir eve, To haven of him mi wille.

383 After ne recche ihc what me telle." 15

Aylbrus wende 16 hire fro;
Horn in halle fond he tho 17
Bifore the kyng on benche
Wyn for to schenche.18
“Horn," quath he, "so hende, 19
To bure 20

nu thu wende, 21
After mete stille,
With Rymenhild to duelle.22
Wordes suthe 23 bolde
In herte thu hem holde.
Horn, beo me wel trewe;
Ne schal hit the nevre rewe." 24

Horn in herte leide
Al that he him seide.
He yeode 25 in wel rigte
To Rymenhild the brigte.
On knes he him sette, 20
And sweteliche hure grette.?? 404
Of his feire sigte
Al the bur gan ligte.

faire speche; Ne dorte 28 him noman teche. “Wel thu sitte and softe, Rymenhild the brigte, With thine Maidenes sixe That the sitteth nixte. 29

412 Kinges stuard ure

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2 acted madly 3 in - did s at once to have me as wife ? and I to possess thee as lord 8 ear as softly as might be cease

11 alike 12 a rib 10 lives

14 though

16 or else 16 hence would not 18 turned 10 foully 20 abused 21 foul thief 22 thou shalt not be 23 dear 24

go
25 bower

may cross, gallows 39 moment own

35 while

36 list 37 fused 88 put

care 40 here-about

11 noon

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2 without oath, certainly 8 afraid sorrow 6 who-ever regrets it if she could cease

8 she time 10 at once

12 shall betray 13 remain 15 afterwards I care not what people may say pour courteous 20 bower 21

go 22 remain, be 23 repent went 3 he kneeled

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29 hang 34 listen

31 die

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17 then 16 went

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28 needed 29 that sit nearest thee

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Wakede of hire swowning.' “Horn,” quath heo, “wel sone That schal beon idone. Thu schal beo dubbed knigt Are ? come seve nigt. Have her this cuppe, And this ring ther-uppe,' To Aylbrus the stuard, And se he holde foreward." Seie ich him biseche, With loveliche speche, That he adun falle Bifore the king in halle, And bidde ® the king arigte Dubbe the to knigte. With selver and with golde Hit wurth? him wel iyolde. 8 Crist him lene spede o Thin erende to bede." 10

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NICHOLAS DE GUILDFORD (?)

(A. 1 250)

Sende me in to bure.
With the speke ihc scholde;
Seie' me what thu woldest.
Seie, and ich schal here,
What thi wille were.”
Rymenhild up gan stonde
And tok him bi the honde.
Heo sette him on pelle,?
Of wyn to drinke his fulle.
Heo makede him faire chere
And tok him abute the swere.
Ofte heo him custe,
So wel so hire luste.
“Horn,” heo sede, “withute strif
Thu schalt have me to thi wif.
Horn, have of me rewthe,
And pligt : me thi trewthe."
Horn tho him bithogte
What he speke migte.
“Crist,” quath he, “the wisse,
And yive 10 the hevene blisse
Of thine husebonde,
Wher he beo in londe;
Ihc am ibore to lowe
Such wimman to knowe.
Ihc am icome of thralle,
And fundling bifalle."
Ne feolle 13 hit the of cunde 13

14 beo me bundels
Hit nere no fair wedding
Bitwexe a thral and a king."
Tho gan Rymenhild mis-lyke,
And sore gan to sike. 16
Armes heo gan buge;"
Adun he 18 feol iswoge.10
Horn in herte was ful wo,
And tok hire on his armes two.
He gan hire for to kesse,
Wel ofte mid ywisse. 20
“Lemman," 2

" 21 he sede, “dere,
Thin herte nu thu stere.22
Help me to knigte,
Bi al thine migte,
To my lord the king,
That he me yive dubbing.
Thanne is mi thralhod
Iwent 23 in to knigthod,
And i schal wexe more,
And do, lemman, thi lore.” 24
Rymenhild, that swete thing,

448

THE OWL AND THE NIGHTINGALE

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Ich was in one sumere dale, 12
In one swithe digele hale,13
I-herede 'ich holde grete tale 15
An ule and one nigtingale.
That plait 16 was stif and starc and strong,
Sum wile 17 softe, and lud among;'
And aither 10

agen other swal,20
And let that vule mod ut al.21
And either 19 seide of otheres custe
That alre-worste 23 that hi wuste;
And hure and hure 25 of otheres songe
Hi 20 heolde plaiding swithe 21 stronge.

The nigtingale bi-gon the speche,
In one hurne 28 of one beche;
And sat up one vaire bohe,29
Thar were abute 30 blosme i-nohe,31
In ore waste

32 thicke hegge,
I-meind mid spire 33 and grene segge.
Heo was the gladur vor 35 the rise, 36
And song a vele cunne wise; 37

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