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Hit payed 10 hym not that I so flonc 11
Over mervelous merez," so mad arayed;
Of raas 13 thagh I were rasch and ronk,
Yet rapely 15 ther-inne I wacz restayed;
For ryght as I sparred un-to the bonc,
That bratthe 16 out of my drem me brayde; 17
Then wakned I in that erber wlonk,18 1171
My hede upon that hylle wacz layde

Ther as my perle to grounde strayd;
I raxled 19 and fel in gret affray,20
And sykyng 21 to myself I sayd:
“Now al be to that pryncez paye.”






(The Same Author ?)







Thenn Arthour bifore the high dece 10 that aventure ' byholdez, 12

250 And rekenly hym reverenced,' for rad" was he

never, And sayde, “Wyye, welcum iwys 15 to this place; The hede of this ostel 18 Arthour I hat; Light luflych 18 adoun, and lenge, I the praye, And quat-so thy wylle is, we schal wyt 20 after.” “Nay, as help me,” quoth the hathel, “He that on

hyghe syttes, To wone

any quyle 22 in this won,23 hit wacz not
myn ernde;
Bot for 25 the los 28 of the lede 27 is lyft up so hyghe,
And thy burgh and thy burnes 28 best ar holden,
Stifest under stel-gere on stedes to ryde, 260
The wyghtest 30 and the worthyest of the worldes

Preve 31 for to play wyth in other pure laykez; *
And here is kydde 33 cortaysye, as I haf herd carp, 34
And that hacz wayned 35 me hider, iwys, at this

Ye may be seker 38 bi this braunch that I bere here,
That I passe as in pes, and no plyght seche;
For, had I founded 38 in fere, in feghtyng wyse,
I have a hauberghe 38 at home and a helme “o bothe,
A schelde, and a scharp spere, schinande bryght,
Ande other weppenes to welde," I wene wel als.“
Bot for 25 I wolde no were, my wedez " ar softer.
Bot if thou be so bold as alle burnez 28 tellen, 272
Thou wyl grant me godly " the gomen

48 that I ask,
Bi ryght."
Arthour con onsware, 97
And sayd, “Syr cortays knyght,
If thou crave batayl bare,

Here faylez thou not to fyght.”
in a death-like silence ? hall 3 as if so slackened
their actions bsuddenly 6 fear? but let him to whom
all should bow (= Arthur) speak man

10 dais 11 happening

12 observes 13 courteously greeted him 14 afraid 18 indeed 16 house 17 I am called graciously 10 remain

20 know

21 dwell 24 errand 25 because

20 fame 28 knights 20 steel-gear, armor 30 stoutest 81 proven 32 fine sports 33 shown 3* declare 35 has drawn 36 sure 37 seek no danger come 39 hauberk 0 helmet 41 wield 42 also

* garments

48 graciously * pleasure 47 answered 46

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Ther wacz

lokyng on lenthe,23 the lude 24 to beholde, For uch 2 mon had mervayle quat a hit mene myght, That a hathela' and a horse myght such a hwe lach.28 As growe grene as the gres 20 and grener hit semed, Then 30 grene aumayl al on golde lowande 32 brygh

ter. Al studied that ther stod, and stalked hym nerre, 33 Wyth al the wonder of the worlde, what he worch 34

schulde; For fele sellyez 35 had thay sen, bot such never are,38 For-thi for fantoum and fayryye 37 the folk there hit demed.

240 Ther-fore to answare wacz arghe 38 mony athel

freke, 30 And al stouned “at his steven," and ston-stil seten,

1 injure ? to fetch me an assault and take me lame prevent perished purpose 6 shaken 7 intention 8 recalled 'pleasure 1° pleased 11 should fling 12 waters

strong quickly 16 haste 17 moved 18 fair 19 roused 20 fear 21 sighing 22 was 23 long and steadily

each 20 what 27 knight 28 catch such a color

30 grass than 31 enamel

gleaming 33 many strange things 36 before 37 therefore as illusion and magic 38 timid 30 many a noble knight 40 were amazed 11 voice

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Where is now your sourquydrye ' and your con

questes, Your gryndel-layk, and your greme,' and your

grete wordes? Now is the revel and the renoun of the Rounde

Table Over-walt* wyth a worde of on wyyes & speche; For al dares for drede, withoute dynt'schewed !” Wyth this he laghes 8 so loude, that the lorde

greved, The blod schot for scham in-to his schyre face

And lere. 10
He wex as wroth as wynde;
So did alle that ther were.

The kyng, as kene bi kynde,"
Then stod that stif mon nere."


“Nay, fraystI no fyght, in fayth I the telle; Hit arn’ aboute on this bench bot berdlez chylder! If I were hasped ' in armes on a heghe · stede, Here is no mon me to mach, for myghtez so wayke. For-thy? I crave in this court a Crystemas gomen, For hit is Yol and Nwe Yer, and here are yep mony;

284 If any so hardy in this hous holdez hym-selven, Be so bolde in his blod, brayn 10 in hys hede, That dar stifly strike a strok for an other, I schal gif hym of my gyft thys giserne" ryche, This ax, that is hevé innogh, — to hondele 13 hym lykes,

And I schal bide 13 the fyrst bur, as bare as I sitte.
If any freke 15 be so felle 16 to fonde 17 that 18 I telle,
Lepe '' lyghtly me to, and lach 20 this weppen,
I quit-clayme hit for ever, kepe hit as his awen, 21
And I schal stonde hym a strok, stif on this flet,22
Ellez thou wyl dight me the dom * to dele hym an

Barlay; 24
And yet gif hym respite,
A twelmonyth and a day;
Now hyghe,4 and let se tite 20
Dar any her-inne oght say." 300



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Ande sayde, “Hathel, by heven thyn askyng is

nys,'* And as thou foly hacz frayst," fynde the be-hoves. 15 I know no gome 16 that is gast" of thy grete

wordes. Gif me now thy geserne, 18 upon Godez halve, 10 And I schal baythen thy bone,20 that thou boden 14

habbes." Lyghtly lepez he hym to, and laght at his honde;

21 Then feersly that other freke 16 upon fote lyghtis. Now hacz Arthure his axe, and the halme 22 grypez, And sturnely sturez 23 hit aboute, that stryke wyth hit thoght.

331 The stif mon hym bifore stod upon hyght,4 Herre 25 then ani in the hous by the hede and

more; Wyth sturne chere 20 ther he stod, he stroked his

berde, And wyth a countenaunce dryye 27 he drow doun




38 he coghed

his cote,





If he hem stowned 27 upon fyrst, 28 stiller were

thanne Alle the hered-men 29 in halle, the hygh and the lowe; The renk 15 on his rounce 30 hym ruched 31 in his

sadel, And runischly » his rede yyen 33 he reled aboute, Bende his bresed 34 browez, blycande 35 grene, Wayved his berde for to wayte 30 quo-so 37 wolde

ryse. When non wolde kepe hym with carp

ful hyghe, so Ande rimed hym ful richely," and ryght hym

to speke; "What, is this Arthures hous," quoth the hathel **

thenne, “That al the rous rennes of " thurgh ryalmes so mony?

310 I ask ? there are 3 clasped high, tallsmatch o weak ? therefore & game, amusement bold, ready 10 mad " pole-ax - handle 13 abide, endure "attack 16 man 16 fierce 17 try 18 what 19 let him leap 20 seize

own 22 floor 23 provided thou wilt give me the right 24 by our Lady 25 hasten 20 quickly 27 amazed 28 at first 29 retainers

31 settled 32 furiously 34 bristly 36 glittering 38 observe 37 who-so 38 when none would reply 38 coughed aloud 40 and made full preparation got ready 12 knight *3 of which all the same goes

28 No more mate ne dismayd for hys mayn

dintez, ** Then any

burne upon bench hade broght hym to drynk

Of wyne.
Gawan, that sate bi the quene,
To the kyng he can 31 enclyne, 340
“I be-seche now with sawez sene, 32
This melly mot

33 be myne."

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30 horse

' haughtiness 2 fierceness :grimness #overturned one man's all are frightened 7 stroke Blaughs 'bright 10 cheekas one bold by nature 13 foolish

14 asked 16 it behooves thee to find 16 man 17 frightened 18 19 in God's name

20 grant thy boon 21 grasped 22 shaft 23 fiercely moves 24 stood tall 25 taller 26 fierce look 27 dry, without emotion 28 dispirited strong blows 30 than if any man

courteous words 33 this encounter may


33 eyes



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31 did




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That his hert and his honde schulde hardi be

bothe. “Kepe the, cosyn," quoth the kyng, “that thou

on kyrf sette, And if thou redez ? hym ryght, redly I trowe That thou schal byden the bur' that he schal

bede after." Gawan goczó to the gome, with giserne ? in honde, And he baldly hym bydez, he bayst never the

helder. Then carppez to Syr Gawan the knyght in the

grene, “Refourme we oure forwardes, 10 er we fyrre

passe. Fyrst I ethe 12 the, hathel, how that thou hattes,13 That thou me telle truly, as I tryst " may.”

380 "In god fayth,” quoth the goode knyght, “Gawan

I hatte,'s That bede * the this buffet, quat-so bi-fallez after, And at this tyme twelmonyth take at the 18 another, Wyth what weppen so thou wylt, and wyth no


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Wolde ye, worthilych” lorde," quoth Gawan to

the kyng, “Bid me bowe ? fro this benche, and stonde by

yow there, That I wyth-oute vylanye myght voyde 3 this

table, And that my legge * lady lyked not ille, I wolde com to your counseyl, bifore your cort

ryche; For me think hit not semly, as hit is soth knawen,” Ther 8 such an askyng is hevened so hyghe in

your sale, 10 Thagh ye your-self be talenttyf" to take hit to your-selven,

350 Whil mony so bolde yow aboute upon bench

sytten, That under heven, I hope,12 non hagher 13 er " of

wylle, Ne better bodyes on bent,15 ther8 baret 16 is rered. I am the wakkest,1" I wot, and of wyt feblest, And lest lur 18 of my lyf, quo laytes the sothe;' Bot, for as much as ye ar myn em,20 I am only to

prayse No bounté 21 bot your blod I in my bodé knowe, And sythen this note 22 is so nys 23 that noght hit

yow falles, 24 And I have frayned 25 hit at yow fyrst, foldez 20 hit to me!

not comlyly, let alle this cort rych28

Bout 29 blame.”
Ryche 30 to-geder con roun,si
And sythen thay redden alle same, 32
To ryd the kyng wyth croun,23
And gif Gawan the game.




wy ellez'7



On lyve.” 18 That other onswarez agayn, “Sir Gawan, so mot I thryve, As I am ferly fayn, 21 This dint that thou schal dryve. 22


And if I carp




XVIII “Bi Gog," quoth the grene knyght, “Syr Gawan, me lykes, 23

390 That I schal fange at thy fust 24 that I haf frayst 28

here; And thou hacz redily rehersed, bi resoun ful trwe, Clanly 27 al the covenaunt that I the kynge asked, Saf that thou schal siker 28 me, segge, by thi

trawthe, That thou schal seche me thi-self, where-so thou



hopes 30

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I may be funde upon folde, 31 and foch 32 the such

wages As thou deles me to day, bifore this douthe 33

ryche." “Where schulde I wale 29 the?" quoth Gauan,

“Where is thy place? I wot never where thou wonyes, 34 bi Hym that

me wroght,

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I worthy ? move 3 leave " liege 5rich (splendid) court fitting ? is known for truth 8 where raised 10 hall " desirous 12 think 13 apter, fitter 14 are 16 in field 16 strife 17 weakest

18 least loss 19 if any one seeks the truth 20 uncle 21 goodness 22 affair 23 foolish 24 becomes 25 requested grant

27 if I speak

judge 29 without 30 the great ones 31 did whisper 32 and afterwards they decided unanimously 33 to set aside the crowned king 34 quickly

35 stooped courteously 86 seizes 37 let, gave

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1 take care, cousin, that thou give one stroke 2 treatest 3 attack offers goes

ax 8 awaits 9 he quailed never the more agreements

11 further 13 what is thy name

14 believe

16 Gawan is my name 16 from thee

no man else answers may 21 wonderfully glad » that thou shalt deliver this blow 23 it pleases me 24 take from thy fist 25 what 2 asked 27 entirely 28 promise 29 seek 30 believest 31 earth 32 fetch 33 nobility 3* dwellest


18 alive



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he were,

Ne I know not the, knyght, thy cort, ne thi name. Bot teche me truly ther-to, and telle me howe thou hattes,

401 And I schal ware ? alle my wyt to wynne me

theder, And that I swere the for sothe, and by my seker*

traweth." "That is innogh in Nwe Yer, hit nedes no more,” Quoth the gome in the grene to Gawan the hende, "Gif I the telle trwly, quen I the tape 'have, And thou me smothely hacz & smyten, smartly I

the teche Of my hous, and my home, and myn owen nome, Then may thou frayst my fare, lo and forwardez "

holde. And if I spende no speche, thenne spedez thou the better,

410 For thou may leng " in thy londe, and layt no fyrre, 3

Bot slokes."
Ta 18 now thy grymme tole to the,
And let se how thou chokez." 17
'Gladly, syr, for sothe,"
Quoth Gawan; his ax he strokes.

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In stedde; 16 He brayde 17 his blunk 0 aboute, 440 That ugly bodi that bledde, Moni on of hym had doute, 1 Bi that his resounz were redde.19






For the hede in his honde he haldez up even,
To-ward the derrest 20 on the dece 21 he dressez 22

the face, And hit lyfte up the yye-lyddez,23 and loked ful

brode, And meled 24 thus much with his muthe, as ye may

now here. "Loke, Gawan, thou be graythe 25 to go as thou

hettez, 28 And layte 27 as lelly 28 til thou me, lude,20 fynde, As thou hacz hette 30 in this halle, herande 31 thise knyghtes.

450 To the grene chapel thou chose, 32 I charge the, to

fotte; Such a dunt 34 as thou hacz dalt 36 disserved thou



habbez, 38


28 the

XIX The grene knyght upon grounde graythely hym

dresses, 18 A littel lut 1' with the hede, the lere 20 he diskoverez, His longe lovelych lokkez he layd over his croun, Let the naked nec to the note 21 schewe.

420 Gauan gripped to his ax, and gederes hit on hyght,22 The kay 23 fote on the folde 24 he be-fore sette, Let hit doun lyghtly lyght on the naked, That the scharp of the schalk schyndered

bones, And schrank 27 thurgh the schyire grece,28 and

scade 20 hit in twynne, That the bit of the broun stel bot on the grounde. The fayre hede fro the halce» hit (helde] * to the

erthe, That fele hit foyned 35 wyth her fete, there 3 hit

forth roled; The blod brayd 37 fro the body, that blykked 38 on

the grene; And nawther 39 faltered ne fel the freke 40 neverthe-helder,"


To be yederly yolden 37 on Nw Yeres morn.
The Knyght of the Grene Chapel, men knowen me

mony; For-thi 30 me for to fynde, if thou fraystez,40 faylez




thou never;

Ther-fore com, other recreaunt be calde the

be-hoves." With a runisch rout “ the raynez he tornez, Halled 43 out at the hal-dor, his hed in his hande, That the fyr of the flynt flawe * from fole hoves.95 To quat kyth he be-com," knewe non there, 460


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44 flew

45 from the horse's hoofs 46 to what land he went




36 hast


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With open




Thagho Arthur the hende? kyng at hert hade

wonder, He let no semblaunt be sene, bot sayde ful hyghe 8 To the comlych Quene, wyth cortays speche, “Dere dame, to-day demay yow never; 470 Wel bycommes 10 such craft upon Cristmasse, Laykyng" of enterludez, to laghe and to syng Among " thise kynde 13 caroles of knyghtez and

ladyez; Never-the-lece" to my mete " I may me wel dres, For I haf sen a selly," I may not for-sake.” 18 He glent upon Syr Gawen, and gaynly he sayde, “Now, syr, heng up thyn ax, that hacz innogh

hewen." And hit wacz don 21 abof the dece, on doser a to

henge, Ther alle men for mervayl myght on hit loke, And bi trwe tytel ther-of 23 to telle the wonder. Thenne thay bowed a to a borde,25 thise burnes 20 to-geder,

481 The kyng and the gode kynght; and kene

hem served Of alle dayntyez double, as derrest myght

falle, Wyth alle maner of mete and mynstralcie bothe; Wyth wele walt thay that day, til worthed an ende20

In londe.
Now thenk wel, Syr Gawan,
For wothe 30 that thou ne wonde 31
This aventure forto frayn
That thou hacz tan

on honde.


Sche wolde make ayeinward' newe.
And sche, that was toward him trewe, 3950
Behihte ? him that sche wolde it do
Whan that sche time sawh' therto.
Boto what sche dede in that matiere
It is a wonder thing to hiere,
Bot yit for the novelleries
I thenke tellen a partie.

Thus it befell upon a nyht
Whan ther was noght bot sterreliht,"
Sche was vanyssht riht as hir liste,
That no wyht bot hirself it wiste, 3960
And that was ate mydnyht tyde.
The world was stille on every side;

10 hed and fot al bare, Hir her tosprad,“ sche gan to fare; Upon hir clothes gert" sche was; Al specheles and 13 on the gras Sche glod " forth as an addre doth Non otherwise sche ne goth Til sche cam to the freisshe flod, And there a while sche withstod.15 3970 Thries sche torned hire aboute, And thries ek sche gan doun loute 16 And in the flod sche wette hir her, And thries on the water ther Sche gaspeth with a drecchinge 17 onde, 18 And tho io sche tok hir speche on honde. Ferst sche began to clepe 20 and calle Upward unto the sterres alle, To Wynd, to Air, to See, to Lond Sche preide, and ek hield up hir hond 3980 To Echates,^ — and gan to crie, Which is goddesse of sorcerie. Sche seide, “Helpeth at this nede, And as ye maden me to spede,22 Whan Jason cam the Flees to seche, So help me nou, I you beseche.” With that sche loketh and was war, 24 Doun fro the sky ther cam a char,25 The which dragouns aboute drowe. And tho


hir hed doun bowe, And up sche styh, and faire and wel 3991 Sche drof forth bothe char and whel Above in thair among the skyes.? The lond of Crete and tho parties Sche soughte, and faste gan hire hye, 30 And there upon the hulles sl hyhe








10 sche




JOHN GOWER (13257-1408) FROM CONFESSIO AMANTIS Bk. V Jason, which sih 34 his fader old, Upon Medea made him bold Of art magique, which sche couthe, 95 And preith hire that his fader 30 youthe




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30 hasten

31 hills

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