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Then' mournen evermore.

Geynest under gore,? Herkne to my roun.'

An hendi, etc.


THE MAN IN THE MOON (c. 1350) Mon in the mone stond ' and strit,

On is bot-forke 3 is burthen he bereth; Hit is muche wonder that he nadoun slyt," For doutes leste he valle, he shoddreth and

shereth.? When the forst freseth, muche chele 8 he byd;

The thornes beth kene, is hatiren to-tereth; Nis no wyht" in the world that wot '? when he syt, Ne, bote 14 hit bue 15 the hegge," whet wedes 17

he wereth.







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Whider trowe

this mon ha

the He hath set is o fot 20 is other to-foren: 21 For non hihthe 22 that he hath ne syht me hym ner

shake,23 He is the sloweste mon that ever wes yboren. Wher he were othe feld 2 pycchynde stake,

For hope of ys 2 thornes to dutten is doren ? 28 He mot 27 myd 28 is twybyl 29 other trous 30 make,

Other 31 al is dayes werk ther were yloren.32 16




SPRINGTIME (c. 1300) Lenten ‘ys come with love to toune, With blosmen and with briddes roune; 5

That al this blisse bryngeth.
Dayes-eyes in this dales;
Notes suete ? of nyhtegales;

Uch foul song singeth.8
The threstercoc him threteth oo; o
Away is huere 10 wynter woo,

When woderoue " springeth.
This is foules singeth ferly fele,13
And wlyteth '4 on huere wynter wele, 15

That al the wode ryngeth.
The rose rayleth 16 hire rode,'?
The leves on the lyhte wode

Waxen al with wille.18
The mone mandeth 19 hire bleo,20
The lilie is lossom " to seo,

The fenyl and the fille;
Wowes this wilde drakes,23
Miles murgeth huere makes; 24

Ase strem that striketh stille,
Mody meneth, so doht mo;
Ichot ycham on of tho, 27

For love that likes ille. 28
The mone mandeth 20 hire lyht,
So doth the semly sonne bryht,

When briddes singeth breme;
Deawes donketh 31 the dounes; 52
Deores with huere derne rounes,

Domes forte deme;
Wormes woweth under cloude;
Wymmen waxeth wounder proude,

So wel hit wol hem seme.
Yef * me shal wonte 37 wille of on,
This wunne weole 39


wole 40 forgon, Ant wyht in wode be fleme.“


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wed. 43



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Yef 4 thy wed ys ytake, bring hom the trous,30

Sete forth thyn other fot, stryd over sty; 26 We shule preye 46 the haywart hom to ur hous,

Ant maken hym at heyse 48 for the maystry,“' Drynke to hym deorly of fol god bous,50

Ant oure dame douse 61 shal sitten hym by; 30 When that he is dronke ase a dreynt 62 mous, Thenne schule borewe the wed ate



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12 these

26 his

I than 2 most gracious one alive (in clothing) * secret spring 'whisper these ? sweet 8 each bird sings a song the thrustle cock threatens ever their li woodrow 13 wonderfully many

14 look 15 weal 15 puts on 17 redness 18 vigorously 10 mends 20 complexion 21 beautiful 22 thyme 23 these wild drakes

24 beasts gladden their mates moody man laments, - so do others

27 I know I am one of those 2pleases ill 29 mends, increases 30 loud 31 dews wet 32 hills 33 lovers with their secret whispers (come) cases (of love) to judge under clod 36 if 37 want

39 wealth of joy 40 will " and be a banished wight in the forest

1 stands ? strides 3 pitch-fork he doesn't slide down 6 fear 6 fall 7 shakes

8 chill

9 endures 10 they tear his clothes 11 there is nobody

12 knows 14 unless

16 hedge 17 what clothes 19 has

20 his one foot 21 before 22 for no haste 23 one never sees him hurry 24 whether he were in the field (i.e. was he)

20 to close his door 27 must 28 with 20

truss, bundle 31

or 32 lost 33

same high 35 whether 36 crooked coward 37 it is many a day ago

38 I think 39 errand 40 hath 42 hedge-keeper not

44 if 45 stride

pawn 46 invite

48 at ease over the path

49 to the 50 full good drink

51 sweet utmost

52 drowned 63 redeem 64 from the bailiff

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(c. 1350)
Were beth 18 they that biforen us weren,
Houndes ladden 16 and havekes beren, 17
And hadden feld and wode?

The riche levedies 18 in here 18 bour,

Zhat wereden gold in here tressour,
With here 1 brighte rode;

Eten and drounken, and maden hem glad;
Here lif was al with gamen 22 y-lad,
Men kneleden hem 23 biforen;

They beren hem wel swithe heye;

And in a twincling of an eye
Here soules weren forloren.26
Were is that lawhing – and that song,
That trayling and that proude gong,
Tho havekes 28 and tho houndes?

Al that joye is went away,

That wele 29 is comen to weylaway
To manye harde stoundes. 31

Here 19 paradis they nomen here,
And nou they lyen in helle y-fere; 34
The fyr hit brennes 35

Long is ay, and long is o,

Long is wy, and long is wo;
Thennes ne cometh they nevere.



Nouther' to ga? ne yhit: to stand,
Ne to crepe with fote ne with hand.
Than* has a man les myght than a beste
When he es born, and is sene leste;'
For a best, when it es born, may ga

Als-tite o aftir, and ryn' to and fra;
Bot a man has na myght thar-to,
When he es born, swa 8 to do;
For than may he noght stande ne crepe,
Bot ligge and sprawel, and cry


wepe. For unnethes es a child born fully That it ne bygynnes to goule And by that cry men may knaw than Whether it be man or weman, For when it es born it cryes swa; 8 If it be man, it says ‘a, a,' That the first letter es of the nam Of our forme-fader 12 Adam. And if the child a woman be, When it es born, it says 'e, e.' E es the first letter and the hede 13 Of the name of Eve, that bygan our dede. 14 Tharfor a clerk made on this manere This vers of metre that es wreten here: Dicentes E vel A quotquot nascuntur ab Eva. 490 “Alle thas," he says, “that comes of Eve, That es al men that here byhoves leve,16 When thai er born, what-swa 1 thai be, Thai say outher 17 (a, a,' or 'e, e.'" Thus es here the bygynnyng, Of our lyfe sorow and gretyng, 18 Til whilk our wrechednes stirres us, And tharfor Innocent says thus: Omnes nascimur eiulantes, ut nature nostre miseriam

exprimamus. He says, “al er we born gretand, 18

And makand 20 a sorowful sembland, 22
For to shew the grete wrechednes
Of our kynd 22 that in us es."
Thus when the tyme come 23 of our birthe,
Al made sorow and na mirthe;
Naked we come hider, and bare,
And pure swa, sal 24 we hethen 25 fare.

i neither
2 walk 3 yet


6 smallestimmediately

SO lie 10 scarcely 11 yell 12 forefather 18 head

14 death

are obliged to live here 16 what-so 17 either 18 weeping 19 to which 20 making 21 semblance

came precisely so, shall 26 hence

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PEARL (c. 1350)

I playned' my perle that ther wacz spenned?

Wyth fyrte skyllez ' that faste faght;:
(Unknown Author)

Thagh kynde of Kryst me comfort kenned,5
My wreched wylle in wo ay wraghte.

I felle upon that floury flaght;'
Perle plesaunte to prynces paye,'

Suche odour to my hernez & schot,

I slode upon a slepyng-slaghteo To clanly clos? in golde so clere,

On that precios perle withouten spot. Oute of oryent I hardyly saye, Ne proved I never her precios pere,'

XIV So rounde, so reken in uche a raye,

More mervayle con my dom adaunt; 10 So smal, so smothe her sydez were,

I segh" by-yonde that myry mere Queresoever I jugged gemmez gaye,

A crystal clyffe ful relusaunt,'s I sette hyr sengeley in synglere.

Mony ryal ray con fro hit rere;

160 Allas! I leste hyr in on erbere;?

At the fote thereof ther sete a faunt,15
Thurgh gresse to grounde hit fro me yot; A mayden of menske, ful debonere,
I dewyne, for-dokked of luf-daungere 11 Blysnande whyte wacz hyr bleaunt,"7
Of that pryvy perle withouten spot.

I knew hyr wel, I hade sen hyr ere. 18

As glysnande golde that man con schere 18 II

So schon that schene anunder schore; Sythen 10 in that spote hit fro me sprange,

On lenghe ? I looked to hyr there, Ofte haf I wayted wyschande " that wele,'2

The lenger, I knew hyr more and more. 23 That wont wacz whyle 13 devoyde 4 my wrange, And heven 's my happe and al my hele;

The more I frayste 23 hyr fayre face, That docz bot thrych my herte thrange, 17

Her figure fyn quen I had fonte,

170 My breste in bale 18 bot bolne and bele.19

Suche gladande glory con to me glace
Yet thoght me never so swete a sange
As stylle stounde 20 let to me stele;

As lyttel byfore therto wacz wonte;

To calle hyr lyste con me enchace,28
Forsothe ther fleten ? to me fele, 22

Bot baysment 27 gef myn hert a brunt; 28
To thenke hir color so clad in clot ! 23
O moul thou marrez a myry mele,

I segh hyr in so strange a place,

Such a burre myght make myn herte blunt.20
My privy perle withouten spot.

Thenne verez ho up her fayre frount, 30
Hyr vysayge whyt as playn yvore,


That stonge myn hert ful stray atount, Bifore that spot my honde I spennd 20

And ever the lenger, the more and more. For care ful colde that to me caght;?

1 lamented was taken away

8 timid reasons A denely dele in my herte denned,28

* fought hard though Christ's nature taught me Thagh resoun sette my selven saght.29

comfort wrought 7 bed of flowers 8 brains I

slided into a dream 10 a greater wonder daunted my * delight ? cleanly enclose? or enclosed? 3 equal judgment saw pleasant lake 13 gleaming 14 many * fit in every respect alone in uniqueness lost i a royal gleam arose from it 18 child 16

grace gleamarbor & departed I pine away, deprived of the love- ing white was her attire 18 before 19 that one has redominion 10 since "I wishing 12 weal 18 was formerly fined 20 so shone that beautiful one beneath the cliff It to remove 15 lift up 16 prosperity 17 does but oppress 21 a long time 22 the longer I looked the more certainly my heart grievously is distress 19 swell and burn 30 the I knew her questioned 24 when I had examined quiet hour 21 float2 many things 23 clod

28 such delight came to me 26 desire to speak to her 25 sweet delight 2 stretched out 27 that seized upon seized me a timidity attack 20 such a surprise might me 2% a secret sorrow lay in my heart though well astound me 30 then she lifts her fair face reason reconciled all difficulties

31 ivory 32 that struck me into bewilderment







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Pyght' in perle, that precios pyece
On wyther-half water? com doun the schore; 8
No gladder gome hethen * into Grece

Then I quen ho on brymme wore.5
Ho wacz me nerre & then aunte or nece,
My joy forthy wacz? much the more.
Ho profered me speche, that special spece,8
Enclynande lowe in wommon lore,

Caghte of her coroun of grete tresore,
And haylsed me wyth a lote lyghte.''
Wel wacz me that ever I wacz bore,
To sware 11 that swete in perlez pyghte.

XXIII “Bot, jueler gente, if thou schal lose Thy joy for a gemme that the wacz lef," Me thynk the put? in a mad porpose, And busyez the aboute a raysoun bref;8 For that thou lestez' wacz bot a rose, That flowred and fayled as kynde s hit gef; 270 Now thurgh kyndes of the kyste® that hyt con?

To a perle of prys hit is put in pref; 8

And thou hacz called thy wyrde a thef,
That oght of noght hacz mad the cler;
Thou blamez the bote " of thy meschef,
Thou art no kynde jueler.”


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“O Perle,” quoth I, “in perlez pyght,
Art thou my perle that I haf playned,"
Regretted by myn one, an nyghte ? 13
Much longeyng haf I for the layned,14
Sythen in-to gresse thou me aglyghte; 15
Pensyf, payred,16 I am for-payned,"?
And thou in a lyf of lykyng lyghte 18
In paradys erde,of stryf unstrayned.

What wyrde hacz hyder my juel wayned,ạo
And don me in thys del 21 and gret daunger?
Fro we in twynne wern towen and twayned 22
I haf ben a joylez jueler.” 23


A juel to me then wacz thys geste,
And juelez wern hyr gentyl sawez.12
“I-wyse," quoth I, “my blysfol beste,13
My grete dystresse thou al to-drawez.14 280
To be excused I make requeste;
I trawed my perle don out of dawez; 15
Now haf I fonde hyt, I schal ma feste, 18

with hyt in schyr wod-schawez, 18
And love my Lorde and all his lawez,
That hacz me broght thys blysse ner.
Now were I at 19 yow byyonde thise wawez,20
I were a joyful jueler."

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That juel thenne in gemmez gente,"
Vered up her vyse

25 with yghen 20 graye,
Set on hyr coroun of perle orient,
And soberly after thenne con ho say:
“Syr, ye haf your tale myse-tente,28
To say your perle is al awaye,
That is in cofer, so comly clente,'
As in this gardyn gracios gaye,

Here-inne to lenge 20 for-ever and play,
Ther mys nee mornyng

com never ner;
Her were a forser 31 for the, in faye,
If thou were a gentyl jueler.

"Jueler," sayde that gemme clene, "Wy borde ye men?—so madde ye be. 290 Thre wordez hacz thou spoken at ene; Unavysed, for sothe, wern alle thre. Thou ne woste 23 in worlde quat

on 25 docz mene;
Thy worde byfore thy wytte con 28 fle.
Thou says thou traweza7 me in this dene,28
Bycawse thou may with yghen me se;

Another 29 thou says, in thys countre
Thy self schal won " with me ryght here;
The thrydde, to passe thys water fre.
That may no joyful jueler."




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“My blysse, my bale,30 ye han ben bothe,
Bot much the bygger yet wacz my mon;
Fro thou wacz wroken 31 fro uch a wothe, 32
I wyste

never quere my perle wacz gon. was dear to thee? I regard thee as put 3 small affair * didst lose nature 6 chest ? did proof = turned 'fate 10 that has clearly made for thee something of nothing remedy

12 sayings 15 done out of days (destroyed) 16 make feast 17 dwell 18 beautiful groves

19 with 20 23 knowest not 24 what 25 one

20 did 27 believest 28 den 29 another thing sorrow ished


set on the opposite side of the water person from hence 5 than I when she was at the bank she was nearer to me


on that account was 8 she spoke to me, that rare one obowing low as women are taught greeted me pleasantly 12 lamented 13 alone by night 14 suffered secretly 18 since thou didst slip away from me into the grass 10 weakened 17 worn with grief 18 and thou in a life of delightful pleasure 19 land 20 what fate has brought my jewel hither put me in this grief were drawn apart and separated

possessor of jewels 24 beautiful 25 lifted her face 20

eyes aid 28 distorted

30 where lack nor rning 31 jewel-box

29 remain

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“My maskelez Lambe that al may bete,"
Quod scho, “my dere destyne
Me ches to hys make," al-thagh unmete.
Sum tyme semed that assemble,

760 When I wente fro yor worlde wete: 5 He calde me to hys bonerte: 0 ‘Cum hyder to me, my lemman’swete, For mote ne spot is non in the.'

He yef : me myght and also bewte;
In hys blod he wesch my


on dese," And coronde clene in vergynte, And pyght me in perlez maskellez."



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Now I hit se, now lethez' my lothe.
And quen we departed, we wern at one;
God forbede we be now wrothe,
We meten so selden by stok other’ ston.

Thagh' cortaysly ye carpe con,
I am bot mols and marez mysse; $
Bot Crystes mersy and Mary and Jon,
Thise arne the grounde of all my blysse.

“In blysse I se the blythely blent,?
And I a man al mornyf, mate,&
Ye take ther-on ful lyttel tente,
Thagh I hente 10 ofte harmez hate. 11
Bot now I am here in your presente,
I wolde bysech wythouten debate,

390 Ye wolde me say in sobre asente, What lyf ye lede, erly and late;

For I am ful fayn that your astate
Is worthen to worschyp and wele iwyss.
Of alle my joy the hyghe gate
Hit is in grounde of alle my blysse."

“A blysful lyf thou says I lede,
Thou woldez knaw ther-of the stage;
Thow wost wel when thy perle con schede,
I wacz ful yong and tender of age,
Bot my Lorde, the Lombe, thurgh hys godhede,
He toke myself to hys maryage,
Corounde me quene in blysse to brede, 15
In lenghe of dayez that ever schal wage,

And sesed in 17 alle hys herytage
Hys lef 18 is, I am holy hysse;
Hys prese,'' his prys, 20 and hys parage 21
Is rote and grounde of all my blysse.” 420



"Motelez 12 may, so meke and mylde,"
Then sayde I to that lufly flor, 13
“Bryng me to that bygly bylde,"
And let me se thy blysful bor.” 15
That schene 18 sayde, that "7 God wyl schylde,
“Thou may not enter with-inne hys tor, 18
Bot of the Lombe I have the 18 aquylde 20
For a syght ther-of thurgh gret favor.

Ut-wyth to se that clene cloystor,
Thou may; bot in-wyth not a fote, 970
To strech in the strete thou hacz no vygour,
Bot thou wer clene with-outen mote.






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The Lombe delyt non lyste to wene;
Thagh he were hurt and wounde hade,
In his sembelaunt wacz never sene;
So wern his glentez gloryous glade.
I loked


meyny schene, How thay wyth lyf wern last and lade,27 Thenne sagh I ther my lyttel quene, That I wende 28 had standen by me in sclade.29

Lorde! much of mirthe wacz that ho 3

Among her ferez 31 that wacz so quyt !
That syght me gart * to think to wade,
For luf-longyng in gret delyt.


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“O maskelez ?? perle in perlez pure,
That berez," quod I, “the perle of prys,
Quo 3 formed the thy fayre fygure ?
That wroght thy wede, 24 he wacz ful wys;
Thy beaute com never of nature;
Pymalyon paynted never thy vys;

750 Ne Arystotel nawther by hys lettrure Of carped the kynde these propertez.28

Thy colour passez the four-de-lys,
Thyn angel-havyng so clene cortez;

me, bryght, quat-kyn of triys 29 Berez the perle so maskellez." i lessens 2 or 3 though • did speak 8 earth ® increase loss mingled mournful, overcome 'heed 10 receive 11 hot 12 is changed to honor and prosperity way 14 did depart


17 possessed of is beloved 19 praise 20 glory 21 rank 22 spotless 23 who

described thy beauties of nature 23 inform




Delyt me drof in yghe 34 and ere;
My manez mynde to maddyng malte. 38
Quen I segh my frely,38 I wolde be there,
By-yonde the water thagh ho

were walte.39 Tamend 2 said she 3 chose mate 6 wet “goodness ?sweetheart Sgave also 10 garment

11 dais 12 spotless 13 flower * great building 15 bower

16 beautiful one 17 whom 18 tower 19 for thee 20 obtained 21 from without 22 within

23 wished to doubt appearance 25 looks 26 beautiful company

27 supplied and laden 28 thought valley she 31 companions 33 caused 34

man's 20 melted 37


38 gracious one

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39 kept

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