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The farm is 2,500 acres in extent, and dupois. The arroba should sell for 75 dolconsists of good pasture land, watered lars; and taking off 10 dollars for the by a brimming brook. It was purchased expenses of shearing, baling, and other a few years ago for 8,000l., and no less charges, there remains a proñt of 65 dolthan 24,000l. has been offered for the lars a ton, or (115. per arroba, or a total property within the last six months. A return of 2201, from each flock of 2,000 hundred men are here employed as sheep. The positive expenses for the horsekeepers, and in gathering in the maintenance of such a flock, including hay and green crops required for a stud the rent of land and the wages of the of 800 horses. The wages of the farm shepherd, are from 1201. to 150l. a year. laborers, or peons, are 21. a month. They The wool alone should pay all the exare lodged and found at an additional penses of the Argentine sheep-owner, cost of thirty shillings a month.
and a profit of 5 per cent on the capital Lucerne is the most advantageous embarked. The tallow and the new food for cattle in this country. Five stock are a clear additional profit. In crops are obtained every year. Of good years, the profits realised in this maize the return is ample. Oats are a country are much larger than in Austrafailure : nothing but straw is produced. lia. On the other hand the risks from 'Wheat,' says Sir Woodbine Parish, 're- drought are greater. The calculations quires the cooler climate of the southern I have given are based on statements part of the provinces.' Flax and hemp furnished to me by gentlemen of long have been tried with success. The vine, experience, who have had many opporthe orange, the fig, and the peach flour- tunities of comparing their results with ish luxuriantly, especially the latter. those obtained in Australia. It is, howThe price of lean stock is about thirty ever, possible that an Australian sheepshillings a head. When fatted, which farmer might be disposed to modify the takes about three months on good land, figures in favor of his own country. the same cattle will fetch 41. a head. The same subject was ably discussed Horses not broken can be bought for by Mr. Macdonnell in the report, which 37., and will generally stand regular work he wrote when Chargé d'Affaires at in the tramway cars for a period of five Buenos Ayres. He does not advise emyears. Cattle for forming herds are ob- igrants to come to the River Plate with ainable at from 18s. to 20s. per head. the view of engaging in agriculture ; for
From the tramway farm we drove to though the soil, consisting of marine and the estancia of Mr. B-, and on the alluvial deposit, is remarkably fertile, yet following morning I rode round his there are numerous obstacles to successfarm. It contains 25,000 sheep, which fulcultivation,ʻincluding sudden changes are fed on 3,820 squares of land, each of temperature, violent storms of wind, of 47 acres in extent. In the province dust, and rain, long.continued droughts, of Buenos Ayres it is commonly esti- heavy and persistent rains, locusts, mated that from 20,000 to 17,000 sheep bichos, basket-worms, and ants.' can be fed on a league of superior land. Mr. Macdonnell recommends sheepIf this assumption can be justified by farming as the most lucrative occupation experience, land in the Argentine Con- in which British settlers can engage. federation will carry more sheep than an Cattle-farming is mostly in the hands of equal area in Australia. Here three natives, many of whom have made large sheep can be fed on one acre. In Aus- fortunes. Herds of cattle require extentralia three acres are required to feed sive pastures, and can be kept most adone sheep. In the Argentine Confedera- vantageously in the outlying provinces, ation wool can be produced for 4d. per where land is cheap. For sheep a less pound. In Australia unwashed wcol extent of land is necessary, but it should could not be produced under 9d. per be of superior quality. pound. The Australian wool is now The natural grasses of Buenos Ayres nearly as burry as the Argentine, but the possess admirable fattening qualities, and former has a superior staple. In the the flocks produce a description of wool Argentine Confederation a flock of 2,000 especially adapted for fine kersey cloths, sheep should produce 400 arrobas of wool, and extensively consumed in France and an arroba weighing 25-35 pounds avoir- Belgium. The yarn spun from it in the
latter country is in great demand in States; of these seventy-five per cent Scotland and the north of Germany. proceed immediately to the interior.
The increase in the export of wool Here, however, during the year 1870, out is remarkable. While 42,275 bales of upwards of 40,000 immigrants, not were exported in 1860, there were ex- more than 1,000 proceeded to the inteported in 1870 of wool 100,369 bales, of rior provinces.' the value of 2,195,1191., and upwards of The difference between the United 57,000,000 pounds of sheepskins. States and the Argentine Republic is,
Mr. St. John, the successor of Mr. Mac- that in one case the immigrant is a prodonnell, in his report for 1875, speaks ducer, in the other a consumer. Eightyof wool as by far the most important nine per cent. of the Anglo-German product of the country. The amount immigrants who land in New York are in English pounds exported in 1873 was agriculturists; the arrivals from the south 156,781,756, on which the official valua- of Europe scarcely exceeding 3,000. tion was 3,416,1561., making the bale of The statistics of population afford 800 English pounds to be worth 171. 8s. conclusive evidence of the non-agricul7}d. In the following year the same tural tendency of the Argentine immiauthority gives the value of the wool ex- grants. Out of a population of 1,736,ported at 3,592,6291., distributed as fol- 901, 1,114,160 are disseminated over lows :
500,000 square miles, or barely two 'in
habitants per square mile. On the other Belgium...
. £2,242,536 hand, the density of population in the France.
city of Buenos Ayres is 40,000 per 213,432
square mile, or one-third more than that The Argentine Republic is the favorite of London. The immigrants from Italy field for Italian emigration. Italy supplies remain for the most part in the capital. more than half the number of emigrants Like the Brazilian Government, the who land on these shores, and the influx authorities of Buenos Ayres have made has not hitherto been checked by the some abortive efforts to establish State strong prejudices, with which they are colonies in the Republic. A wiser regarded by the authorities and by the policy has been adopted in the United whole native population. The Italians States. The action of their government settle almost exclusively in the towns,
has been limited to the enactment in and from this circumstance they are ac- 1862 of the liberal homestead law, which quiring by the mere force of numbers a has attracted emigrants to the States in political influence in Buenos Ayres, numbers, increasing rapidly from 76,396 which the Argentines view with bitter in 1861, to 156,844 in 1862, and 258,989 jealousy.
in 1869. In the Argentine Republic the The Italians come here almost ex- principle of free gifts of land has not as clusively in the hope of amassing such yet been accepted. The land law, passed a competency as may enable them to a! Buenos Ayres in 1871, contains proend their days in their native land in visions for the sale of the frontier lands comparative comfort, if not in affluence. in lots of eight square leagues, or 13,300 Of the 140,000 or 150,000 Italians who acres, at prices equal to is. gd. per statute have landed in this Republic since 1862, acre, payable one tenth in cash, and the one-third at least have returned home. remainder in eight yearly instalments. The Italians cannot therefore be The experience of public and private esteemed a valuable addition to the pop- efforts to foster emigration by artificial ulation of the Republic. They seldom means has been equally discouraging in have sufficient enterprise to leave the Brazil and the Argentine Republic. It towns and bring new districts under cul- must be the same in all descriptions of tivation. The great body of the emi- enterprise, where success can only be grants to the United States are men of achieved by much toil and acute intellia very different stamp. They come gence, stimulated to the highest degree almost exclusively from Germany and by the prospect of adequate reward for Great Britain. According to official exertion, and by the conviction that . data,' says Mr. Macdonnell, 400,000 im- there will be none to share or to mitigate migrants land yearly in the United the consequences of indolence or incapacity. It is by technical knowledge in boisterous, the wind gradually increasone case, in another by close attention ing until it blew a hard gale from the to detail, in another by a wise choice of south-east. As a seaport, Buenos Ayres agents, that success in business can be is by no means advantageously situated. attained. In administrative enterprise, An extensive shoal in front of the town whether in the sphere of commerce or makes it necessary for vessels, drawing agriculture, State interference and cor- thirteen feet, to anchor at a distance of porate management are equally inappro- six miles from the shore; and the anpriate.
chorage is exposed to winds from every It is,' says Mr. Burke, 'one of the quarter, except the west. Hence, whenfinest problems in legislation, and what ever strong winds are experienced, and has often engaged my thoughts whilst I they prevail during the greater part of followed that (profession, what the State the year, communication with the shore ought to take upon itself to direct by the becomes always disagreeable, often diffipublic wisdom, and what it ought to cult, and sometimes impracticable. leave with as little interference as possi- The exigencies of this seaport have ble to individual discretion. Nothing, produced a special class of decked whale certainly, can be laid down on the sub- boats, which sail admirably, and are good ject that will not admit of exceptions, sea boats. These useful craft are genemany permanent, some occasional. But rally employed to communicate with the clearest line of distinction which I ships in the outer roadstead. It was in could draw, whilst I had my chalk to one of these whale boats that we landed draw any outline, was this : that the from the ‘Sunbeam,' not without diffiState ought to confine itself to what re- culty, this afternoon. We made a rapid gards the State, or the creatures of the passage, scudding before the wind from State ; namely, the exterior establish- the outer to the inner roadstead; but as ment of its religion, its magistracy, its we approached the shore it was evident revenue, its military force by sea and land, that the operation of landing would be the corporations that owe their existence far from easy. A long pier has been to its fiat; in a word, to everything that built on iron piles. We made for the end is truly and properly public—to the pub- of this pier, but we missed it, and were lic peace, to the public safety, to the pub- obliged to anchor, in order to avoid belic order, to the public prosperity. States- ing driven into the broken waters under men who know themselves will, with the our lee, which were too shallow even for dignity which belongs to wisdom, pro- our whale boat.
our whale boat. In ordinary weather ceed only in this superior orb and first passengers are landed without difficulty mover of their duty, steadily, vigilantly, in small skiffs. Two men put off in one severely, courageously : whatever re- of these boats, to convey us to the shore, mains will, in a manner, provide for it- and after a hard struggle, though the disself. But as they descend from a state tance did not exceed 200 yards, they to a province, from a province to a par- reached the whale boat. I jumped into ish, and from a parish to a private house, the skiff, with my two little girls and two they go on accelerated in their fall. maid-servants. We had a hazardous They cannot do the lower duty, and, in pull through the broken surf to the proportion as they try it, they will cer- landing-place. Once, when the crest of a tainly fail in the higher.'
short wave broke into the boat, the boatI conclude this account of our visit to men seemed on the point of giving up the the Argentine Republic with some ex- attempt to reach the pier; but when I tracts from my Journal describing a jour- seized an oar, and began to pull myself, ney towards the southern frontier of the they resumed their task with redoubled Confederation.
efforts. Example always has a stimulatWe started on the 24th of September; ing effect. Its beneficial influence was and as our disembarkation from the felt in the present case, and in a few * Sunbeam' was the only serious nauti- minutes more our little party, though cal adventure of the whole voyage, it drenched to the skin, was safely landed. shall be described circumstantially. I made two more trips in the same boat, We had remained on board until 4 P.M. the crew being reinforced with a third The weather throughout the day was oarsman. I was truly thankful when all the members of our party were safely nated by a small ring of iron or brass, brought to land.
by which a noose can be formed. The After dining at the excellent Hôtel de gaucho, when he is going to use the lazo, la Paix, we started, at 10 P.m. in a spe- keeps a small coil'in his bridle-hand, and cial train for Azul, the terminus of the in the other holds the running noose, Southern Railway. We reached our
We reached our which is made very large, generally havdestination at 6 A.M. Azul is on the ing a diameter of about eight feet. This southern frontier of the province of he whirls round his head,
and by a dexBuenos Ayres, and distant about 200 terous movement of his wrist keeps the miles from the capital. Until a recent noose open; then, throwing it, he causes period it was often threatened by the In- it to fall on any particular spot he dians, who are only kept at bay at the chooses.' present time by the military force sta- The horses having been brought totioned here, under Colonel Donovan. gether, as I have said, into the corral, One-third of the inhabitants are tame were driven round the enclosure at full Indians. We visited the residence of gallop. Six gauchos, armed with the one of their chiefs. It consists of a mud lazo, then entered the ring, and, singling hut, in a large enclosure formed by mud out a mare or a foal, threw their lazos walls. In the open air, in a corner of at the animal in such a manner as to the yard, there was a fire, round which catch both the front legs. The horse the family of the chieftain, consisting of being caught by the fore legs falls over three women and three children, were on the shoulder with a heavy thud, and crouching. They sat motionless, while must often receive a serious if not a perwe gazed at their not unpleasing counte- manent injury. The gaucho, holding nances, which much resemble those of the legs firmly, proceeds to make a cirthe Indians of North America. They cle round the fallen animal. He gradhave sharp features, high cheek-bones, ually succeeds in catching one of the dark hair, a yellow complexion, and hind legs, draws it close to the fore legs, handsome eyes. When the regular and so binds the three together. After troops go forth to attack the savage this the horse is powerless. After wittribes, they are. accompanied by the nessing for some time the dexterity with same Indians, who act as skirmishers which the lazo can be used, the stallion and scouts. Our host was invited to which had been herded with the troop show us what he could do with the bolas; of mares was singled out and captured. but his hand had lost its cunning, and He had never been ridden before ; and his performance was not wonderful. we were now to see an exhibition of the
The sights of Azul having been ex- rare skill and courage in the saddle, for hausted, we drove to a large estancia, which the gaucho horsemen are famous. about four miles from the town, the The horse, having been thrown by property of Mr. Frere, a German settler.
means of the lazo, as it has already been This gentleman is the proprietor of 36 explained, the process of saddling and square miles of land, and the owner of bridling shall be described in the graphic 50,000 sheep, 2,000 head of cattle, and and accurate language of Mr. Darwin : 400 horses. For our entertainment and The gaucho, sitting on the horse's neck, instruction in the habits and customs of fixes a strong bridle, without a bit, to the pampas, Mr. Frere had kindly the lower jaw : this he does by passing ordered a troop of horses to be driven a narrow thong through the eye-holes at into his corral. Here, for the first time, the end of the reins, and several times we saw the lazo used, and an untamed round both jaw and tongue. The two horse ridden by a domidor.
front legs are now tied closely together For a description of the lazo, I shall with a strong leather thong, fastened refer to the pages of Mr. Darwin : 'The by a slip knot. The lazo, which bound jazo consists of a very strong, but thing the three together, being then loosed, well-plaited rope made of raw hide. the horse rises with difficulty. The One end is attached to the broad sur- gaucho, now holding fast the bridle cingle, which fastens together the com- fixed to the lower jaw, leads the horse plicated gear of the recado, or saddle outside the corral. If a second man is used in the pampas; the other is termi- present (otherwise the trouble is much
greater), he holds the animal's head, nessing this most remarkable feat of whilst the first puts on the horse-cloths. horsemanship, we bade farewell to our When the saddling is finished; the ani- host, and returned to the railway, esmal is, from fear and the previous exer corted by Colonel Donovan. We owe tion, white with foam and sweat.' much to his kindness in preparing for
The process, as described by Mr. Darwin, was closely followed in the pres In our walks with the Colonel this mornent instance. A sheepskin, however, ing, we heard many interesting narratives was substituted for a saddle, and the of warfare with the wild Indians. These domidor, or horse-breaker, only used naked horsemen of the pampas fight the stirrup to mount his horse. Before bravely, but they cannot resist the Remhe was saddled the horse made tremen- ington breech-loading rifle. When the regdous struggles to get free, but a powerful ular troops advance to the attack, the Inand active gaucho, arrayed in a red dians rarely make a stand. Nevertheless, shirt, black riding-boots-his long black within the last twelve months, Colonel hair streaming in the wind-altogether a Donovan has fought four engagements most striking and picturesque personage, with bands of marauders, and on a reheld him firmly with the halter, and by cent occasion rescued 30,000 head of the exertion of great muscular strength cattle, which had been stolen. The Inwas enabled to resist the 'struggler. At dians sell all the cattle to the Chilians. length the domidor mounted his hitherto They have therefore to drive their spoil unridden charger. The lazo was cast for a great distance, and, unless their loose from the fore legs, and the animal, operations were conducted on a large pursued by a gaucho on horseback, who scale, they would make but small profit plied him sharply with the whip, and by their hazardous enterprises. At the harassed by a troop of dogs, barking date of our visit it was in contemplation furiously at his heels, was free to do his to advance the Argentine frontier surutmost to throw his rider. The great ther south, and to defend it by a chain object was to keep the horse in constant of forts and a deep ditch. According and rapid movement. While at a hard to the statement in the last Presidential gallop, the horse could neither kick nor message, this plan has been carried out. plunge in such a manner as to disturb The new frontier on the south has been the equilibrium of an accomplished formed from Bahia Blanca, on the coast, horseman; but when, as it happened in 39° S. latitude, to Rio Quinto, in the from time to time, the horse stopped interior, in 34° s. latitude and 64° W. abruptly, arched his back, threw his longitude. Its length is 381 miles, and head down, and then made a great buck it is defended by seven principal forts jump, executing, in a strange way, a fig- with villages attached, and by 119 block ure of coin mid air, alighting on his houses and smaller forts. Where the fore legs, and with his hind legs kicking country is most exposed to the incurdesperately, it required horsemanship sions of the Indians, a fosse has been and muscular power of no ordinary dug, 65 miles long, and telegraphic comkind on the part of his rider to keep his munication has been established for a seat unshaken. The domidor scarcely distance of 200 miles. touched the bridle; but he clasped the It is proposed to fortify a similar fronhorse with a grip of iron, his knees tier line on the west, extending from Rio were buried deep in the sheepskin sad- Quinto to Fort San Rafael in Mendoza. dle, and his bare heels were fixed as The President speaks of the success of firmly as with a vice under the horse's these works with the utmost confidence. belly. After many a desperate rush, As we travelled on our return journey many a vehement struggle, and many from Azul, by daylight, we were enabled furious gallops to and fro, guided in his to see the richness of the pastures of mad erratic course by the lash of his Buenos Ayres. The soil produces luxrider, and the attendant gaucho, the uriant crops of lucerne. In winter the wild horse was brought back to the cor- thistles cover the ground, in some disral, exhausted, and for the moment sub- tricts, with masses of green leaves. In dued by the power of his rider and his summer they rise to a height of 12 feet, own unaccustomed efforts. After wit- so that it is impossible to traverse the