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temporaries. It is, in one word, a want under all this stately rhetoric; there are of vital force. His writing is pitched in none of those vivid phases which reveal too low a key. He is not invigorating, minds moved by strong passions and exstimulating, capable of fascinating us by cited by new aspects of the world. The the intensity of his conceptions. His sails of his verse are not, in Chapman's highest range is a dignified melancholy phrase, "filled with a lusty wind,” but or a certain chivalrous recognition of the moving at best before a steady breath of noble side of human nature. The art romantic sentiment, and sometimes flapwhich he represents is still a genuine and ping rather ominously for want of true spontaneous growth instead of an artifi. impulse. High thinking may still be cial manufacture. He is not a mere there, but it is a little self-conscious, and professor of deportment, or maker of fine in need of artificial stimulant The old phrases. The days of mere affectation strenuous line has disappeared, or gone have not yet arrived; but, on the other elsewhere-perhaps to excite a Puritan hand, there is an absence of that grand imagination, and create another incarvehemence of soul which breathes in the nation of the old type of masculine vigor spontaneous, if too lawless, vigor of the in the hero of Paradise Lost.Cornhill older race. There is something hollow Magazine.


A BLACK and glassy float, opaque and still,

The loch, at farthest ebb supine in sleep,

Reversing, mirrored in its luminous deep,
The quiet skies; the solemn spurs of hill,

Brown heather, yellow corn, gray wisps of haze;

The white low cots, black windowed, plumed with smoke;

The trees beyond. And when the ripple awoke,
They wavered with the jarred and wavering glaze.

The air was dim and dreamy. Evermore

A sound of hidden waters whispered near.

A straggler crow cawed high and thin. A bird

Chirped from the birch-leaves. Round the shingled shere,

Yellow with weed, came wandering, vague and clear,
Mysterious vowels and gutturals, idly heard.

Cornhill Magasine.




nesses received, and of regret at part

ing. At last the hour had come for our de Limits of space forbid that I should parture from Rio. At 6 A.M. on Tues- enter upon the details of our passage to day, the 5th of September, the Sun- the River Plate. On the 7th and 8th of beam's' anchors were weighed. As we September we experienced a severe gale parted company with our kind friends from the north. On the 11th we reached on board H.M.S. 'Volage' and the gun- Montevideo, and on the following day boat 'Ready,' we exchanged appropriate we steamed up to Buenos Ayres. signals of good wishes for mutual pros The estuary of the Plate is the emperous voyages, of gratitude for kind- bouchure of one vast system of rivers.


The Parana is navigable for a thousand

Imports. Exports. miles, above Buenos Ayres and the Total...... .£13,285,766.....£9,024,081

Of which
upper Parana is navigable through the in-
terior of Brazil for another thousand miles.

England..... 3,868,824... 1,978,861
France.. 3,645,027.

1,735,563 The navigation of the river Plate is diffi

Belgium.. 593,517 2,778, 301 cult. The channels run in a tortuous United States.. 1,033,523.... 606,589 course between extensive mud flats. They are not buoyed, and are very im- It was one of the principal objects of perfectly lighted. The currents my visit to this country to examine the rapid and so uncertain as to baffle the colonies established on the line of the prophetic powers of the most experi- Central Argentine Railway. As the son enced pilots. Hence the risk of losing a of the senior member of the firm of convessel is considerable, and the actual tractors, by whom it was constructed, I losses are even more than proportionate could not but regard that undertaking to the unavoidable risk incurred. No with peculiar interest. It is described attempt seems to have been made to or- by Messrs. Mulhall, the authors of an ganise means for the salvage of vessels, excellent Argentine Handbook, as the which have been driven on to the banks greatest work ever contemplated in the and shoals. In the present state of the Republic, and a lasting monument of law of insurance every inducement is that distinguished American, the late Mr. held out to the owner of a worn-out ship Wheelwright, the friend and townsman to bring her career to a close on one of of Mr. Peabody, by whom the concesthe mud-banks in the Plate. There is sion was obtained in 1853. no ground for apprehension that the dis- The line of the Central Argentine tance from the land will be too great, or Company connects Rosario with Cordothe sea too tempestuous for a boat to va, and forms the first section of a raillive in it. Thus the crew will be saved, way, which it was proposed by the origiwhile the sums recoverable from the un- nal projectors to carry across the Andes, derwriters will provide the means of re

and thus establish a continuous line of placing a decayed or obsolete ship by communication between Valparaiso and the purchase of a new vessel.

the west coast of South America and the I cannot attempt to give a general River Plate. This extensive plan is description of the Argentine Republic. gradually being carried into execution. According to the recent report of Consul The line to Cordova was last year exCowper it contains upwards of 2,000,000 tended to Tucuman, a distance of 340 inhabitants, and its superficial area is miles, and surveys for an extension to estimated at 1,000,000 square miles, situ- Jujuy have already been commenced. ated under every variety of climate. All Civil wars intervening, the scheme the productions of the temperate zone projected by Mr. Wheelwright lay in are to be found in its central provinces, abeyance until 1852, when Congress gave which enjoy a climate unsurpassed by a new concession. Interest at 7 per any region of the globe.

cent. was guaranteed for forty years, on With all the disadvantages of constant a capital not exceeding 6,4001. a mile, and political disturbances, and most imper- a free grant was made of a league of fect security both for person and prop- land on either side of the line. The exerty, the Argentine Confederation has tent of this grant was no less than 600,advanced with marvellous strides. In a acres. This territory has since speech delivered in 1873 at Buenos passed into the hands of an association, Ayres, Dr. Rawson, an ex-minister, which has endeavored to introduce pointed out that the foreign commerce Scotch, Swiss, and Italian colonists into of the Republic had advanced from the country. Their operations have not 26,000,000 dollars in 1862, to 80,000,000 been attended with success; and I have in 1872; and that immigration had in- been requested to examine into the state creased in the corresponding period, of affairs in the colonies, and to advise from 5,000 to 40,000. În this extensive as to their future management. commerce Great Britain has obtained an The distance from Rosario to Cordova important share, as the following figures is 247 miles. The country traversed testify :

presents few physical features of special


interest. The province of Rosario is a bushels, however, are often grown. Congrassy plain. After the boundary be- sul Joel

, in his report for 1875, quotes a tween the provinces of Rosario and Cor- case that had come under his own obdova is passed, the aspect of the country servation in Roldan, one of our colonies, becomes more arid. There are extensive where a colonist sowed 61 bushels on 81 tracts of deserts, producing only a few acres, and cropped 360 bushels, which stunted bushes. We saw deer and os- was over 40 bushels to the acre. The triches more than once from the foot- seed was white wheat, which is used explate of the engine. A few bands of In- clusively in this country for the manufacdians, not more domesticated in their ture of macaroni. The average yield of habits than the indigenous animals, and the colonies in 1875 was 1274 bushels far more savage and cruel in their na

per acre. ture, roam over these vast wastes, and It will be evident from these figures occasionally attack an isolated estancia. that arable cultivation would yield a

The native inhabitants are almost ex- highly satisfactory return, but for the clusively occupied as graziers, whether frequent invasion of the locusts. of sheep or cattle. With the view, how- periodical visits are a most grievous

ever, of attracting a more numerous pop- scourge. They destroy, in a few hours, i ulation, and thus creating a busy traffic crops, orchards, and vegetation of all

on the railway, an attempt was made to kinds. While riding over Messrs. Hope's introduce arable cultivation on the lands farm, we saw 1,000 acres of wheat which conceded to the Central Argentine Rail- was just beginning to shoot, in the very way Company. For this purpose the process of being eaten up. The locusts land was divided into plots of 80 acres were so numerous that they both darkeach, and settlers were introduced from ened the air, and covered the earth with Europe. All their expenses were paid a swarm so dense, that the blades of corn by the company, and each was provided were only just visible here and there. with a small hut and a well on his allot- A horse walking through the wheat ment. The first colonies were laid out caused them to rise in myriads. It was in the vicinity of the stations nearest the possible that the wheat might partially Rosario Terminus. Five of these colon- recover, provided there were abundant ies have been formed, with a total popu- rains after the locusts had departed, but lation of 4,524 Europeans and 1,000 na- even then they might reappear and retive settlers. The largest of these is sume the work of destruction. It will Roldan, with a population of 2,369. The be evident that the locust in South Amemore fertile lands will produce abundant rica rivals the Colorado beetle in omicrops of wheat for four years in succes- nous and surprising capability for doing sion, without manure, or a rotation of evil. The periodical recurrence of this green crops. A station master on the terrible scourge makes it impossible for line rents 3,000 acres of land, of which the farmer in these countries to rely on 1,000 acres were sown with wheat. In

tillage alone. Tillage must be combined 1875 he raised six bushels of wheat per with pasture. The experience of the acre, at a cost of 115., the selling price natives, who are the most successful setbeing 225. The unsettled condition of tlers, has taught them this lesson.

On commercial affairs in the Argentine Re- the four leagues adjacent to Rosario, republic is clearly indicated in the extraor- served by the Government from exprodinary fluctuations in the prices of wheat. priation, and occupied exclusively by In Rosario, in 1876, the highest price the natives, there is no tillage, but vast was 525. the bushel. This lasted for a herds of cattle and large flocks of sheep very short time only. The price then are reared, and render an ample return fell to about 255., at which figure it stood to the estancieros. for more than six months. These oscil- In riding through the colonies a conlations are a great drawback to farmers, spicuous difference is apparent between and make it almost impossible for them the condition of the individual colonists. to borrow capital for agricultural opera- Two men will be found, living side by tions.

side, who commenced colonial life under As a rule a crop of nine bushels of precisely equal conditions, having no capwheat per acre pays well. Twenty ital, but with 8c acres of land assigned to

them for cultivation. Of these the one policy to be adopted in the management is prosperous, the owner of the land he of these estates in the future. The grave uses, and free from debt to the company. error of introducing emigrants from His neighbor will have paid neither Europe at the expense of the company principal nor interest on the purchase- is not likely to be repeated. The spemoney of his land, he will have done noth- cial case of the colonists at Tortugas exing to reduce his indebtedness for money cepted, no further expenditure should be advanced to him, and at the same time incurred, whether in giving aid to those be living in a state of semi-starvation and already settled on our lands, or in atmisery. In such cases, and they are tracting new settlers. common, you generally discover an ob The natives, and foreigners, who have vious explanation in the bright intelli- already had experience in this country, gent countenance of the one, and the succeed best, and are the most regular in dull heavy look of the other. Yet there their payments. The policy of the comare doubtless numerous instances of un- pany is to sit still, and to be prepared to deserved misfortunes.

negotiate sales with all comers, who can The most unhappy of the colonies show that they possess sufficient reestablished on the line of the Central sources to justify them in making an Argentine Railway, is situated at a sta- agreement to purchase land. There will tion called Tortugas. For three years in be no lack of suitable settlers. Italian succession the crops have been destroyed Protestants have of late been removing by locusts, drought, and hailstones. The from the north to settle on our land. drought is a misfortune peculiar to this These men are thrifty, industrious, and colony. The other drawbacks are felt acquainted with the most effective methmore or less in every part of the Argen- ods of tilling land in these countries. tine Confederacy. I conversed at length, It has already been stated that the with the manager, on the condition and concession of land from the Government prospects of the people under his charge. to the Railway Company formed a vast Unless their crop, which has already territory of no less than 146 square been devoured by locusts, recovered, leagues. Its value, however, is but their situation would be utterly hopeless. small, and the prices, low as they are, I very strongly urged the necessity of which may ultimately be expected, can removing a portion of the colonists into only be realised in a long lapse of time. a more favorable district, should the I give the figures as an indication of the coming harvest again prove a failure. wild character of the country in the Nothing will be sacrificed by the adop- South American republics. tion of such a course. The colonists Forty-two leagues of the concession have brought 2000 squares (each of 4£ are situated within the province of Santa acres in extent) under cultivation, and Fé, of which Rosario is the capital. The the valuation of the cultivation was for- value of these lands is 6,000l. a league. merly estimated at ios. a square. But Ten leagues of marshy land in the same the colonists themselves are now so thor- province are worth 3,000l. a league. oughly disheartened, that they would Ninety-four leagues are in the province willingly leave their present lands with- of Cordova. The district is an uninhabout compensation, if they were to receive ited desert, and the value of the land an allotment of an equal area of untilled does not exceed 500l. a square league. land in a more promising situation. I quitted the colonies of the Central Their dwellings being built of clods Argentine Land Company profoundly of earth, or dried bricks, have no value, impressed with the conviction that all except for the roof and tiles, and the lat- attempts to stimulate emigration artifiter could be taken down and carted to cially are full of hazard. another site. The removal would not Starting on the 22nd of September we involve the company in any expense, as inade an interesting excursion into the the settlers would be prepared to convey province of Buenos Ayres. Proceeding their scanty possessions in their own twenty miles by railway and ten miles in carts to their new allotments.

carriages over the pampas, we reached a Having briefly described the actual large farm, belonging to one of the princondition of the colonies, I turn to the cipal tramway companies of the city. New SERIES.–VOL. XXVI., No. 6


The farm is 2,500 acres in extent, and dupois. The arroba should sell for 75 dolconsists of good pasture land, watered lars; and taking off 10 dollars for the by a brimming brook. It was purchased expenses of shearing, baling, and other a few years ago for 8,000l., and no less charges, there remains a profit of 65 dolthan 24,000l. has been offered for the lars a ton, or (115. per arroba, or a total property within the last six months. A return of 2201, from each flock of 2,000 hundred men are here employed as sheep. The positive expenses for the horsekeepers, and in gathering in the maintenance of such a flock, including hay and green crops required for a stud the rent of land and the wages of the of 800 horses. The wages of the farm shepherd, are from 12ol. to 150l. a year. laborers, or peons, are al. a month. They The wool alone should pay all the exare lodged and found at an additional penses of the Argentine sheep-owner, cost of thirty shillings a month.

and a profit of 5 per cent on the capital Lucerne is the most advantageous embarked. The tallow and the new food for cattle in this country. Five stock are a clear additional profit. In crops are obtained every year. Of good years, the profits realised in this maize the return is ample. Oats are a country are much larger than in Austrafailure : nothing but straw is produced. lia. On the other hand the risks from 'Wheat,' says Sir Woodbine Parish, “re- drought are greater. The calculations quires the cooler climate of the southern I have given are based on statements part of the provinces.' Flax and hemp furnished to me by gentlemen of long have been tried with success. The vine, experience, who have had many opporthe orange, the fig, and the peach flour- tunities of comparing their results with ish luxuriantly, especially the latter. those obtained in Australia. It is, howThe price of lean stock is about thirty ever, possible that an Australian sheepshillings a head. When fatted, which farmer might be disposed to modify the takes about three months on good land, figures in favor of his own country. the same cattle will fetch 41. a head. The same subject was ably discussed Horses not broken can be bought for by Mr. Macdonnell in the report, which 31., and will generally stand regular work he wrote when Chargé d'Affaires at in the tramway cars for a period of five Buenos Ayres. He does not advise emyears. Cattle for forming herds are ob- igrants to come to the River Plate with ainable at from 18s. to 20s. per head. the view of engaging in agriculture; for

From the tramway farm we drove to though the soil, consisting of marine and the estancia of Mr. B-, and on the alluvial deposit, is remarkably fertile, yet following morning I rode round his there are numerous obstacles to successfarm. It contains 25,000 sheep, which ful cultivation, including sudden changes are fed on 3,820 squares of land, each of temperature, violent storms of wind, of 43 acres in extent. In the province dust, and rain, long-continued droughts, of Buenos Ayres it is commonly esti- heavy and persistent rains, locusts, mated that from 20,000 to 17,000 sheep bichos, basket-worms, and ants.' can be fed on a league of superior land. Mr. Macdonnell recommends sheepIf this assuniption can be justified by farming as the most lucrative occupation experience, land in the Argentine Con- in which British settlers can engage. federation will carry more sheep than an Cattle-farming is mostly in the hands of equal area in Australia. Here three natives, many of whom have made large sheep can be fed on one acre. In Aus- fortunes. Herds of cattle require extentralia three acres are required to feed sive pastures, and can be kept most adone sheep. In the Argentine Confedera- vantageously in the outlying provinces, ation wool can be produced for 4d. per where land is cheap. For sheep a less pound. In Australia unwashed wcol extent of land is necessary, but it should could not be produced under 9d. per be of superior quality. pound. The Australian wool is now The natural grasses of Buenos Ayres nearly as burry as the Argentine, but the possess admirable fattening qualities, and former has a superior staple. In the the flocks produce a description of wool Argentine Confederation a flock of 2,000 especially adapted for fine kersey cloths, sheep should produce 400 arrobas of wool, and extensively consumed in France and an arroba weighing 25 35 pounds avoir- Belgium. The yarn spun from it in the

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