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sumed, without renunciation, the Caliph- Mecca, who presented to him on a silver ate in his stead-for the point, though dish the keys of the Caaba; and this full of importance, is not historically clear. and entire surrender of the rights of the

Before pursuing it, however, the re- Imáneth, made on the one hand by an mark already incidentally made may Abbasside Caliph, and on the other by a here be repeated-that it clearly results Schérif of Mecca-both descendants from what precedes that up to this ad- of the Koreïsh, the one by the Hasvanced point in the history of the office chim branch and the other by that of no specific rule of succession had been Ali-compensated in the Ottoman Sulestablished. The sequence of its first tans for the defect of birth or of the exfour occupants had virtually been elect- traction required by the law to qualify ive, while that of the legitimate Ommiade for the legitimate exercise of the pontifiand Abbasside dynasties that followed cate.' He furnishes, however, a pracwas in the main hereditary, the catena- tically much better argument for this tion being, however, in later years fre- legitimacy in the accommodating proquently broken by the arbitrary choice nouncement of the Foussoul-Isteroucheny, of the temporal Sultans, who only a canonical commentary of great repute. so far respected legitimacy as to select 'The authority of a prince who has even their nominees from the sacred lineage, usurped the supreme priesthood by force without regard to their degree of rela- and violence must still be recognized as tionship to the preceding Caliph. The legitimate, since the sovereign power is fact too that, besides these arbitrary dis- now reputed to vest in the person of the posals of the dignity, there were, after strongest ruler, whose right to command Ali, three separate descents of it to as is founded on his arms.' In other many different dynasties—with a lacuna words, in sacerdotalism as in politics : of nearly four years between the extinction of the Abbassides at Baghdad and

He may take who has the power,

And he may keep who can. the revival of their line at Cairo-is fatal to any theory of apostolical succession If this were so beyond question, and in the office, for which, down to the sug- independently of race, the title of the gested usurpation of Selim I., Mr. Baillie Ottoman Sultans would be indisputable, seems to contend. As little circumstan- since for more than three centuries and tial support, however, is there for the a half they have been the chief Mussulcontention that the office throughout its man sovereigns of the world. But the history was, and still is, elective. The historical precedents are all opposed to apostolical current (to speak in the mod- such a doctrine. It was indeed in a ern language of electricians) clearly end- sense by force of arms that both the ed with the last of the four 'true' Ca- Ommiade and first Abbasside dynasties liphs and election equally then ceased to were founded ; but their princes were of be the rule in all three of the legitimate the pure Arab blood, and could claim dynasties that followed--as à fortiori it descent, more or less direct, from one or has never been with the Ottoman Sul- other of the first sacred four; nor is tans, with whom the succession to both there, as Dr. Badger-who stoutly affirms spiritual and temporal sovereignty is by the spuriousness of the Ottoman pontifidescent to the eldest agnate of the fam- cate-observes, any instance on record, ily. Their title to the Caliphate must, or any authority whatever, sanctioning therefore, be tried by other tests. the transfer of the office by an individ

D'Ohsson,* without citing any con- ual, or its bestowal on one of an alien temporary authority, asserts the renunci- race. But Mr. Baillie goes beyond this ation, and says that, 'according to the negative evidence, and quotes D'Ohsson unanimous opinion of modern jurists'- in support of his averment that Mohamwhom, however, he does not mention- ined himself declared that the 'Imams the right of legitimate succession was must be of the race of the Koreïsh'-the thereby acquired by the Sultans. 'Se- very pure-blooded Arab tribe to which lim I.,' he adds, ‘further received in the the first four Caliphs and their Ommiade same year the homage of the Schérif of and Abbasside successors belonged-a

condition which, if essential, is of course * Tableau général de l'Empire Ottoman, i. 269. fatal to the claim of the Padishahs. Mr.

Redhouse, however-who defends the and Zanzibar, and their subjects-though Ottoman title, but whose logic in the Soonis—have never recognized the validcontroversy is not quite equal to his zeal ity of Motowakkel's act, and so regard -throws doubt on the authenticity of this Ottoman pontificate as heretical and this dictum, and, without combating the corrupt. But they are only a handful fact that it figures in the abridgment of amongst the many millions of the orthoOmer Nessefy, which holds the place of dox faithful who, from the Danube to a catechism in the Mussulman schools, Borneo, now reverence Abdul Hamid as says 'it would seem to be a safe conclu- Vicar of the Prophet; and neither their sion that there never was a Prophetic in- petty recusancy nor the greater schism junction to this effect.' But the safety of the Shiites-who have never recogof this conclusion is not quite apparent nized any Caliph since Hassan, the son in view of its direct rebuttal by an au of Ali-materially affects the value of a thority whom D'Ohsson regards as the title which, whatever may have been its soul and essence of Mussulman doctrine.' original flaws, has been otherwise generCertain it is, too, that the whole of the ally acknowledged for three hundred Arab dynasties—including the anti-Cal- and sixty years. Even Dr. Badger, iphates of the Fatimites and the Spanish therefore, while arguing against the Abbassides-claimed descent from the claim, perforce admits that the Ottoman Koreish tribe, a fact that supports a pre- Khalifate, in fact, as distinct from the sumption at least in favor of the limitation Sultanate, stands in the same position contended for by Mr. Baillie. If, there- towards Islâm as the Popedom does fore, the question were being argued on towards Christendom'-a measure of legithe morrow of the event, judicial logic timacy and practical authority which would on this ground alone compel a re most politicians at least will think suffi. jection of the Ottoman claim ; for the cient. whole weight of the evidence is in favor To gather up and restate, therefore, of the dictum cited by Mr. Baillie, and in the elements of this so-called problema theocratic system founded on such ut- the office of Caliph was, in the case of terances its great authority must be ad- its first four universally acknowledged mitted. But, in matters of dogma as occupants, elective; in that of both the with matters of fact, time and circum- Ommiade and Abbasside dynasties that stances effect and legitimize important followed, and which are similarly recog. changes. In both Christianity and Islâm nized by all Mussulmans except the many points of now accepted doctrine schismatic Sniites, it was virtually herediwould have been rank heresy one, two, tary; then followed, as has been said, three, or five centuries ago, just as in a lacuna of some four years, during which secular affairs we all know how often the line of succession was wholly broken, success has sanctified treason. Selim to be re-established in the historically not only obtained from Motowakkel the doubtful founder of the Egyptian Abbasforced or voluntary renunciation of his sides, who was partly dominated by the office, but, as already mentioned, induced Mamlouk Sultan and partly chosen by the Schérif of Mecca—the next highest his Ulema, as was also his immediate religious authority of the Mussulman

Thence on till the extinction world, and himself of the pure Koreïsh of this dynasty, again, the rule of descent blood-to openly recognize the validity was also in effect hereditary, though not of the transfer. Nor was this all: always in the direct line. But throughthrough the influence of this venerated out this long succession of nearly a thoupersonage he won to his allegiance most sand years these Caliphs, from Aboubekr of the chief Desert tribes, and from Suez to Motowakkel, were or claimed to be to Aden was everywhere acknowledged members of what may be termed the Leas both Caliph and King. Since then vitical Koreïsh tribe, to which there is the temporal authority of the Sultans strong authority for saying Mohammed along the Arabian coast, and inland over himself declared every occupant of the Yemen, has greatly fluctuated, but their sacred office must belong. "Up to this claim to religious supremacy has never point, too, there is, as bas been observed, been substantially disputed. True it is no instance on record of the office havthat the Imâms, or Sultans, of Muscating been transferred by an individual oc


cupant of it, and least of all to a mem- the Ottoman Sultans has been condoned ber of an alien race. In the teeth, how- and sanctioned by the general Mussulever, of this negatively proved canon the man world, from Bosnia to Kashgar. In last of the Egyptian Abbassides, either fact, time and a consensus of Mussulman voluntarily or under pressure of force, opinion have created for the house of renounced the dignity in favor of the Othman quite as good a title to the office Ottoman Sultan Selim I.—by blood a as could be claimed for any of the dyTartar-on that prince's conquest of nasties since Ali and Hassan. For all Egypt; and from him the office has purposes of practical politics, therefore, since descended, conjointly with the the validity of this must now be recogtemporal Sultanate, to the present sover- nized. The notion that there ever was eign, Abdul Hamid. If the premises of anything like an apostolical succession the argument ended here, it would be in the office is as exploded as our own safe to affirm with Dr. Badger, Mr. Bail- old dogma of Divine right; and, that lie, and 'G. B.' that the Ottoman claims cleared away, it is—with all respect to to the dignity are both canonically and the eminent scholars who blunt their historically untenable. But the syllogism pens against an accomplished and now is practically upset by the authoritative unchangeable fact-mere Quixotism to expediency of the Foussoul-Isteroucheny, dispute a claim which Mussulmans themalready quoted, and by the more sub- selves all but universally acknowledge. stantial fact still that for more than three Fraser's Magazine. centuries and a half this' usurpation' of



We make in this number another ad- number of her students, and achieved a redition to our series of portraits of emi- putation which has placed her among the nent American educators, in the person foremost educational institutions in the of the venerable Mark Hopkins, who for land. From a position little better than the long period of thirty-six years pre- that of a good local school he raised it sided over Williams College, and who to the level of a national fame and instill holds an important position in the fluence; and his name will always fill corps of instructors of that institution. an honored place in the educational

MARK HOPKINS is a grandson of annals of America. Mark Hopkins, an officer in the war of In addition to his labors as an instructhe Revolution, and subsequently a law- tor, Dr. Hopkins has been a frequent yer

of considerable reputation. He was lecturer before scientific and literary born at Stockbridge, Mass., on the 4th associations, and, besides a number of of February, 1802. He was graduated at occasional sermons and addresses, he has Williams College in 1824, and having published a number of works evincing filled a tutorship in the college for two high intellectual culture as well as liteyears, received in 1828 the degree of rary skill.“ Among them," says a M.D., and in the same year commenced writer in the Cyclopædia 'of Education, the practice of medicine in New York " that which illustrates best his peculiarCity. In 1830 he was recalled to Wil- ly lucid mode of teaching difficult subliams College to fill the chair of rhetoric jects is An Outline Study of Man' and moral philosopliy, and in 1836 suc- (New York, 1873), which is a model of ceeded Dr. Griffin as President of the the developing method as applied to incollege, a position which he held con- tellectual science, as well as of blacktinuously until 1872. In the latter year, board illustration.” Presiding over a being then “the oldest college president college which has been called the cradle in America,” he resigned executive du- of foreign missions, he has also taken an ties and resumed his old position as pro- active part in the deliberations of the fessor of mental and moral philosophy. American Board of Commissioners for Under his supervision Williams College Foreign Missions, of which, for a number greatly increased her resources and the of years after 1857, he was president.


EGYPT As It Is. By J. C. McCoan. With present Khedive more impressive than all the

a Map Taken from the Most Recent Survey. fulsome eulogies that have been penned in New York : Henry Holt & Co.

such numbers by enthusiastic travellers durThe character and scope of this work will

ing the past twenty years. be sufficiently indicated perhaps by saying

As regards the attractiveness of the book, it that it was prepared as a companion volume

is evidently designed rather for instruction to Wallace's“Russia”and Baker's “Turkey,” than amusement ; and yet it presents many and its quality by saying that it is worthy to

features of interest even for readers who fill a place beside those admirable works on

usually seek mere entertainment. The article the library shelf. It lacks the wide comprehen- on “ Slavery in Egypt" which appeared in the siveness of Mr. Wallace's treatise, for more than August number of the ECLECTIC forms a one elaborate volume would be required to deal chapter of the work, and affords a fair example satisfactorily with the history, antiquities, and

of the author's skill in investing the most social life of Egypt, and each of these several hackneyed topics with new and suggestive branches of the subject is already illustrated interest; and it is always pleasant to follow a by a quite voluminous literature. Mr. Mc- well-informed, clear-headed, and lucid writer Coan's object is to furnish a comprehensive through the intricacies of an important and account of the material, economic, and ad

intricate subject. Mr. McCoan is never dull ministrative condition of the country as it is at

even when dealing with statistics; and when. the present time; and though he performs the

ever he describes persons, or events, or role of historian sufficiently to give a vivid natural scenery, or social customs and characsketch of the principal events that have mark- teristics, he shows all the vividness and vigor ed the annals of Egypt since the accession of of style which we should expect in the veteran Mehemet Ali, and makes use of the researches

editor of the Levant Herald. of antiquarians wherever they can be made to The map contained in the volume, better serve the purposes of illustration, he confines

than any other yet published, depicts Egypt himself chiefly to practical matters, and to an

from the Mediterranean to the equator. explanation of the causes that have produced the great national revival which in little more

CHRISTIANITY AND HUMANITY: A Series of than half a century has lifted Egypt from the

Sermons by Thomas Starr King. Edited,

with a Memoir, by Edwin P. Whipple. position of an obscure and despised depend

Boston: J. R. Osgood & Co. ency of the Porte to one in which it is recognized as the most civilized and progressive of In view of the remarkably wide popularity existing Oriental states. Agriculture and which Starr King had attained both as manufacturing industries, commerce, finances, preacher and as lecturer, it would seem as if population and territory, public works, the some literary memorial of his character and educational system, judicial reforms, slavery, work would long ago have been forthcoming. and administration—these are the principal He died in 1864, when his reputation and intopics that engage the author's attention ; and fluence were at their zenith, and when thouupon all these he furnishes vastly more and sands of hearts in the East as in the West better materials for a satisfactory judgment were thrilled with loving remembrances of than have hitherto been accessible to the gen- him; and a thirteen years' lease of oblivion is eral reader. A considerable portion of this a longer term than his admiring friends should material has been gathered from the govern- have allowed him. Tardy though it be, howmental archives and the best official and pri- ever, the present memorial volume, with its vate sources, and the whole was corrected promised successors, will doubtless find a and confirmed by lengthened personal visits large circle of eager readers, including many to Egypt made by the author for the special whose interest in Mr. King is a transmitted purposes of investigation. His statistical feeling derived from those who had known information is particularly full and precise, him personally or participated in his inteland, considering the difficulty of procuring lectual ministrations, The twenty-two sersuch data in a country like Egypt, forms a mons which it contains represent, as Mr. praiseworthy feature of the work; and the Whipple says, the average excellence of Mr. evident impartiality with which he approaches King's weekly discourses, and though they the entire subject, combined with this ampli- cannot be regarded as brilliant examples of tude of knowledge, renders his hopeful view pulpit eloquence they certainly justify the of the future of the country and his favorable esteem in which he was held as a preacher to opinion of the character and intentions of the cultivated audiences. In exaltation of senti. of mere reiteration. All that he has to say the troubles and agitations that heralded the final catastrophe, and the topics which it dis

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ment, in subtlety of thought, and in polish of authoritative writers. Those who are already style, they are inferior to Channing's; but familiar with the principles of political econthere is a sweet serenity of tone about them, a omy, and especially with the literary masterfervor of conviction, a keenness of insight pieces that have given the science such high into the perplexities of the human heart, a intellectual claims upon the attention of think. varied picturesqueness and force of expres- ers, would doubtless be wearied by Mr. Jer. sion, and a wooing persuasiveness of argu. vis's simple arguments, rambling repetitions, ment, that give them a place apart from, if and ungrammatical sentences; but it is to the not above, the ordinary standards of compari. unlettered laboring-classes that he specifically son. To minds perplexed by recent histori- addresses himself, and upon such classes, if cal criticism and the seeming encroachments they can be induced to read it, his treatise will of science they will prove especially helpful ; unquestionably make a profound and wholefor Mr. King enforces with peculiar emphasis some impression. The cardinal doctrine which the vital truth that religion appeals not to the he teaches is that which About concisely sums understanding but to the soul, and that its up in the epigram : Capital is the instru. testimonies are to be sought in the lives of ment civilization has put into the hands of men and not in their meagre historical labor.” This sound and healthful doctrine he records.

emphasizes over and over again, and illustrates But perhaps the most valuable as it is cer. from the practical experiences of every-day tainly the most enjoyable portion of the vol- life. His sympathy with the unavoidable hard. ume is the brief biographical sketch prefixed ships of the workingman's lot is frank and unto the sermons. To know what a good man mistakable, but the whole tone of his thought is is vastly more improving than to know is manly and practical, and offers a wholesome simply what he says, and Mr. Whipple's affec. antidote to the weak sentimentalism with which tionate and eloquent memoir brings Mr. King the discussion of the labor question is too often before us with remarkable vividness. “To befogged. The following paragraph-a fair know him was to love him,” says Mr. Whip- specimen at once of his teaching and of his ple; and we may add that this memoir unpolished directness of speech—is worthy of awakens in the reader something of the rev- being extensively reproduced : The sentierent, tender, and admiring sentiment with ment that labor is worth so much, or more or which Mr. King seems to have inspired all less, is without foundation. It is worth just who enjoyed the privilege of intimate per

what it will command in the market, same as sonal contact with him.

any other commodity. There is no other phi

losophy than this. The benevolent idea that THE QUESTION OF LABOR AND Capital. By wages should be such as to yield a fair sup

John B. Jervis, Civil Engineer. New York: port, is necessarily indefinite, and has little or G. P. Putnam's Sons.

no application in the commerce of men. BusiIn these days of a universal printing-press would the charitable view comport with the

ness is one thing and charity another. Nor any social convulsion is sure to be speedily dignity of labor, or lead to any other than the reflected in literature, and the recent great railroad strike has already elicited a goodly pauper or semi-pauper plan, which no ablenumber of treatises, in addition to the multi. bodied American citizen should respect, or tudinous comments upon it in the periodical propose for his support." press. Mr. Jervis's book on “The Question

The chief fault of Mr. Jervis's book arises of Labor and Capital” was apparently written

from his habit of constant self-repetition. He

either does not know when he has made his and completed before the strike culminated, and consequently does not deal with it di point, or has unbounded faith in the efficacy rectly; but it undoubtedly was suggested by could easily have been said within the limits

of a modest pamphlet, and the general circulacusses take a peculiar significance from events

tion that might have been secured for his ideas which furnish a lurid commentary upon its

in that form would undoubtedly have been argument. Mr. Jervis does not wield the pen

productive of good. of a ready writer, and he makes no pretension Light: A Series of Simple, Entertaining, to originality of view; but his mind has laid firm hold upon one or two of the essential

and Inexpensive Experiments in the Phedoctrines of economical science, and these he

nomena of Light, for the Use of Students of expounds and reiterates with a certain homely

Every Age. By Alfred M. Mayer and

Charles BARNARD. New York: D. Appleforce of phrase and aptness of illustration that

ton & Co. will very likely prove more effective with working class readers than the subtle logic This attractive little book forms the initial and precise periods of better known and more volume of an “Experimental Science Series

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