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The trees wave a shadowy answer, and the rock frowns hollow and grim,
The path, ah! who has shown it, and which is the faithful guide ?
Here are the tombs of my kinsfolk, the first of an ancient name,
Ever I watch and worship; they sit with a marble face.
And the myriad idols around me, and the legion of muttering priests,
Shall I list to the word of the English, who come from the uttermost sea ?
The Secret, hath it been told you, and what is your message to me?"
I had thought, “ Perchance in the cities where the rulers of India dwell,
Is life, then, a dream and delusion, and where shall the dreamer awake?
Is there nought in the heaven above, whence the hail and the levin are hurled,
POPES AND CARDINALS.
It is one of the penalties of greatness occupant since the triple crown was in this world that a man in the position placed on his brows in St. Peter's, and of the Pope has, in his old age, to lie in some of them he has seen refilled more state-to see his career sketched in news- than once. papers and magazines--to know that he The Papacy itself is no longer what it is the subject of protocols, notes, and was. It is no longer, politically, one of declarations, that his demise is the topic the Powers of Europe. But the throne of discussion in all the chancelleries of of St. Peter still stands; St. Peter's sucEuropeto hear his conduct canvassed, cessor is still a sovereign, and is still enas the Times a few years ago canvassed titled to the pre-eminence of honor acthat of a Prime Minister, in the past corded to him of old by Catholic sovertense, even before he has perhaps seri- eigns, although Pius IX. has had to share ously thought of shuffling off this mortal the common fate of the crowd of grand coil, and now and then to have to assist dukes and duchesses whose rule reat his own obsequies, to overhear the produced in Italy a few years ago the candid criticism of friends and enemies English heptarchy; and to-day he is like alike over his grave, their speculations as the rest of the sovereigns de jure in the to who shall take his place when he is Almanach de Gothama king without a gone and what shall be done when he kingdom. Time has brought its bitterhas reached the end of the furrow; and ness even to him. He has survived his in the case of Pius IX. the criticism and own greatness, been shorn of almost all speculation have been particularly free his feathers, and reduced to a palace and and frank.
a garden, but, like Bacon, the gallant old There is, or has been till now, a super- man scorns to go out in snuff," and he stition that none of the Popes can out- has done his best to make up for the live St. Peter, and, as far as the history loss of his princely prerogatives by arroof the Papacy can be traced, no Pope till gating to himself the spiritual preroganow has reigned longer than the Aposto- tives which till now have been vested in lic Founder of the Holy See. Pius VI. general assemblies of the Church, decreereigned within three or four months of ing his own personal infallibility and five-and-twenty years; and till the reign constituting himself absolute sovereign of Pius IX. this was the nearest approach of the intellect and conscience of Christo the alleged pontificate of Peter. The tendom. These things, independently duration of that is said to have been of all political changes, make the pontifitwenty-five years, two months and seven cate of Pius IX. one of the most notable days. Sylvester I. reigned twenty-four in the history of the papacy; and the years, and Adrian's reign fell short of first question that the next conclave will that only by about ten days. The long- have to ask itself when it assembles will est reign next to these is the reign of be whether it has anything left to do but Pius VII. That was twenty-three years to register the last decree that the Cardiand a half. But Pius IX. is now in the nal Chamberlain happens to find in the fiftieth year of his Episcopate, in the pigeon-holes of the papal escritoire. thirty-first year of his Pontificate, and in Yet, after all, it was only by a mishap the eighty-fifth year of his age. He has that Cardinal Mastai-Ferretti attained with one or two exceptions, outlived all the triple crown at all. The popular the Cardinals who took part in his elec- candidate was Cardinal Gizzi, and the tion in the June of 1846, has confuted most powerful man in the college itself the old belief embodied in the words was Cardinal Lambruschini. MastaiNon videbis annos Petri, and is to-day, Ferretti was only one of a crowd, and in with one exception—that of Queen Vic- the first ballot he hardly seemed to be in toria—the oldest reigning sovereign in the running. Lambruschini had the Europe. Her Majesty is the Pope's highest number of votes, and everything senior as a sovereign by nearly ten years. seemed to mark him out as the future But with this exception the Pope has Pope. But there's many a slip 'twixt the seen every throne in Europe change its cup and the lip even in a conclave; and
the Italians have a proverb that, in these cised. Austria intended to exercise it in contests, the favorite never wins. He the case of Pius IX., and the court of did not in this case. In the second and Madrid did exercise it in the case of third ballot Mastai-Ferretti came more Cardinal Giustiniani in 1830, and exerand more distinctly to the front, Gizzi cised it without assigning a reason,
aldisappeared from the lists, and Lambru- though the reason may possibly be conschini fell hopelessly into the rear. But if jectured from the fact that the Cardinal Lambruschini could only have kept open had been Nuncio at the Spanish court, the conclave a few hours longer, he might and was apt to be frank in his criticism have displaced his rival, and perhaps upon the foibles of persons in high posihave placed the tiara upon his own brows, tion. The court of France, in 1823, tried or, is not there, might at least have placed to place its veto upon the election of Leo it upon the brows of his friend Franzo. XII., and that veto would have barred ni; for Mastai-Ferretti was in bad odor his election if the French Cardinals had with the court of Austria on account of not been outwitted by the Italians, as his sympathy with the National party of the Austrians were outwitted by the RoItaly, and when the ballot that made him man party in 1846. Pope was taken, the Austrian Plenipo- These vetos are ihe only check upon tentiary was on his way from Vienna the absolute power of the College of with a veto in his pocket against the Cardinals to place any one whom they Archbishop of Imola, and with Cardinals can agree upon themselves by a vote of enough in his train to turn the scale in two-thirds upon the throne of St. Peter; favor of the Genoese Cardinal. The and, as far as the Roman Catholic veto arrived a few hours too late, and the Church itself is concerned, the choice of lagging Cardinals, entering the Holy the sacred college is final and binding City the day after the fair, found the upon all, whether that choice be ratified Romans shouting vivas in honor of a by the veto powers or not. The bull of sovereign whose name they hardly knew Nicholas II., vesting the power of elechow to pronounce. The telegraph and tion in the College of Cardinals, prethe railway have put an end to all risk of scribes a form of procedure which is anything of this kind happening again; hardly distinguishable from that by for Rome is now within speaking distance which the head of one of our own Oxof Vienna, Paris, Berlin, and London; ford colleges is chosen. M. About has and unless the conclave sits, as it is said put the papal constitution into a senit will sit, within twenty-four hours of the tence: "The Pope elects the Cardinals, Pope's death, and, under a dispensing and the Cardinals elect the Pope.” That bull, elects his successor in presenti cada- is the key to the whole papal system. vere, there will be time between the an- Yet, except when in conclave, a Cardinal, nouncement of the Pope's death and the as such, has no more voice or authority day usually fixed for the holding of the in the government of the Holy See than conclave for all the Cardinals of Europe an acolyte who swings a censer in St. to reach Rome and to give their votes. Peter's. He need not even be in orders
That implies, also, that the Veto Pow- at all; and that has been the case with ers will this time be able to make their some of the most distinguished of the voices heard, if they wish, in the con- Cardinals. Clement XII., in 1735, made clave, and that Prince Bismarck will even a child of eight years old-Don have an opportunity to assert bis right to Louis of Bourbon-a Cardinal. Sixtus a veto as well as Austria, Spain, France, V. paid a similar compliment to one of and Portugal. At present these are the his nephews, and Paul IV. startled the only powers that possess a velo upon the Sacred College by nominating a lawless nomination of a Pope, and it has been and ferocious condottiere to the Cardinalchallenged in the case of Portugal, al- ate--Carlo Caraffa - one of his own though that is the only case in which it nephews, who, knowing the weak side of is said to rest upon a papal bull. Its the Pope, contrived to be surprised origin in the case of France, Spain and kneeling before a crucifix in an agony of Austria is only to be traced conjectural- remorse. Leo X. offered the red hat to ly; but the right itself has never been Raphael, to console him for the loss of denied, and it has frequently been exer- Maria di Bibliena, the niece of one of
Leo's Cardinals, and in the reign of Six- vious Pope, and sat apparently without tus IV. Cardinal's hats were bought and protest from the College ; but his case, sold with as little ceremony as an advow- as far as I can find, stands alone. Alson is now bought and sold in our own bani was compelled to take orders, and Church. This scandal has long since that is the rule-that unless a Cardinal ceased, and I believe there is now an is in orders he shall not vote, although understanding that no more Cardinals the Cardinalate in itself is not an ecclesishall be created unless they have taken astical rank, but only a sort of semi-spirorders; but it is, of course, and can be, itual peerage. It represents a degree in nothing more than an understanding, for the papal court; that and nothing more. the creation of Cardinals is a matter
ap- But if a man is in orders the red hat pertaining solely to the Pope, and Pius gives him a right, upon the death of the IX. cannot bind Pius X. If Popes could Pope, to take part in the government have been controlled in this way they of the holy city, to sit in the conclave, would have been controlled long ago, and to ballot for his successor, or to be for the Council of Trent, by one of its a candidate for the papal chair himself. decrees, imposed upon Cardinals the He may be under sentence as a criminal same canonical conditions as those im- a heretic—as a traitor. He may posed upon bishops. But the power even be under sentence of excommuniwhich makes a Cardinal can release him cation. But neither heresy, crime, nor from the obligations supposed to be im- the major excommunication can rob a posed by the Council of Trent, and this Cardinal of his right to sit in the condispensing power has been exercised clave and to exercise the highest funcagain and again. It was exercised in tion of his office—that of taking part in the case of Albani, and it had been exer- the choice of a Pope. cised before then in the case of the Arch- Till the time of Clement V. many duke Albert. The Archduke never was Cardinals had been deprived of their in orders, and Cardinal Albani only be- franchise, and conspicuously the Coloncame a sub-deacon in order to sit in the na Cardinals by Boniface VIII. But conclave of 1823, and to turn the scale the case of these Colonna Cardinals in favor of the Austrian candidate. He created so much trouble in the Church, had been excused till then on the plea and threatened so many inconvenient that it might be necessary for him to consequences, that Clement V. revokrelinquish the purple and to marry, in ed the sentence of Boniface and issued order to prevent the extinction of his a bull making the right of a Cardinal to family; and probably even then Albani vote inviolate; and that is now the would not have taken orders but that rule of the Church. A Cardinal may be there was no power in the Church to re- fined, may be imprisoned, may be denew his dispensation and to permit him graded, may be deprived of every to vote except as a deacon.
privilege appertaining to his rank, exThere is, apparently, but one real dis- cept one, but his franchise is indeliblequalification for the Cardinalate, and that cannot be touched by either Pope that is that a man must not have a wife. or Council. Several of the Cardinals A wife is fatal to all hopes of the red in the reign of Leo X. conspired hat. He may have been married and against the life of the Pope, were tried, still be eligible as a widower; or being a found guilty, and sentenced to imprisonCardinal he may, under a dispensation ment, degradation and death, but in of the Pope, relieve himself of the obli- every case except that of Cardinal Pegation of his position, marry, put away trucci, the sentence was revised-Petruchis wife, and return to his old position ci was strangled there and then in the in the Church. But he cannot keep a castle of St. Angelo, and Cardinal Sowife and wear the purple at the same derini, even after a second conviction and time, and in strictness he cannot exercise a second imprisonment, was permitted to the highest privilege of the Cardinalate take his seat in the conclave, and to vote —that of voting in conclave for Pope, for the election of Clement VII. Yet unless he has taken orders. The Arch- the last or almost the last official act of duke Albert sat in the conclave of Sixtus Pope Adrian had been the issue of a V., under a special license from the pre- Bull ordering that the Cardinal of Volterra should on no condition be released for him to publish the names, and the from prison, and the college marked its principle thus emphatically established contempt for this Bull, by selecting So that a creation to be recognised must be derini to say the mass when the Cardi- made public. nals were entering the conclave. But The creation of a Cardinal is, how. the leading case is that of Cardinal Cos- ever, with the Pope, a mere act of mental cia. He was brought to trial under Cle- volition. He creates Cardinals by thought ment XII. for fraud, malversation, and or by a stroke of his pen. Perhaps many peculation. He was found guilty and men are Cardinals to-day without possentenced to a fine of 200,000 crowns, to sessing the slightest knowledge of their ten years' close confinement in St. Ange- own greatness; for all that the Pope has lo, to deprivation of his See of Beneven- to do is to put down their names and to to, and to absolute degradation from the announce the fact to themselves or to rank and privileges of the Cardinalate. the dean of the college, or, without doing But even in Coscia's case the Pope after- either of these things, to place the list in wards wrote a chirograph revoking the the pigeon-holes of his desk to be found sentence of absolute degradation, and after his death by the chamberlain of the when upon the election of Clement's suc- palace. These men are Cardinals in cessor, a conclave was convoked, Cardi- petto. Their creation is complete, but nal Coscia put in his claim to be set free, till their mouths are unsealed and their and that request was at once conceded. names published, they are not cánonicalHe was released for the conclave, and an ly in a position to enter a conclave. Till Ambassador in Rome, returning to his the rith century the college contained palace after the opening of the conclare, only twenty-eight Cardinals; but the met Coscia in the shut chariot of Cardi- Bull of Sixtus V. fixes the number at sevnal Acquaviva, who had been to fetch enty, and these seventy now legally conhim from prison in the Castle of St. An- stitute the consistory. But it is not necgelo, and was taking him to his cell in essary that all the seventy should be the Quirinal, to give his vote with the present to constitute a conclave. In rest.
1846 the college had no more than sixtyThe College of Cardinals, when com- two names upon its roll, although Greplete, consists of seventy members, repre- gory had in his lifetime created as many senting perhaps in about equal propor- as seventy-five Cardinals, the greatest tions the three orders of the priesthood, number probably ever created by a although in conclave bishops, priests, and Pope, and of these sixty-two only thirty deacons all rank alike and all possess were in Rome when the great bell of St. equal privileges. Mazarin, for instance, Peter's announced that the holy city was was a deacon ; Richelieu was a priest. without a head, and fifty Cardinals only But the sacred college recognises none took part in the conclave which placed of these distinctions of the hierarchy; the keys of St. Peter in the keeping of and except that one Cardinal may be a Pius IX. That, however, or any less Cardinal in petto, and another a Cardinal number, is sufficient to constitute a conwhose name has been published to the clave, if ten days shall have elapsed from world, or, as it is called, promulgated, all the announcement of the Pope's death, Cardinals are equal. There is, I believe, and if in the conclave the Pope elect seno limit to the number of Cardinals that cures a vote representing a majority of the Pope can create in petto, and Pius two-thirds of the Cardinals present. IX. is said to have exercised his privilege “You have not seen Rome," it used freely; but seventy is with Cardinals the to be said, "if you have not seen it durperfect number, and these seventy must ing a vacation of the See;" and it was be announced to the world before they in the spirit of this observation that Fra can take their seats in conclave. Cardi. Bacio answered the question of Pope nals in petto have several times put in a Paul—"Which do you think the finest claim to vote; but that claim has never festival in Rome?" "That which is been recognised, and it was disallowed a held when a Pope dies and a new one is few years ago even in a case where the being made." All police in the holy city Pope had explained to the college the at once collapsed. The army disbanded reasons which rendered it inexpedient itself
, and generally took to pillage, the