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as our guide the instructive Essay on country ; it is all mixed and brandied. The Cheap Wines' by our own countryman, Dr. quantity of proof spirit which good pure Druitt, whose professional science and sherry, contains by nature is 24 per cent.,
possibly 30. The less mature and less perclean palate have enabled him to give us fectly fermented the wine, the more brandy invaluable wine-truths. It is true that is there added to it to preserve it. Yet let it we are at issue with Dr. Druitt as to the never be forgotten, Dr. Gorman added, “ It is good or bad, or, as he puts it, indifferent made sherry wine ; if the fermentation is perfect,
not necessary to infuse brandy into any well. matter of drinking many varieties of wine it produces alcohol sufficient to preserve the wine at the same repast, because we consider for a century in any country.” it decidedly injurious; but with this ex
All this and much more that Dr. Druitt ception, and some slight allusion to a frequently careless composition in a lite has said is pleasing and trustworthy, be
cause there is little appearance of a winerary sense, we can freely endorse the merchant's element in the background. views of the learned doctor. Rarely has We will add only one more extract in so much useful and trustworthy informa- reference to the flavor and odor of tion on the known wines of commerce
wines :een given to the public in so compendious” a form. We would particularly sentinels to watch the approaches to the
The organs of taste and smell stand as recommend to our readers his remarks stomach, and to warn us whether our food on Bordeaux and sherry :
and drink are fit to be admitted or not. There
are some articles respecting which these or'It will be a good day for the morals, gans are not entirely to be relied upon ; but health, and intellectual development of the certainly as regards wine, the effects of wine English when every decent person shall on on the palate are known with exactitude, and all hospitable occasions be able to produce a the palate is able to distinguish wines which bottle of wine and discuss its flavor, instead are wholesome from those that are not. of, as at present, glorying in the strength of his • Let us observe that touch is common to all potations. One thing that would go with the
parts of the body in greater or less degree, greater use of Bordeaux wine would be the
but is especially acute in the finger-tips, custom of drinking it in its proper place dur- lips, and tongue. This takes cognisance of ing dinner as a refreshing and appetizing certain qualities, such as hot and cold, rough draught, to entice the languid palate to de and smooth, hard and soft, and the like. mand an additional slice of mutton.'
Taste is a more delicate sense, and dis.
tinguishes properties such as sweet, sour, Now for sherry, under which term are in- bitter, and salt, together with a thousand cluded, in popular language, all the white other varieties which have no name, though wines which come from Spain, and others we well know them when presented to us. like them. Monotony and base servile imita "There is a third sense which recognises tion are the curse of English life. ... The odors, and upon which they particularly opfish, entrées, etc., must be accompanied with erate, of course I mean the nose. Now everythe inevitable sherry. All the fun, and the thing that is tasted must affect the sense of fragrance, the gratified sense of novelty, the touch and the union of both touch and taste curiosity as to the great political and social may be essential to perfect enjoyment; thus, fortunes of our colonies, which would be ex the crispness or flabbiness of a biscuit may cited by handing round a bottle of white make a great difference. Just so the union of Auldana; all the sympathy for our dear smell with taste is essential for the enjoyneighbors which would be excited by the taste ment of wine. And here let us say, that of Meursault Blanc; all the respect for the everything that is smelled can be tasted, Germans which would follow a sip of Hoch- though not everything that is tasted can be heimer ; all the hopes and fears felt for the smelled. The body of wine affects both Austrian empire, which would go round with senses.'-pp. 28, 29. the generous Vöslau, are smothered by the monotony of the banal sherry. When people To this we may add Brillat-Savarin's are doing the serious act of dining, they definition : Without a sense of smell should do it, and think about it, and talk complete tasting cannot exist.
Smell about it; but to talk there must be novelty, and taste are one sense where the mouth not one dull perpetual round, and sherry gives rise to no ideas. England will never is the laboratory and the nose the chimbe merry again whilst it sticks to sad a drink.' ney, or, to speak more exactly, one is
good for tasting what can be touched, The best account of sherry is that given the other for tasting the gases.' Now a before the Committee of the House of Com- strong stomach cannot appreciate the bad mons on the Import Duties on Wines in 1852, by Dr. Gorman, Physician to the late British effect of a mixture of wines; and howFactory at Cadiz, long a resident in Spain.
ever fine the nasal sensibility of an indiHe says that no natural sherry comes to this vidual, it is impossible to detect the
value of a succession of different kinds One observation, not altogether known, of bouquet. Our own views are that may be added : coffee made with Chablis or a low growth of Sauterne may Schwalheim water is superior to that be permitted with oysters; a good quality made with any other, due probably to of Lower Burgundy or a grand ordi- the extracting power of the alkali held in naire ' of Bordeaux to begin the repast; solution therein, and it might be worth but the moment you get to a point in the while testing Apollinaris or Taunus feast where a higher quality of wine is water in like manner. Also let us note permitted, you should, with any regard that since the war, coffee, as served at to the stomach or the palate, stick to the the cafés in Paris, has much fallen off, same class of wine.
in consequence, mainly, of the use of Not the least important element in a chicory. For our own part we never, well-ordered repast is the coffee, which during the Second Empire, considered should complete it. It is very easy but it exceptionally fine and pure, save at the not altogether just to condemn the Café du Cardinal at the corner of the methods of making it practised in Eng- Rue Richelieu. It was only in priland, and impute to them the only cause vate houses that one could be secure of for our finding it bad here. Opinions the genuine flavor. may differ as to whether we do or do In the simplicity of tea-making it is not find the several varieties of the berry, only necessary to insist on water boiling Mocha, Bourbon, Martinique, &c., which at the moment it is poured on the tea : are mixed together in a French house but we came upon some remarks in a hold, or by the tradesmen who sell them. modern cookery book against which we What we maintain to be necessary as a would beg to protest. The writer begins first step towards a perfect beverage is by saying that a silver or metal teapot fresh roasting at home. We should then draws out the strength and fragrance find a very indifferent coffee-berry pro- more readily than one of earthenware, a duce a very refreshing cup. We should point on which we opine the Heathen get the true aroma. It would appear Chinee would differ; nor, if we recolthat, in the early part of the last century, lect right, would that interesting paper coffee was not only ground but roasted by Mr. Savile Lumley, when Secretary by the ladies, as we gather from the lines to the Legation at St. Petersburg, on of Pope in the 'Rape of the Lock':- the tea-houses frequented by the ish' For lo! the board with cups and spoons is voshniks or droshky-drivers, support crowned,
such a view; and the said ishvoshniks The berries crackle and the mill turns round.' are great connoisseurs in that beverage. Upon which Mr. Elwin adds the fol- The writer of the said cookery book goes lowing note :-““There was a side-board on to say that you may half fill the pot of coffee," says Pope, in his letter describ- with boiling water, and, if the tea be of ing Swift's mode of life at Letcombe, in very fine quality, you may let it stand
Now “which the Dean roasted with his ten minutes (!) before filling up. 1714, own hands in an engine for that pur- there was one Ellis, who had some re
putation in the neighborhood of RichUntil lately we were not aware that a
mond Hill in the matter of food and roasting-machine for household use was drink-to be plain, for the information on sale
in England, but on passing down of the youngest generation, he owned Oxford Street and Holborn we met with the Star and Garter there—and his view two kinds, similar in principle to one
about tea was that you lost the aroma which we had ourselves suggested to a
and Igained less valuable properties for Parisian ironmonger before the war-i.e. all the time beyond one minute that you the use of clockwork to turn the barrel, let it stand. We can quote no higher so that a cook's time may be saved and authority for our own most persistent no berries burnt. Those we have seen
view on this question. do not appear quite suited for a kitch- The hours at which repasts are taken ener, but a slight addition would easily are too much at the caprice of fashion adapt them to that kind of range.
in England to admit of any hope that
reason will be heard on the subject. * Elwin's · Pope,' vol. ii. p. 163. Some day fashion will permit us to have
our mid-day breakfast or luncheon, addition of truly colored plates, Mr. and fall to our dinner with no jaded ap- Murray might surely give us another petite at 6 or 7 o'clock. On sanitary edition. Its excellence consists in that grounds nothing will ever surpass the it is a manual for the household as well Frenchman's regulation of his meals, as a guide in the kitchen, but we are a light breakfast in his bedroom at 8 bound to say it is lamentably deficient A.M., a serious breakfast from 11 to noon, where it attempts to instruct us in French and a dinner from 6 to 8, according to cookery. his occupations for the evening. To We ought not to conclude this review, insist any more on this would be to at- devoted to simplicity in cooking, eating tempt the codification of laws that will and drinking, without a reference to connever be codified, or if codified never diments under various names of this and carried out, save subserviently to the that sauce, many of which are admirable reigning fashion.
when used in their right places. We take We will close these remarks by refer- it that the 'dernier mot' as between ring once more to two of the works at French and English 'gourmets,' neither the head of this article. Gouffé's is of them addicted to the dishes of a City, eminently practical, and adapted to the Alderman, would be, on the part of the use of man or woman who likes to go second, Are not our manufactured sometimes into the kitchen and converse sauces admirable ?' On the part of the courteously with the artist. Dubois' first— Are they not too pungent, and
Cosmopolitan Cookery' has some ad- do you not ask them to do the work of mirable recipes, e.g. salmon cutlets, flavor which ought to be the business of sauce des gourmets, page 83 of the the cook?' English edition, and his list of menus The finest of them all is rather based are worth attention. Gouffé, by the on simple mushroom-ketchup than on way, expressly declines to give a list, for Indian herbs, but it is scarcely the most reasons stated (p. 336). Among Dubois' popular, and those members of the medmenus may be noted one (p. xvii) forical profession who prescribe for dysten guests, served at Nauheim (1867) by peptic individuals have as great an inteCogery, who now keeps a restaurant at rest in columns of advertisements, for Nice; p. xxi, one for forty guests, served which in the end the purchaser pays, as by the same artist at Helsingfors, where even the adventurous manufacturers who good judgment is united to simplicity; fabricate sauces from the recipe of this p. xxvi, one for fifty guests, served by or that nobleman. Still
, let the best of Ripé (1867) to Prince (then Count) them be accepted as adjuncts to a broiled Bismarck, a menu where we observe the bone at 2 A.M., without admitting the Bohemian pheasant, already referred to; propriety of their position on the dinnerand p. xxii, a very good menu for twelve table. persons, served by Blanchet at the York- Simple salt, and vegetable combinashire Club, no date given. But, even tions that have been made with it, is after thus referring to them as deserving worth some further comment. Salt is attention, we are bound to say that they used at once too much and too little in are generally over-loaded, and we opine English kitchens; too much, when by there are few diners-out who would not order of the landlord (like the bad branbe thankful to see on their plate less elab- dy in the sauces at suburban hotels of orate menus.
reputation) it is to excite a desire for It proves the fallibility of cooks, even drink on the part of the guest; too little so great as one who has been chef’ to when in the case of a grilled beefsteak the King of Prussia, when we find M. the cook forgets that salt combines durUrbain Dubois in his recipe for plum- ing the process of cooking more effecpudding omit the essential ingredient of tively in its coarse kitchen form.* bread-crumbs! Gouffé does not com- The combination of salt with herbs mit this grave error.
has notably succeeded in two instances, In the matter of English cookery-books and it is reserved for the future to boradapted to private families, few surpass that excellent work by Mrs. Rundell, of
* Poulet au gros sel is too little known in which, with some little revision and the England.
row from what is known, and combine 1. Herbal flavor is to be desired in more delicate, and yet more delicate, soups, and increased knowledge on the forms. We allude to known combina- part of cooks of the various kinds and tions in speaking of that composed of qualities of herbs and roots. the Chili-bean rubbed up with salt, to 2. The batterie de cuisine 'should be which the maker has given the name of improved by an increased number of Oriental salt, a condiment that has the copper vessels, and by the use of the salflavor without the extreme pungency of amander and smaller implements for cutcayenne, and would be an admirable ting, scooping and otherwise arranging substitute for it in that much-ill-used vegetables. Moreover, the use of charincentive to drink called devilled white coal should be established. bait. Another useful combination is 3. The use of more butter and less that of celery seed and salt, sold by a lard should be encouraged. well-known Italian warehouseman. On 4. The market-gardener should learn the table each must stand on its own that he has duties to fulfil. merits in reference to the guest's taste ; 5. Red wines should be the rule and neither to be insisted on indiscriminately, not the exception at dinner, and chambut each in turn especially adapted to pagne, if served at all, should be served soup, fish, roast and relevé,' cheese or with the sweets and not with the mutton. a salad.
6. Coffee should be made from diffeThis, to conclude, is the sum of gas- rent varieties of the berry and, if possitronomical observation which appears to ble, should be roasted at home, certainly us as most worthy of reflection by those always ground there. who would see the English 'cuisine' 7. Fashion should permit us to adopt raised to a higher level, and who desire more sensible hours for our meals.that the younger generation may at least Quarterly Review. have a palate.
BY ALFRED TENNYSON,
THEY rose to where their sovran eagle sails,
They kept their faith, their freedom, on the height,
Chaste, frugal, savage, arm'd by day and night
And red with blood the Crescent reels from fight
Before their dauntless hundreds, in prone flight
Of Freedom ! warriors beating back the swarm
Of Turkish Islam for five hundred years,
Black ridges drew the cloud and brake the storm
The Nineteenth Century.
MONTENEGRO. A SKETCH.*
BY THE RIGHT HON. W. E, GLADSTONE.
It is sometimes said, in relation to in- its greatest men. It might at least as dividuals, that the world does not know safely be averred, in speaking of large
numbers, that Christendom does not know * 1. Le Monténégro Contemporain. Par G. FRILLEY, Officier de la Légion d'Honneur, et 2. Montenegro und die Montenegriner geJOVAN WLAHOVITI, Capitaine au Service de la schildert von ŠPIRIDION GOPTCHEVITCH. LeipSerbie. Paris : 1870.
zig : 1877
its most extraordinary people. The treachery allied itself with Ottoman name of Montenegro, until within the prowess to bring about the defeat of the last two years, was perhaps less familiar Serbian army; and again it was by to the European public than that of treacherous advances that a qualified Monaco, and little more than that of subjection was converted into an absoSan Marino. And yet it would, long ere lute servitude. The West, with all its this, have risen to world-wide and im- chivalry, can cite no grander examples of mortal fame, had there been a Scott to martial heroism than those of Marko learn and tell the marvels of its history, Kraljevitch, so fondly cherished in the or a Byron to spend and be spent on its Serbian lands, and of George Castriotes behalf. For want of the vales sacer, it or Scanderbeg, known far and wide, and has remained in the mute inglorious con- still commemorated by the name of a dition of Agamemnon's predecessors. I vicolo of Rome. hope that an interpreter between Mon- The indifference, or even contempt, tenegro and the world has at length been with which we are apt to regard this found in the person of my friend Mr. field of history, ought to be displaced by Tennyson, and I gladly accept the honor a more rational, as well as more honorof having been invited to supply a com- able, sentiment of gratitude. mentary to his text. In attempting it I these races, principally Slavonian, who am sensible of this disadvantage—that it had to encounter in its unbroken strength, is impossible to set out the plain facts of and to reduce, the mighty wave, of which the history of Montenegro (or Tserna- only the residue, passing the Danube and gura in its own Slavonic tongue) without the Save, all but overwhelmed not Hunbegetting in the mind of any reader gary alone, but Austria and Poland. It strange, and nearly all are strange, to the was with a Slavonian population that the subject, a resistless suspicion of exagger Austrian Emperor fortified the north ation or of fable.
bank of the Save, in the formation of the The vast cyclone of Ottoman conquest, famous military Frontier. It was Slav the most formidable that the world has resistance, unaided by the West, which ever seen, having crossed the narrow sea abated the impetus of the Ottoman atfrom Asia in the fourteenth century, made tack just to such a point, that its reserve rapid advances westward, and blasted, force became capable of being checked by its successive acquisitions, the fortunes by European combinations. of countries the chief part of which were Among the Serbian lands was the then among the most civilised, Italy fourishing Principality of Zeta. It took alone being excepted, of all Europe. Í its name from the stream, which flows shall not here deal with the Hellenic southward from the mountain citadel lands. It is enough to say that Bulgaria, towards the Lake of Scutari. It comSerbia (as now known), Bosnia, Herze- prised the territory now known as Mongovina, Albania, gradually gave way. tenegro or Tsernagora, together with
Before telling the strange tale of the seaward frontier, of which a niggardly those who, like some strong oak that the and unworthy jealousy had not then delightning fails to rive, breasted all the prived it, and with the rich and fair wrath of the tempest, and never could piains encircling the irregular outline of be slaves, let me render a tribute to the the inhospitable mountain. Land after fallen. For the most part, they did not land had given way; but Zeta ever stood succumb without gallant resistance. The firm under the Balchid family. At last in Serbian sovereigns of the fifteenth cen- 1478 Scutari was taken on the south, and lury were great and brave men, ruling a in 1483 the ancestors of the still brave stout and brave people. They reached population of Herzegovina on the north their zenith when, in 1347, Stephen submitted to the Ottomans. Ivan Dushan entitled himself Emperor of Tchernoievitch, the Montenegrin hero Serbs, Greeks, and Bulgarians. In an of the day, hard pressed on all sides, apevil hour, and to its own ruin, the Greek plied to the Venetians for the aid he had Empire invoked against him the aid of often given, and was refused. Therethe Ottoman Turks. In 1356, he closed upon he, and his people with him, quita prosperous career by a sudden death. ted, in 1484, the sunny tracts in which On the fatal field of Kossovo, in 1389, they had basked for some seven hundred