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in Somersetshire, which seem never to have D'Aligne, imprisoned for having been wantbeen used as biographical material. They are ing in respect to the Marquise de Pompadour, in the possession of Mr. Ayshford Sanford, complains of the intolerable régime to which into whose family they came from the repre- he is subject; while an Abbé asks for a sentatives of Locke's friend, Clark of Chipley, variety of indulgences, foremost among which to whom many of them are addressed. It is snuff. He likewise enumerates the follow were much to be wished that the accomplished ing articles as essentially necessary to his possessor of these relics would take some comfort : a pair of slippers, four Indian hand. means of making them known to the world.- kerchiefs, four pairs of linen stockings, six The Academy.
collars, muslin for two pairs of ruffles, a muff, An important volume in theological litera.
Almanach Royal," and a packet of toothture has just appeared in German, entitled picks. “ Die Anfänge des Christenthums," by Holtzmann, Hossbach, Marbach, Pfeiderer,
SCIENCE AND ART. Schmeidler, Steck, and Ziegler, consisting of
MODIFICATION OF CLIMATE BY ARTIFICIAL lectures delivered last winter in Berlin in
HEAT.—It is computed that five million tons connection with the Unionsverein. The vol.
of coal are burnt in London in a year. The ume presents the results of the theology President of the Meteorological Society states which was elaborated by Baur, Zeller, and
in his annual address that the heat thereby others; developing the circumstances out of which Christianity arose, and the immediate produced combined with that evolved by the
inhabitants, suffices to raise the temperature influences that produced the books of the New Testament. Able professors and pastors
of the air two degrees immediately above the contribute to the work, in which old orthodox
Hence it is that some invalids metropolis.
find it better for their health to reside in Lonviews are entirely reversed.
don during the winter rather than in the M. ALFRED FIRMIN-Didot has sent country. But the country benefits also, for Athens, consigned to the mayor of that city, the prevailing winds being from the souththe portrait of his father, Ambroise Firmin.
west and west, the county of Essex and the
A REGISTER OF Weight VARIATIONS.—Mr.
Redier, clockmaker of Paris, has exhibited to
the Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie sympathy and assistance. He was also the
Nationale a balance which registers variations principal supporter and secretary of the Greek Committee at Paris, which included amongst
of weight. In this ingenious instrument clock.
work is so arranged in connection with a its members the following distinguished per
copper cylinder, suspended in a vessel of sons :-Chateaubriand, Villemain, the Duke
water, as to produce two antagonistic movede la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, the Duke de
ments, one of which comes into play whenFitzjames, Laffitte, Delessert, etc.
ever excited by the action of the other. By M. LÉOUZON-LE-Duc has published an ac- this alternate movement the registration procount of the French MSS. in the Imperial Li- ceeds steadily, and is recorded by a pencil on brary at St. Petersburg, which were acquired a band of paper. An exceedingly light spring after the fall of the Bastille and the sack of the lever is so combined with the clockwork that Abbey of Saint-Germain des-Prés in 1789, by it will keep a comparatively heavy weight in a Russian agent, named Dubrowski, and by action ; such as holding a barometer free to him sold to the Emperor Alexander I. in 1807. rise and fall while the column of mercury The Russians think very highly of this collec- stands always at the same level. Many applition, and were so fearful of its falling into the cations may be made of this instrument, espe. hands of the French on their invasion of Rus- cially in the sciences of observation. sia in 1812, that it was packed up in boxes sensibility is such that it will register the loss ready to be sent off to the extreme end of the of weight in a spirit-lamp while burning. The Government of Olonetz, should anything dis- physiologist may employ it to ascertain the astrous occur at St. Petersburg. Among the weight lost by animals during respiration and documents a great many relate to the prison. perspiration, and the botanist to determine ers from time to time shut up in the Bastille. the amount of evaporation from the leaves of The letters and complaints of some of these a plant; and from these examples others may are touching and often curious. Thus M. be imagined.
JUPITER'S SATELLITES.—The Royal As- play an important part in the physics of the tronomical Society have published an account globe and in the dispersion of solar light. of observations of Jupiter's satellites made by Dr. Tyndall has shewn that a perfectly pure Mr. Todd of the Observatory, Adelaide, gas has no dispersive action. The cosmic under remarkably favorable circumstances. dust floating in the upper regions of the atmoSometimes the satellite, when on the point of sphere would account for the luminous train occultation, is seen apparently through the of meteors, and for certain phenomena obedge of Jupiter, “as if the planet were sur- served by means of the spectroscope. A long rounded by a transparent atmosphere laden time will of course be required for the quantiwith clouds.” In a subsequent observation, tative experiments, but they will be of great “the shadow of the third satellite, when in interest to astronomers as well as to physi. mid-transit along a high northern parallel, cists generally. appeared to be visibly oval or flattened at the poles." On several occasions, as Mr. Todd
EFFECT OF PLANTS ON WATER.–M. Jeannel states, he has been surprised at ingress of has described to the Société Centrale d'Horti. shadow by the marvellous sharpness, the culture de France some interesting experi. minutest indentation of the limb being at once ments made by him, showing the action of detected. One night he saw the second satels plants on impure water. It appears that, lite, as it emerged from behind the planet,
in the month of May, 60 grams of water, immediately pass into the shadow, then reap
which had been used for steeping haricots pear within a few minutes of the reappear
until it had become offensive, and which the ance of and close to the first satellite ; and microscope showed to be full of bacteria"the two thus formed “a pretty coarse double small animalculæ, supposed to be the ordistar." This must have been a very interest
nary agents of putrefaction-was placed in a ing sight. And there were times when the glass, and the root of a young growing plant astronomer was much impressed by the sud. plunged therein. An equal quantity of the den and extensive changes in the cloud-belts
same water was placed beside it in a test of the planet, as though some storm were there glass at the same time, without a root. The in progress, changing the form and dimen. water in the second glass remained infected ; sions of the belts in an hour or two, or even
that containing the living root, on the conless. After reading this, may we not say that trary, was pure at the end of the fourth daythe observer at Adelaide is remarkably for
all the bacteria had disappeared, and had been tunate?
replaced by a large infusorial animalculæ of
kinds found only in potable water. Water “Cosmic Dust.”—The fall of exceedingly containing putrid meat was experimented minute mineral particles in the snow and rain upon in the same manner and with the same in regions far away from dust and smoke has results. It was found that it was only neces. been accepted as evidence that a so-called
sary to immerse the root of a living plant cosmic dust” floats in our atmosphere. therein for five days to remove all the ill odor Some physicists believe that this dust is al. and render the water pure and sweet. ways falling everywhere, that the bulk of the
STATE OF THE BRAIN AFFECTING SLEEP.earth is increased, and that the phenomenon known to astronomers as acceleration of the
Direct experiments by Durham, Hammond, moon's motion is thereby accounted for.
and others, show that in sleep the brain is Iron is found among the particles, exceed
anæmic. This is proved also, indirectly, by ingly small and globular in form, as if they in the skin and extremities during sleep, be
the greater quantity of blood which circulates had been subjected to a high temperature. Recent spectrum analysis has led to the con.
cause there is greater radiation of heat from
the skin. Whatever tends to abstract blood clusion that the light of the aurora borealis may be due to the presence of these particles from the brain favors sleep; hence, digestion of iron in a state of incandescence. In a com
tends to cause sleep, as do hot drinks, etc., munication to the Vaudoise Society of Natu. by drawing the blood supply from the brain ral Sciences, Mr. Yung assumes that this dust,
to the stomach. So, conversely, whatever coming to us from celestial space, will be
tends to keep up the activity of the brain.
cells and the circulation tends to prevent most abundant immediately after the showers of shooting-stars in August and November; sleep; this being, therefore, the effect of any and he purposes to collect masses of air on
stimulus applied to the senses, sights, sounds, great heights and treat them in such a way as
thought, anxiety, and the like, while the opto eliminate all the cosmic dust which they posite tends to favor sleep. may contain. His experiments lead him to ALCOHOLIC ANÆSTHESIA.—Some interestbelieve that the particles are in much greater ing experiments made in Germany in the proquantity than hitherto supposed, and that they duction of local anaesthesia, show that if the
hand be immersed for a short time in ice. of the lake? There would necessarily be a long water severe pain is caused, but that no such stretch of shallows, which would be left dry pain is produced on immersing the hand in in the hot season, and would present all the cold alcohol, not even when the temperature of conditions of insalubrity-mixture of sait and the alcohol is as low as five degrees Cent. Gly- fresh water, bright solar light and tropical heat cerine was found to possess a similar prop- during two thirds of the year. This would erty. Ether occasioned pain, and quicksilver generate a vast number of vegetable and ani.
acute pain still, causing the speedy mal organisms, which, falling into putrefacwithdrawal of the finger when plunged into tion, would corrupt the air for leagues round. this liquid at a temperature of three degrees. The only seasible way M. Naudin saw for conIt was next ascertained that, on the finger verting the bad Saharan region was the planting being held for a long time in alcohol having and sowing of arborescent vegetation which a temperature of five degrees Cent., no pain might suit the soil and climate. It was spe. was experienced, and, although the finger cially desirable to recover the slopes and sumdistinctly perceived the faintest touch, sharp mits of the Algerian mountains with larches pricks gave no pain. This seems to show and Aleppo pines, and oaks and chestnuts, that the application of cold alcohol, one of with a view to modifying the climate. On the most simple as well as safe processes, has the other hand, Mr. Roudaire claimed that the effect of depriving the part of the special these general results would follow the creation sensibility to pain without, however, impair- of an inland African sea : (1) a marked iming the delicacy of the general tactile sensa- provement in the climate of Algeria and Tunis, tion which, as is well known, resides in the and the salubrity of adjoining regions ; (2) superficial integument.
the opening of a new commercial path for the
countries south of the northern mountain Health AND Slow Purse. --Some in
ranges, and the caravans of Central Africa ; teresting statements are reported to have
and (3) the complete security of Algeria, by been made at a meeting of the Clinical So- making insurrections impossible. ciety, London, showing that a slow pulse may in no wise interfere with health. The BRAIN AND Sex.-Few anthropologists, remost remarkable case, perhaps, was that of marks the English Mechanic, have studied the Dr. Hewan, as related by himself. It seems weight of the brain in its relation with sex, that, twenty-one years ago, after prolonged and still less is known about the lower jawstudy and work, his pulse fell from seventy- bone in the same relation. M. Bertillon lately two to fifty-five, and he felt very cold ; from called attention to the latter point, and said that time its frequency gradually decreased he had distinguished the jaws of New Caledountil about eleven years later, when it was nian females from those of males by the but twenty-four beats per minute. Its pres. weight. M. Morselli has been giving attention cnt rate is about twenty-eight. Notwithstand- to the subject, and has made exact measureing this, he has not suffered from fainting fits, ments on 172 crania of known sex. His prinor cold, is capable of great physical exertion cipal conclusions are these:-1. The cranium --of which evidence is to be found in his as- of man always weighs more than that of cent of a high mountain-and his digestion woman, the relation being about 100: 857. remains unimpaired. Another speaker said This sexual character acquires high importhat Napoleon had a slow pulse, being about tance when connected with cerebral capacity thirty to forty per minute ; and another mem- and the cerebro-spinal index. 2. The lower ber stated the rate of a horse's pulse to be jaw also weighs more in man than in woman, only sixteen.
and in greater proportion than the cranium
(100: 78 5). This sexual divergence is the Conversion of the DESERT OF SAHARA greatest and most constant of those now INTO AN INLAND SEA.—The French Academy known to anthropologists. 3. The same disis still discussing the proposal to convert the ference exists between the two sexes of an. Algerian Sahara into a great inland sea. The thropomorphous apes. 4. The individual improvement in the climate of Egypt since variations are more extensive in women than the Suez Canal was opened has been cited in in men. 5. Taking into consideration the re. support of the project, but the opponents of lation between the weight and the capacity of the plan do not consider the two cases simi- the cranium, it may be inferred that woman lar. M. Naudin thought the interior sea has a less development of osseous tissue. 6. would very likely turn out to be an immense In the ratio of the weights of the cranium and pestilential focus, made by human hands at a the lower maxillary, we have a new zoologi. great cost. The maximum depth is estimated cal difference between man and the apes, the at not more than 24 to 25 metres; but a more latter always presenting a greater jaw rela. important question was, What of the borders tively to the cranium than man.
TEMPERATURE OF THE INTERIOR OF THE his ain business well, and was looked up to EARTH.-From observations made on the well as a knowing bodie. He had old-fashioned of Sperenburg, near Berlin, M. Mohr (“Les words, like nobody else. He read muckle ; Mondes,”) concludes that at the depth of 5170 he was a great talker, weel gifted with the feet the increment of heat must be nil. A tongue. It was a muckle treat to be in his similar decrease of the increment of heat has house at nicht, to hear him tell stories been observed in the Artesian well of Grenelle. and tales. But he was always a very strict Hence M. Mohr draws conclusions unfavor old bodie, and could bide no contradiction.” able to the Plutonian theory.
Such was James, the father of Thomas Car. lyle.- Biographical Magazine.
AMERICA'S FIRST ENVOY TO ENGLAND.VARIETIES.
Although peace between Great Britain and
the United States was definitively concluded on THOMAS CARLYLE's Father.-Of the five the 3d of September, 1783, it was not until brother masons, James Carlyle, though not the middle of 1785 that any representative of the eldest, was the virtual leader. The bro- the new Power was officially received in Engthers usually worked together, but it was land. The causes of this delay are not diffiJames who acted as master," making con- cult to understand. There was a natural distracts for building and repairing cottages, the inclination on both sides to make approaches. others working under him, if not quite as ser- On the 24th of February, 1785, Congress vants, yet in some sort of dependency. James elected John Adams to the post of Envoy to Carlyle was acknowledged far and wide, not the Court of St. James's. He had to repreonly as the most skilful man at his trade, but sent his country at the court of its former sagacious in all his undertakings, and with a Sovereign, towards whom he had for several store of knowledge, derived from study and years stood in the position of a rebel ; and it observation, that was the astonishment of was necessary that he should do this in a way strangers with whom he came into contact. which should neither compromise the new He was particularly noted for his habit of Power nor offend the old. It was in the using quaint and uncommon expressions, de- month of May that he arrived in England on rived, probably, from extensive reading of old his delicate mission; it was on the first of books, chiefly such as related to the times of June that he was presented to George III., at the Reformation and the deeds of the Coven- St. James's Palace. The only other person anters. There now lives at Ecclefechan, where present on this occasion was Lord Carmathen, she was born and spent all her lise, an old the Secretary for Foreign Affairs; and the ad. lady, past ninety, yet still full of intelligence dresses then delivered have been reported and vivacity, Mrs. Mulligan, who, remember- only by Adams. It was not the original ining James Carlyle most distinctly, was able, tention or desire of the Envoy to deliver any when asked, to give a singularly striking ac- address at all, but he was informed by the count of him. “Old James, aye! What a Master of the Ceremonies that such a compliroot (original) of bodie he was," the old ment was usual with newly-appointed Foreign lady exclaimed, with singular animation; Ministers, and he therefore complied. After as"aye, a curious body: he beat this warld. A suring his Majesty that it was the unanimous spirited bodie; he would sit on no man's coats disposition of the United States to cultivate tails. And sic stories he could tell! Sic say- the most friendly and liberal intercourse beings, too! Sic names he would give to things tween his Majesty's subjects and their citizens, and folk! Sic words he had as were never and expressing the best wishes of his country heard before !” Continuing her description for his Majesty's health and happiness, and of James Carlyle, of whom she evidently was for that of the Royal Family, Adams entered a sincere admirer, Mrs. Mulligan added, in on the real subject matter of his speech. “I answer to a question, “ It is not true that he think myself more fortunate than all my felever was an elder of the Kirk. He never be low-citizens,” said the American, addressing longed to the auld Kirk; he and all his broth- the monarch to whom he had once borne al. ers were members of the Relief Church here. legiance, “in having the distinguished honor He never held any office that I know of; nay, to be the first to stand in your Majesty's not he ; but he always spoke out his mind at Royal presence in a diplomatic character ; meetings.” And, in answer to another ques- and I shall esteem myself the happiest of men tion, the old lady went on with her description if I can be instrumental in recommending my of James Carlyle :-"He was the best of the country more and more to your Majesty's Royal brothers, there canna be any doot about that. benevolence, and of restoring an entire esBut I think they sometimes led him into teem, confidence, and affection, or, in better trouble. He was a good scholar, he could do words, the old good-nature and the old good
humor between people who, though separated the effort required to complete a task of headby an ocean, and under different Governments, work within a period of time too short for its have the same language, a similar religion, accomplishment by moderate energy-is inand kindred blood. I beg your Majesty's jurious. Few suffer from overwork in the ag. permission to add that, although I have some. gregate ; it is too much work in too little time before been entrusted by my country, it time that causes the break-down in nineteen was never in my whole life in a manner so cases out of twenty, when collapse occurs. agreeable to myself.” “Sir," replied the Most sufferers bring the evil on themselves by King, “ the circumstances of this audience are driving off the day's work until the space al. so extraordinary, the language you have told lotted for its performance is past, or much reme is so extremely proper, and the feelings you duced. Method in work is the great need of have discovered are so justly adapted to the the day. If some portion of each division of occasion, that I must say I not only re- time was devoted to the apportioning of hours ceive with pleasure the assurance of the and energy, there would be less confusion, friendly dispositions of the United States, but far less "hurry," and the need of working at that I am very glad the choice has fallen upon high pressure would be greatly reduced, if not you to be their Minister. I wish you, sir, to wholly obviated. A great deal has been writ. believe, and that it may be understood in ten and said of late, to exceedingly little practi. America, that I have done nothing in the late cal purpose, on the subject of “overwork." contest but what I thought myself indispen- We doubt whether what is included under sably bound to do by the duty which I owed this description might not generally be more to my people. I will be very frank with you. appropriately defined as work done in a hurry, I was the last to consent to the separation; because the time legitimately appropriated to but the separation being made, and having its accomplishment has been wasted or misapbecome inevitable, I have always said, as I plied. Hurry to catch a train generally im. say now, that I would be the first to meet the plies starting too late. High pressure is, friendship of the United States as an inde- says the Lancet, either the consequence of a pendent Power. The moment I see such like error at the outset of a task, or the pen. sentiments and language as yours prevail, and alty of attempting to compensate by intense a disposition to give to this country the pref- effort for inadequate opportunity. If brain is erence, that moment I shall say, let the cir. bartered for business in this fashion, the goose cumstances of language, religion, and blood is killed for the sake of the golden eggs, and have their natural and full effect.” George greed works its own discomfiture. had evidently heard something of the distrust of France which was
so prominent a feature in the political character
[Air: "The Banks of the Daisies.") of Adams; and he observed—which was
When first I saw young Molly
Sthritched beneath the holly, certainly not in the best taste, consid
Fast asleep, forenint her sheep, wan dreamy summer's ering that England and France were then
day, at peace—that the American Envoy was un
Wid daisies laughin' round her, derstood to have no prejudices in favor of
Hand and foot I bound her, the French. Adams replied by admitting the
Then kissed her on her bloomin' cheek, and softly stole
away. fact, with the significant addition, “I must avow to your Majesty that I have no attach
But as, wid blushes burnin', ment but to my own country." George re
Tiptoe I was turnin', sponded with a heartiness that could not be
From sleep she starts and on me darts a dreadful lightnin'.
ray, mistaken (for the principle was one with
My foolish, flowery fetters which he naturally sympathized), “ An honest Scornfully she scatters, man will never have any other." And with
And like a winter sunbeam she coldly sweeps away. these words the interview terminated. The
But Love, young Love, comes stoopin' brief conversation had been conducted on
O'er my daisies droopin', both sides with much good feeling, and Adams And oh! each flower, wid fairy-power, the rosy Boy rehas recorded that both he and the King were
Then twines each charmin' cluster powerfully affected.-Cassell's History of the
In links of starry lustre, United States.
And wid the chain enchanting, my colleen proud pursues. HURRY AND “High Pressure."-It is the
And soon I met young Molly pace that kills; and of all forms of “over
Musin' melancholy, work," that which consists in an excessive Wid downcast eyes and startin' sighs, along the meadow burst of effort, straining to the strength, and
And oh! her swellin' bosom worrying to the will, hurry of all kinds—for
Was wreathed wid daisy-blossom, example, that so often needed to catch a train, Like stars in summer heaven, as in my arms she sank.