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for those who know little of stocks; lite- class. For my own part, I have attended rary persons despise the unlettered; and a good many lectures in my time. I still people of all pursuits combine to dispar- remember that the spinning of a top is a age those who have none.
case of Kinetic Stability. I still rememBut though this is one difficulty of the ber that Emphytepsis is not a disease, subject, it is not the greatest. You nor Stillicide a crime. But though I could not be put in prison for speaking would not willingly part with such scraps against industry, but you can be sent to of science, I do not set the same store Coventry for speaking like a fool. The by them as by certain other odds and greatest difficulty with most subjects is to ends that I came by in the open street do them well; therefore, please to remem- while I was playing truant. This is not ber this is an apology. It is certain thai the moment to dilate on that mighty much may be judiciously argued in favor place of education, which was the favorof diligence ; only there is something to ite school of Dickens and Balzac, and be said against it, and that is what, on turns out yearly many inglorious masters the present occasion, I have to say. To in the Science of the Aspects of Life. state one argument is not necessarily to Suffice it to say this : if a lad does not be deaf to all others, and that a man has learn in the streets, it is because he has written a book of travels in Montenegro, no faculty of learning. Nor is the truis no reason why he should never have ant always in the streets, for if he prebeen to Richmond.
fers, he may go out by the gardened It is surely beyond a doubt that peo- suburbs into the country. He may pitch ple should be a good deal idle in youth. on some tuft of lilacs over a burn, and For though here and there a Lord Mac- smoke innumerable pipes to the tune of. aulay may escape from school honors the water on the stones. A bird will with all his wits about him, most boys sing in the thicket. And there he may pay so dear for their medals that they fall into a vein of kindly thought, and never afterwards have a shot in their see things in a new perspective. Why, locker, and begin the world bankrupt. if this be not education, what is ? We And the same holds true during all the may conceive Mr. Worldly Wiseman actime a lad is educating himself, or suffer- costing such an one, and the conversaing others to educate him. It must have tion that should thereupon ensue:been a very foolish old gentleman who “How now, young fellow, what dost addressed Johnson at Oxford in these thou here ?" words : “ Young man, ply your book dil “ Truly, sir, I take mine ease.” igently now, and acquire a stock of “Is not this the hour of the class? knowledge ; for when years come upon and should'st thou not be plying thy you, you will find that poring upon Book with diliger.ce, to the end tholi books will be but an irksome task.' mayest obtair knowledge?” The old gentleman seems to have been Nay, but thus also I follow after unaware that many other things besides Learning, by your leave.” reading grow irksome, and not a few be "Learning, quotha! After what fashcome impossible, by the time a man has ion, I pray thee? Is it mathematics ?" to use spectacles and cannot walk with No, to be sure." out a stick. Books are good enough in Is it metaphysics ?" their own way, but they are a mighty Nor that. bloodless substitute for life. It seems a "Is it some language ?" pity to sit, like the Lady of Shalott, "Nay, it is no language." peering into a mirror, with your back Is it a trade ?" turned on all the bustle and glamour of Nor a trade neither." reality. And if a man reads very hard, Why, then, what is't?" as the old anecdote reminds us, he will Indeed, sir, as a time may soon come have little time for thought. If you look for me to go upon Pilgrimage, I am desirback on your own education, I am sure ous to note what is commonly done by it will not be the full, vivid, instructive persons in my case, and where are the hours of truantry that you regret; you ugliest Sloughs and Thickets on the would rather cancel some lack-lustre Road; as also, what manner of Stafi is periods between sleep and waking in the of the best service. Moreover, I lie
here, by this water, to learn by root-of- pid to the last. And meantime there heart a lesson which my master teaches goes the idler, who began life along with me to call Peace, or Contentment." them—by your leave, a different picture.
Hereupon Mr. Worldly Wiseman was He has had tirne to take care of his health much commoved with passion, and shak- and his spirits; he has been a great deal ing his cane with a very threatful coun- in the open air, which is the niost salutenance, broke forth upon this wise : tary of all things for both body and
Learning, quotha!” said he; “I would mind; and if he has never read the great have all such rogues scourged by the Book in very recondite places, he has Hangman!"
dipped into it and skimmed it over to And so he would go his way, ruffling excellent purpose. Might not the stuoilt his cravat with a crackle of starch, dent afford some Hebrew roots, and the like a turkey when it spreads its feathers. business man some of his half-crowns,
Now this, of Mr. Wiseman's, is the for a share of the idler's knowledge of common opinion. A fact is not called a life at large, and Art of Living? Nay, fact, but a piece of gossip, if it does not and the idler has another and more imfall into one of your scholastic catego- portant quality than these. I mean his ries. An inquiry must be in some wisdom. He who has much looked on acknowledged direction, with a name to at the childish satisfaction of other peogo by; or else you are not inquiring at ple in their hobbies, will regard his own all, only lounging; and the workhouse with only a very ironical indulgence. He is too good for you. It is supposed that will not be heard among the dogmatists.
all knowledge is at the bottom of a well, He will have a great and cool allowance • of the far end of a telescope. Sainte- for all sorts of people and opinions. If
Beauve, as he grew older, came to regard he finds no out-of-the-way truths, he will all experience as a single great book, in identify himself with no very burning which to study for a few years ere we go falsehood. His way takes him along a hence; and it seemed all one to him by-road, not much frequented, but very whether you should read in Chapter xx., even and pleasant, which is called Comwhich is the differential calculus, or in monplace Lane, and leads to the BelveChapter xxxix., which is hearing the dere of Commonsense. Thence he shall band play in the gardens. As a matter command an agreeable, if no very noble of fact, an intelligent person, looking out prospect; and while others behold the of his eyes and hearkening in his ears, East and West, the Devil and the Sunwith a smile on his face all the time, will rise, he will be contentedly aware of a get more true education than many an- sort of morning hour upon all sublunary other in a life of heroic vigils. There is things, with an army of shadows running certainly some chill and arid knowledge speedily and in many different directions to be found upon the summits of formal into the great daylight of Eternity. The and laborious science; but it is all round shadows and the generations, the shrill about you, and for the trouble of look- doctors and the plangent wars, go by ing, that you will acquire the warm and into ultimate silence and emptiness; but palpitating facts of life. While others underneath all this, a man may see, out are filling their memory with a lumber of of the Belvedere windows, much green words, one-half of which they will forget and peaceful landscape ; many firelit parbefore the week be out, your truant may lors; good people Jaughing, drinking, learn some really useful art: to play the and making love, as they did before the fiddle, to know a good cigar, or to speak Flood or the French Revolution; and with ease and opportunity to all varie- the old shepherd telling his tale under ties of men. Many who have “plied the hawthorn. their books diligently," and know all Extreme busyness, whether at school about some one branch or another of or college, kirk or market, is a symptom accepted lore, come out of the study of deficient vitality; and a faculty for with an ancient and owl-like demeanor, idleness implies a catholic appetite and and prove dry, stockish, and dyspeptic a strong sense of personal identity. in all the better and brighter parts of There is a sort of dead-alive, hackneyed life. Many make a large fortune, who people about, who are scarcely conscious remain underbred and pathetically stu- of living except in the exercise of some conventional occupation. Bring these other things. And it is not by any feilows into the country, or set them means certain that a man's business is aboard ship, and you will see how they the most important thing he has to do. pine for their desk or their study. They To an impartial estimate it will seem have no curiosity; they cannot give clear that many of the wisest, most virtuthemselves over
to random provoca- ous, and most beneficent parts that are tions; they do not take pleasure in the to be played upon the Theatre of Life exercise of their faculties for its own are filled by gratuitous performers, and sake; and unless Necessity lays about pass, among the world at large, as phases them with a stick, they will even stand of idleness. For in that Theatre, not still. It is no good speaking to such only the walking, gentlemen, singing folk : they cannot be idle, their nature chambermaids, and diligent fiddlers in is not generous enough; and they pass the orchestra, but those who look on and those hours in a sort of coma, which are clap their hands from the benches, do not dedicated to furious moiling in the really play a part and fulfil important offigold-mili. When they do not require to ces towards the general result.
You are go to the office, when they are not hun- no doubt very dependent on the care of gry and have no mind to drink, the your lawyer and stockbroker, of the whole breathing world is a biank to guards and signalmen who convey you them. If they have to wait an hour or rapidly from place to place, and the poso for a train, they fall into a stupid licemen who walk the streets for your trance with their eyes open. To see protection; but is there not a thought of them, you would suppose
there was noth- gratitude in your heart for certain other ing to look at and no one to speak with; benefactors who set you smiling when you would imagine they were paralyzed they fall in your way, or season your or alienated; and yet very possibly they dinner with good company ? Colonel are hard workers in their own way, and Newcome helped to lose his friend's have good eyesight for a flaw in a deed money; Fred Bayham had an ugly trick or a turn of the market. They have of borrowing shirts; and yet they were been to school and college, but all the better people to fall among than Mr. time they had their eye on the medal; Barnes. And though Falstaff was neither they have gone about in the world and sober nor very honest, I think I could mixed with clever people, but all the name one or two long-faced Barabbas's time they were thinking of their own whom the world could better have done affairs. As if a man's soul were not too without. Hazlitt mentions that he was small to begin with, they have dwarfed more sensible of obligation to Northcote, and narrowed theirs by a life of all work who had never done him anything he and no play ; until here they are at forty, could call a service, than to his whole with a listless attention, a mind vacant circle of ostentatious friends; for he of all material of amusement, and not thought a good companion emphatically one thought to rub against another, the greatest benefactor. I know there while they wait for the train. Before he are people in the world who cannot feel was breeched, he might have clambered grateful unless the favor has been done on the boxes; when he was twenty, he them at the cost of pain and difficulty. would have stared at the girls; but now But this is a churlish disposition. A the pipe is smoked out, the snuff-box man may send you six sheets of letterempty, and my gentleman sits bolt up- paper covered with the most entertaining right upon a bench, with lamentable gossip, or you may pass half-an-hour eyes. This does not appeal to me as pleasantly, perhaps profitably, over an being Success in Life.
article of his; do you think the service But it is not only the person himself would be greater, if he had made the who suffers from his busy habits, but manuscript in his heart's blood, like a his wife and children, his friends and re- compact with the devil? Do you really lations, and down to the very people he fancy you should be more beholden to sits with in a railway carriage or an om- your correspondent, if he had been nibus. Perpetual devotion to what a damning you all the while for your imman calls his business, is only to be sus- portunity? Pleasures are more benefitained by perpetual neglect of many cial than duties because, like the quality. of mercy, they are not strained, and they system, to discharge some temper before are twice blest. There must always be he returns to work. I do not care how two to a kiss, and there may be a score much or how well he works, this fellow in a jest; but wherever there is an ele- is an evil feature in other people's lives. ment of sacrifice, the favor is conferred They would be happier if he were dead. with pain, and, among generous people. They could easier do 'without his serreceived with confusion. There is no vices in the Circumlocution Office, than duty we so much underrate as the duty they can tolerate his fractious spirits. of being happy. By being happy we He poisons life at the well-head. It is sow anonymous benefits upon the world, better to be beggared out of hand by a which remain unknown even to our- scapegrace nephew, than daily hag-ridselves, or when they are disclosed, sur- den by a peevish uncle. prise nobody so much as the benefactor. And what, in God's name, is all this The other day, a ragged, barefoot boy pother about? For what cause do they ran down the street after a marble, with embitter their own and other people's so jolly an air that he set everyone he lives ? That a man should publish three passed into a good humor; one of these or thirty articles a year, that he should persons, who had been delivered from finish'or not finish his great allegorical
than usually black thoughts, picture, are questions of little interest to stopped the little fellow and gave him the world. The ranks of life are full ; some money with this remark: “You and although a thousand fall, there are see what sometimes comes of looking always some to go into the breach. pleased.” If he had looked pleased be- When they told Joan of Arc she should fore, he had now to look both pleased be at home minding women's work, she and mystified. For my part, I justify answered there were plenty to spin and this encouragement of smiling rather wash. And so, even with your own rare than tearful children; I do not wish to gifts! When nature is so careless of pay for tears anywhere but upon the the single life,” why should we coddle stage; but I am prepared to deal largely ourselves into the fancy that our own is in the opposite commodity. A happy of exceptional importance ? Suppose man or woman is a better thing to find Shakespeare had been knocked on the than a five-pound nute. He or she is a head some dark night in Sir Thomas radiating focus of good will; and their Lucy's preserves, the world would have entrance into a room is as though another wagged on better or worse, the pitcher candle had been lighted. We need not gone to the well, the scythe to the corn, care whether they could prove the forty. and the student to his book; and no one seventh proposition ; they do a better been any the wiser of the loss. There thing than that, they practically demon- are not many works extant, if you look strate the great Theorem of the Live- the alternative all over, which are worth ableness of Life. Consequently, if a the price of a pound of tobacco to a man person cannot be happy without remain- of limited means. This is a sobering reing idle, idle he should remain. It is a flection for the proudest of our earthly revolutionary precept; but, thanks to vanities. Even a tobacconist may, upon hunger and the workhouse, one not easily consideration, find no great cause for to be abused, and, within practical lim- personal vainglory in the phrase; for its, it is one of the most incontestable although tobacco is an admirable sedatruths in the whole Body of Morality. tive, the qualities necessary for retailing Look at one of your industrious fellows it are neither rare nor precious in themfor a moment, I beseech you. He sows selves. Alas and alas ! you may take it hurry and reaps indigestion ; he puts a how you will, but the services of no sinvast deal of activity out to interest, and gle individual are indispensable. Atlas receives a large measure of nervous was just a gentleman with a protracted derangement in return. Either he ab- nightmare! And yet you see merchants sents himself entirely from all fellowship, who go and labor themselves into a great and lives a recluse in a garret, with car- fortune and thence into the bankruptcy pet slippers and a leaden inkpot; or he court; scribblers who keep scribbling at comes among people swiftly and bitterly, little articles until their temper is a cross in a contraction of his whole nervous to all who come about them, as though
Pharaoh should set the Israelites to farces was the bull's-eye and centrepoint make a pin instead of a pyramid ; and of all the universe ? And yet it is not fine young men who work themselves The ends for which they give away into a decline, and are driven off in a their priceless youth, for all they know, hearse with white plumes upon it. may be chimerical or hurtful; the glory Would you not suppose these persons and riches they expect may never come, had been whispered, by the Master of or may find them indifferent; and they the Ceremonies, the promise of some and the world they inhabit are so inconmoinentous destiny ? and that this luke- siderable that the mind freezes at the warm bullet on which they play their thought.--Cornhill Magazine.
LIFE AND TIMES OF THOMAS BECKET.
BY JAMES ANTHONY FROUDE.
BECKET was now forty-four years old. State and king; to place the pope, and The king was thirty. The ascendency himself as the pope's legate, in the posiwhich Becket had hitherto exercised tion of God's vicegerents. When he over his sovereign through the advantage found it written that 'by me kings reign of age was necessarily diminishing as the and princes decree judgment,' he approking came to maturity, and the two priated the language to himself, and his great antagonists, as they were hence- single aim was to convert the words thus forth to be, were more fairly matched construed into reality. than Becket perhaps expected to find The first public intimation which them. The archbishop was past the Becket gave of his intentions was his time of life at which the character can resignation of the chancellorship. He be seriously changed. After forty men had been made archbishop that the offimay alter their opinions, their policy, ces might be combined; he was no soonand their conduct; but they rarely alter er consecrated than he informed the king their dispositions; and Becket remained that the duties of his sacred calling left as violent, as overbearing, as ambitious, him no leisure for secular business. He as unscrupulous, as he had shown him- did not even wait for Henry's return self when chancellor, though the objects from Normandy. He placed the great at which he was henceforth to aim were seal in the hands of the chief justice, the entirely different. It would be well for young prince, and the barons of the Exhis memory were it possible to credit chequer, demanding and receiving from him with a desire to reform the Church them a hurried discharge of his responsiof which he was the head, to purge away bilities. The accounts
, for all that apthe corruption of it, to punish himself the pears, were never examined. Grim, permoral disorders of the clergy, while he haps, when accusing him of rapine and denied the right to punish them to the murder, was referring to a suppression of
We seek in vain, however, for a disturbance in Aquitaine, not to any the slightest symptom of any such desire. special act of which he was guilty in Throughout his letters there is not the England; but the unsparing ruthlessness faintest consciousness that anything was which he displayed on that occasion was amiss. He had been himself amongst an indication of the disposition which the grossest of pluralists; so far from was displayed in all that he did, and he being ashamed of it, he still aimed at re- was wise in anticipating inquiry. taining the most lucrative of his bene- The king had not recovered from his fices. The idea with which his mind surprise at such unwelcome news when was filled was not the purity of the he learned that his splendid minister had Church, but the privilege and supremacy laid aside his magnificence and had asof the Church. As chancellor he had sumed the habit of a monk, that he was been at the head of the State under the always in tears—tears which flowed from king. As archbishop, in the name of the him with such miraculous abundance as Church, he intended to be head both of to evidence the working in him of some