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uttered the word in conversation just be- bet or the spelling-book, and I doubt fore, there was only one of the four sylla- whether any polished English speaker bles to which he gave the same sound ever utters either of them distinctly which he gives in spelling it. Try him when he can avoid it. But here again with another, in which an unaccented we have no need of additional letters; comes before the accented syllable ; say, for the same necessity which causes the committal ; 6, 0, m, com ; m, i, t, mit change of sound supplies an infallible com-mit; t, a, l, tal-com-mit-tal. When direction for making the change correctly. he pronounces the word without spelling Try to prolong the sound of a in the it, you find that both the first and the first case (a as heard in face), and of o last syllable have changed their character in the second (o as heard in bolt), until -com has almost turned into cum, and your tongue is in a position to form an tal into tul. Now why is this? He does untrilled r : the required modification not do it on purpose; he is not aware of the vowel sound in both cases will be probably that he does it at all. He does the inevitable result.* it simply because it is the easiest way“ I hold it certain, therefore, that with because he could not do it otherwise an alphabet of forty-two letters sufficient without trouble. And this it is that sug- directions may be given for pronouncing gests what I believe to be the true, exact English as correctly as it is usually proand sufficient direction for the formation nounced in society, and with no wider of all these obscure and indescribable variations from the standard, if there be sounds, in all their varieties, as they are such a thing, than are commonly heard heard in the language of the best speak wherever half a dozen Englishmen are ers. Each of them being in fact the talking together in a drawing-room, nearest approach to the sound aimed at The only difficulty which appears to that can be made from the position into stand in the way is the choice of the which the vocal organs have been particular aiphabet to be used, and the brought by their last action, or have to rules for using it. Upon this it is probbring themselves in order to be ready able that opinions will differ; and yet for the next, the practical direction for unless the several teachers can agree to making it is to give to every syllable as use the same in the same way, a great much of its proper sound-of the sound part of the benefit will be lost; for the you give it when you pronounce it by pupils of the several schools will not itself — as, without sacrificing the pre- have a common system upon which they dominance of the accented syllable, you can interchange communications. And conveniently can. The best speakers are besides, though one of the rival systems those who (subject to this last condition) may be as good as another for the purpreserve most of the characteristic sound pose of instruction in the sounds, and, if in each case. It is a slovenly pronunci- they are all equally successful in short‘ation which leaves it doubtful whether ening the process of teaching to read you said cymbals or symbols.

common books, the immediate object of Even with accented syllables the same them all is equally well answered, it must difficulty sometimes occurs, and is to be not be supposed that this is the only addealt with in the same way. When I vantage which the pupils are to derive say fair face,' or 'bolt the door,' I mean to give exactly the same sound to the ai * Even if this be not, as I think it is, the and a in the first case, and to the o and

most scientific direction for the production of oo in the second. The sounds 1 do give lateral merit not to be despised. It avoids in

the required sound in these cases, it has a colthem are widely different. Yet it is not a vast number of cases the necessity of changa case of obscurity, for the vowels into ing the vowels, and so producing that strangewhich the ai and the oo have transformed ness of appearance which, besides offending

scholars (who seem to think it not only awk themselves are clearly and firmly enun

ward but sinful), does really make the reforin a ciated, and in foreign languages, as well little more difficult. It is obvious that the as in our own provincial dialects, hold a liker to one another the words in the two conspicuous place. But they are vowels styles look, the more readily will they be recwhich the English of the schools and the ognised as the same, and iherefore that both

the phonetic teacher will sooner be able to drawing-room does all it can to repudi- read easily in the new style, and the phonetic ate. They have no place in the alpha- pupil in the old ; which is the end we aim at.

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from the course of instruction they will as a skilled teacher; and much better
have to go through. It must be remem- than an unskilled one, however good his
bered that all who learn the use of such own pronunciation may be. The latest
a phonetic alphabet will 'possess for the reformation in the way of reading Latin
rest of their lives an accomplishment of and Greek may be circulated by post to
great value—so great, indeed, that it may all grammar schools. And in short, as
be said without any exaggeration to be soon as the accomplishment becomes as
coextensive with the value of letters. common as reading, it will be found that
They will be able to describe (on paper its uses are as various and as valuable
by writing or print the pronunciation of as those of writing. Making it possible
words, when it would be impossible or to hear by the eye (like a musician, who,
inconvenient to impart it by speech, and having the benefit of a phonetic nota-
the most ingenious manipulation of the tion, hears the music as he reads it), it
sacred twenty-six, from A to Z, would will extend the range of earshot both in
fail to convey a notion of it. It is true time and space indefinitely. A man will
that at first they will have it all to them- be able to make his words heard in
selves, for their uninstructed elders and Australia with the next mail, and heard
betters will not be able to profit by the by the next ages, as long as his book en-
information. But this will be only for dureth. I know a poet who is happy in
a while. As soon as a knowledge of the most things, but most unhappy in an ap-
phonetic characters becomes an indis- prehension that people who have not
pensable part of general education, and heard his poems read will never know
is required by schools and colleges and how to read them. He will be able to
Civil Service Commissicners (as it will be stereotype the sounds, the quantities, the
when its value comes to be generally un- pauses, the intonations, the accents, and
derstood), newspaper correspondents will the emphases, for all the peoples in all
be able to tell us what to call the peo- the times. He will only have to publish
ple and the places about whom they are a phonetic edition.
enlightening us; books of travels will be These results will depend upon the
readable aloud without the interruption consistent use and the general acceptance
of a stumble and an apology at every of the alphabet which shall be chosen ;
proper name; missionaries will be able and the very variety of the persons and
to give information which will be of use causes that are interested in it will divide
to comparative philologists about the opinions, and make the choice more
languages of the countries in which they difficult. It may be hoped, however,
are laboring; we shall know whether that if the reforming teachers keep to
another Captain Burnaby rides to Khiva their own business and take counsel to-
or Kheva, and shall accompany another gether-leaving etymologists to invent a
Commander Cameron with much greater system of etymological orthography for
comfort through regions that are now themselves, foreign linguists to construct
(because of the number of consonants such alphabets as are easiest for them to
without any vowel between which they work, as ours is easiest for us; making
require us to pronounce) not to be no attempt to convert or conciliate anti-
named. Of its uses in these ways I can reformers who regard the question as
speak confidently from personal experi- unworthy of serious consideration, and
ence; for I read the accounts of the therefore have never considered it seri-
Hungarian war of 1849 in the Phonetic ously; but applying themselves solely to
News, where all the proper names were find out the best method of teaching
carefully spelt. But it is not merely in English boys and girls to read and write
the foreign names which perplex us in modern English for modern purposes-
English books that we shall feel the they will be able to agree upon one set
benefit: the foreign languages will be of symbols and one set of rules to be
better and more easily learned, especially used by all; and that such an alphabet,
by those who aspire to teach themselves. having the great advantage of being in
The many scholars who have to learn possession of the field, will be strong
these languages from books will be fur- enough to resist foolish changes, to en-
nished with directions for the pronunci- tertain friendly suggestions, to test and
ation that will serve them almost as well adopt real improvements without break-

ing up, and to serve for the foundation ally extended to meet all the requireof a system of phonetic notation, the ments of the science of language. The powers and uses of which may be gradu- Nineteenth Century.


ALL-GOLDEN is her virgin head,

Her cheek a bloomy rose,
Carnation-bright the fluttering red

That o'er it softly flows,
But neither gem nor floweret vies
With that clear wonder of her eyes.

But twice hath hue like theirs been given

To be beheld of me,
And once 'twas in the twilight heaven,

Once in the summer sea;
A yearning gladness thence was born,
A dream delightful and forlorn.

For once in heaven a single star

Lay in a light unknown,-
A tender tint, more lucid far

Than all that eve had shown,-
It seemed between the gold and gray
The far dawn of a faery day.

And once where ocean's depth divine

O'er silvern sands was hung,
Gleamed in the half-lit hyaline

The hope no song has sung,
The memory of a world more fair
Than all our blazing wealth of air.

For dear though earthly days may flow,

Our dream is dearer yet ;-
How little is the life we know

To life that we forget!
Till in a maiden's eyes we see
What once hath been, what still shall be.

Macmillan's Magazine.



PAUL H. HAYNE, a portrait of whom Congressional history. After graduatwe present to our readers as that of the

ing at the College of Charleston in 1850, most eminent of living Southern poets Paul H. Hayne studied law, and was adand men-of-letters, was born in Charles- mitted to the bar; but all his tastes were ton, South Carolina, on the ist of Janu- literary, and being at that time independary, 1831. His father was Lieut. Paul ent as to means, he was enabled to gratH. Hayne, of the United States Navy, ify them. He edited in succession a who was a younger brother of Robert Y. number of Southern periodicals, of which Hayne, whose debate with Webster on the best known was Russell's Maga "Foote's Resolutions” is so famous in zine;" and in 1855 his first volume of poems appeared from the press of Tick- ume thus entitled contains, in the author's nor & Fields, Boston. It attracted opinion, his most vigorous and characconsiderable attention from a cultivated teristic verse. Three years later, in circle, and was pronounced by Mr. 1875, his last volume, "The Mountain Edwin P. Whipple, the brilliant Boston of the Lovers," was issued by Hale & critic, "a work of great promise as well Sons of New York. A noteworthy feaas fine performance." His second vol- ture of this latter work is a group of ume, published in Charleston in 1857, “Nature-Poems,” descriptive of the pewas a thin duodecimo, consisting chiefly culiarities of Southern landscape and of sonnets, but introduced by an ex- scenery, which appeared originally in quisitely graceful and imaginative “Ode the “ Atlantic Monthly." to Sleep,” which marked the highest point Of Mr. Hayne's prose writings the he had yet 'reached in poetry. In 1860 .most important are biographies of his his third volume (“ Avolio and Other uncle, Robert Y. Hayne, of Hugh S. Poems") appeared, from the press of Legaré, the eminent South Carolina lawTicknor & Fields, and was favorably re- yer and scholar, and of his brother-poet, ceived by the critics and public.

Henry Timrod. The latter was prefixed During the civil war, Mr. Hayne served to the collected edition of Timrod's poems first on the staff of Governor Pickens, (1873), and awakened an unusual de. and subsequently for some months as a gree of interest, both North and South. volunteer in Fort Sumter; but the con- Another biographical work by Mr. dition of his health forbade his regularly Hayne, a life of William Gilmore Simms, taking the field. As was the case with is in the hands of the Harpers awaiting many others of his unfortunate compat- publication. riots, the close of the conflict found him, Mr. Hayne's verses are nearly always pecuniarily, ruined. He removed to graceful, polished, and musical, and are Augusta, Georgia, where for some time pervaded by a tender imaginative sentihe assisted in the editorship of the “Au- ment and by a genuine love of nature. gusta Constitutionalist ;" and afterwards, His prose style is animated and pictuin 1866, settled down in his present resi- resque, but too poetical in form and dence, sixteen miles from Augusta, near manner to meet the severer requirements the Georgia Railroad. Here, in a rude of good prose. His work is especially whitewashed cottage, crowning a hill deserving of recognition from the fact among the pine-barrens, he has lived with that as one of the very few professional his family (a mother, wife, and one child) littérateurs in a section of the country for eleven years in alınost complete seclu- where art and letters have long been sion; and here he has done what must completely subordinated to politics and be regarded as his best literary work. the practical affairs of life, his career has The Lippincotts published his “Le been one of constant and not easily exgends and Lyrics” in 1872, and the vol- aggerated difficuity and discouragement. ment, and partakes rather of the character of history throws upon future political adjusta political pamphlet than of what is usually ments. The text is illustrated by three col. understood by history proper. Mr. Freeman ored maps, one showing the Ottoman domin. maintains, indeed, that between politics and ions as they exist at this time (February, 1877), history no rational distinction can be drawn-- another showing the several States of Southhistory being simply the politics of the past, Eastern Europe at the time of the entrance of while politics are the history of the present. the Ottomans into Europe, and a third showing “The past is studied in vain, unless it gives the Ottoman dominions at the time of their us lessons for the present; the present will greatest extent. be very imperfectly understood, unless the light of the past is brought to bear upon it.


The Ottoman Power in Europe, its Nature, rection in Herzegovina and Bosnia, Mr. Free

its Growth, and its Decline. By Edward man saw that the long-impending catastrophe A. Freeman, D.C.L., LL.D. London and had begun, and at once addressed himself to New York: Macmillan & Co.

the task of enlightening his countrymen, by

pen and by word of mouth, concerning the real To Mr. Freeman as much as to any one nature of the issues involved, and awakening man the world is indebted for the fact that in in them a perception of the atrocious crime the present great crisis of affairs in South- against civilization and morals of which Eng. Eastern Europe the strength and influence of land would be guilty, should she again allow England are not, as in 1853-4, thrown into herself to be betrayed into extending her aid the scale in behalf of the Turk against the un- to the barbarous horde encamped in Turkey. fortunate Christian peoples whom he has op- The present treatise on the nature, growth, pressed and plundered for nearly five hun. and decline of the Ottoman Power in Europe dred years. On the first mutterings of insur. is a continuation of this process of enlighten

THE AMERICAN. A NOVEL. By Henry James, In this way, history and politics are one."

Jr. Boston: J. R. Osgood & Co. Still, it is well to bear the fact in mind that The first thought that occurs to one after in formal history the primary intention of reading “The American" is that the opulence the historian is to set down all the facts as of power displayed in it ought to have made they actually occurred, leaving the particu- it a novel of the first rank, and precisely why lar application of the lessons they carry to be it fails of being such it is somewhat difficult made by other hands; while Mr. Freeman to say. The plot is consistent and well-conhimself confesses that what he has here done structed if somewhat commonplace, the chais to use the past history of the Ottoman racters are without exception piquant and Turks in order to show what is the one way interesting, the descriptive portions are rewhich, according to the light of reason and ex- markably brilliant and picturesque, and the perience, can be of any use in dealing with the entire book is pervaded by that atmosphere Ottoman Turks of the present day. In other of elegant culture which is so grateful to rewords, his aim is primarily political and not fined and educated minds. The "situation,” historical.

too, is very effective—that of an American, a We call attention to this point merely in self-made man, fresh from the crudities of his order to define the character of the book, not wild Western home, confronted with the by any means to disparage it; for we hold that aristocratic prejudices and the inflexible neither history nor historian was ever better social standards of the most exclusive society employed than in work of precisely this kind. of the Old World. But we fear that it was The historian ceases to be a mere historian, the very effectiveness of this situation—its the scholar a mere scholar, when he leaves wide-reaching suggestiveness and interesthis dry accumulations of facts, and uses his that spoiled Mr. James's book as a novel. knowledge in behalf of great and pressing In his anxiety to point the contrast and espublic questions regarding which the public sential antagonism between two such alien stands very much in need of enlightenment; civilizations as those of Republican America and this is the exact nature of the service that and Bourbon France, he has subordinated Mr. Freeman has performed. He tells us all his characters to the machinery of his story, that any one can tell us in a brief space of the so to speak, and thus deprived them of that origin, growth, and character of the Ottoman personal individuality and self-determining rule ; and in addition to this—applying the force without which neither real nor fictitious teachings of the past to the problems of the persons can establish any strong claim upon present-he imparts to us such a clear con- our sympathies or interest. No doubt in ception of the elementary principles involved actual life men and women are constantly in the so-called Eastern Question that hence- entangled in the web of fate and circumforth no jargon of the diplomatists, no raising stance, their purposes thwarted and their of subsidiary or irrelevant issues, no senti- aspirations turned away; but in such cases mental or interested pleas, will be able to there must be coöperating conditions in their blind our eyes or pervert our judgment. The own nature, and it reduces them to the level conscience and civilization of the world are of puppets in our eyes if we see too plainly against the Turk, and through Mr. Freeman the external predetermining agencies by this conscience and this civilization give him which they were crushed. Hence, the reader notice that, in spite of all the postponements is dissatisfied with the manner in which of diplomatists, he must“ step down and “The American" ends, not because it is painout."

ful, but because it mars the conception which Besides his history of the Ottomans, Mr. he has been led to form of the two principal Freeman gives valuable descriptive accounts characters in the story; because it seems of the other races of South-Eastern Europe, of incongruous with what has gone before ; and their relations to one another and to the com- because it is manifestly the result, not of mon enemy, and of the light which their past spontaneously-acting natural causes, but of

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