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falling off is often visible in Alpine guides, dead body. A few days after the body English butlers, and many other classes arrived, and it remained to be determined of people who are not negroes; nor is it what was to be done with the expedition. only in Africa that the not unreasonable Lieutenant Murphy resigned his position, idea prevails that when a man becomes and announced his determination of reunfit for the work which has gained his turning to the east coast, on the ground reputation, his experience and past labors that the work of the expedition was should elevate him into an easier posi- completed. Dillon was desirous to go tion.
on; but he was so ill that he also resolved On reaching his first great stage in to return. Cameron at this time was Unyanyembe, about 450 miles from the nearly blind with ophthalmia, almost uncoast, Lieutenant Cameron was most able to walk from pains in his back; and kindly received by Said ibn Salim, the fever, which was still hanging about him, Governor of the Arab settlement, who had reduced him to a skeleton, and to a had accompanied Burton, and Speke and weight little over seven stone. NeverGrant, on a portion of their journeys, theless, in these desperate circumstances, and who, we are glad to learn,“ cherished he determined to go on, in order to an affectionate memory for his former secure a box of books which Livingstone masters, and was very kind to us for their had left at Ujiji and had referred to sakes; not only lending the house, but anxiously with his dying breath, and also . giving us a supply of milk morning and to follow up the great traveller's exploraevening, and constantly sending presents tions. It was a heroic determination, and of fowls, eggs, and goats.” In this un- was justified by the splendid result. He healthy place they were detained for had a terrible warning immediately after several months, owing to the difficulty of starting; but even that did not deter obtaining porters, and from the direct him. He had only started when he route to Ujiji being closed by Mirambo, learned that Diilon had destroyed hima native chief, who had formerly been a self; and he made the next march in an great friend of the Arab traders, and had almost unconscious state. Strong must shown (much generosity in giving them have been the internal impulse which credit when in difficulties, but had been drove him across Africa. turned into a bitter enemy by their re- For the next two years Cameron was pudiation of their engagements. Com- alone, so far as Europeans were conmander Cameron writes of this chief as cerned, and for the most part upon if he were a new phenomenon; but Mr. entirely new ground. On reaching TanStanley had before described the posi- ganyika he set to work to sail round that tion of Mirambo, and the unsettled state mysterious lake, and did so round its into which he had thrown the country. larger half--that is to say, from Ujiji, on By aiding the Arabs in fighting Miram- its east coast and on the fifth parallel of bo, Stanley committed a great and un- south latitude, to the southern end of the called-for mistake. It identified white lake, and up the west coast to a point travellers with Arab crimes. The Arabs, not far from opposite Ujiji. Burton or half-castes, whom he joined for this and Speke had left that portion of the purpose, deserted him at a critical lake almost unexamined, and Livingstone moment, occasioned the death of some had gone round the greater portion of it, of his people, and nearly caused him to but chiefly by land, so that Cameron's lose his own life.
was really the first survey of the larger The sufferings endured by all the part of the lake upon the lake itself. members of the expedition in this region Of much interesting information which show that previous accounts of the Cameron gathered in regard to Tanganeffects of its fever were not at all exag- yika, we shall only refer to his discovgerated; and they had also the miseryery of its outlet. This question as to an of being nearly blinded by ophthalmia. outlet had caused a great deal of curious When in this wretched condition, a let- surmise. When Burton and Speke vister arrived from Livingstone's servant, ited its northern end they came to the Jacob Wainwright, announcing the Doc- conclusion that the river Lusize was an tor's death, and that he and Chumah affluent, but they could not sufficiently and (Susi were close at hand with the determine the point; and afterwards
Burton inclined to the opinion that it noticed the same break, and had sugwas an effluent, and connected Tangan- gested that the Logumba river, which yika with the Nile. That idea was dis- appears to be the same as Cameron's proved by the examination of the Lusize Lukuga, or at least is close to it, was an in 1871; but then Livingstone found outlet; and he also opined that there that the streams ran into it at the south might be some other outlets farther north end also, so that it had no connection on the same coast. Unfortunately, Comwith Lake Nyanza. No stream, it was mander Cameron's examination of the well known, issued from its eastern side, Lukuga was not an altogether conclusive towards the Indian Ocean; and Living- one. This part of the coast was between, stone sought, entirely without success, and some distance from, the great tradeto find any effluent on its western side. routes to the west, so that the Arabs Hence he inclined to the opinion that knew nothing about it or about the river. there must be a subterranean outlet for A local chief declared that his people this immense lake, connecting it with often travelled for more than a month the Lualaba river and series of lakes, along its banks until it fell into the which he believed to be the headquarters Lualaba; but local chiefs appear to say of the Nile, but which there is now anything on such points. The African scarcely a doubt are those of the Congo. traveller cannot always pursue the exact It is no wonder Livingstone came to this path he wishes, though he may continue conclusion about a subterranean outlet; in the direction, and Cameron was preand it is still far from improbable that vented from descending (or ascending) there may be such an outlet among its this river; but he went four or five miles limestone rocks, notwithstanding Came- into it, until progress was rendered imron's discovery and Mr. Stanley's in- possible by dense masses of floating veggenious but absurd supposition that Tan- etation. There was neither open water ganyika is a lake which has not yet got nor solid land; but he found in this large filled up. Livingstone's objection to the river, six hundred yards broad and three notion that this lake has no outlet is, fathoms deep, an outward current from that if such a body of deep water were the lake of one knot and a half, sufficient relieved only by evaporation, the deposit to drive his boat well into the edge of of saline matter in it would long since the vegetation; and on various points of have made it a salt lake-there being no his journey afterwards, he obtained corother instance in the world of a large, roborative evidence that this Lukuga deep, fresh-water lake without an outlet, river flows into the Lualaba. and there is a great deal of saline matter So far everything seems quite clear in the country round it. Lake Tchad, and satisfactory; but Mr. Stanley sudindeed, there is reason to believe, has no denly appears at this outlet, laboring unoutlet, and it is fresh water ; but then it der the painful burden that something is not so much a deep-water lake as an new and extraordinary must be found immense shallow lagoon, held within to justify his wandering about in Africa bounds by the surface which it exposes for years with unlimited funds. His to evaporation, and kept fresh by the discovery is, that Lake Tanganyika has absorption of the ground, which is a not yet been filled up, that it is a young kind of outlet. In the extremely salt and rising lake, and that Cameron Dead Sea, it is worthy of notice that the both right and wrong,"—the Lukuga is amount of river-water poured into it is not an outlet of the lake, but it is going extremely small. But whether a subter- to be, when Tanganyika has risen up to ranean outlet exists or not, Livingstone the height of its great destiny. We must detected the part of the coast where give Mr. Stanley credit for his ingenuity there might be a superterranean exit in in this matter, and all the more that it Tanganyika. Commander Cameron saw will be exceedingly difficult to prove that that there was a break in the mountains he is not right in his wonderful supof the western shore where such an outlet position. However satisfactorily it may was likely to be, and, from such examina- be proved afterwards that Tanganyika tion as he was able to bestow upon it, has an outlet in the Lukuga, it will still came to the conclusion that the Lukuga remain open for Mr. Stanley to assert river was that outlet. Livingstone had that it had no such outlet up to the
period of his great discovery; and really been recently formed if such had been there is some reason for being thankful the case. Sir Samuel Baker says that so ingenious a mind should have (* Albert Nyanza,' ii. 317) that Central been relegated to the (comparatively) Africa is composed of granitic and sanduninteresting and innocuous region of stone rocks, which.do not appear to have African geography. It is alarming to been submerged, or to have undergone contemplate what might have been the any volcanic or aqueous changes, and results had it been let loose on the more have been affected only by time workpractically important affairs of European ing through countless ages, . or American politics !
geological change having occurred in But, to look at the matter scientifically, ages long anterior to man.” One of the there are many reasons for supposing greatest of geologists, Sir Roderick Murthat Commander Cameron is right in re- chison, said, in his address to the Royal gard to this subject. We should much Geographical Society of the 23d May more readily trust the observations and 1864– judgment of a practical and scientific sailor in regard to whether the Lukuga the interior mass and central portions of
" In former addresses I suggested that is an affluent or an effluent, than those Africa, constituting a great plateau, occupied of a wandering American reporter. The by lakes and marshes, from which the waters supposition that Lake Tanganyika has escaped by cracks or depressions in the subnot yet filled up to its level, is wholly in- tending older rocks, had been in that position compatible with our knowledge of that during an enormously long period. "I have
recently been enabled, through the apposite lake and of the geology of Central Africa. discovery of Dr. Kirk, the companion of LivHad its basin been a creation .of post- ingstone, not only to fortify my conjecture of tertiary times, it might possibly (though 1852, but greatly to extend the inferences conby no means probably) be now in pro- the central parts of Africa have remained in
cerning the long period of time during which cess of being filled up to the brim. But their present condition.” Tanganyika dates far back in the geological ages-to a period represented One of the chief grounds for this conclunot by hundreds of thousands but by sion is the absence of all eruptive rocks millions, and perhaps hundreds of mile which could have been thrown up since lions, of years. The rainfall upon it is the tertiary rocks began to form. itself enormous. Besides the rainfall, Had Mr. Stanley taken these considerthere are the rivers which run into it, ations into account, or had he possessed and of these Cameron says (Across more knowledge of science, he would Africa,' ii. 304), "I found no less than probably have never brought forward his ninety-six rivers, besides torrents and fanciful hypothesis. What seems to have springs, flowing into the portion of the misled him was the fact that the volume Jake which I surveyed." The drainage of water in Tanganyika has been increasof an immense rainy area flows into Tan- ing of late years. This had been obserganyika, and the country round it " was ved by both Livingstone and Cameron; like a huge sponge full of water. Com- but they had too much knowledge and mander Cameron further came to the judgment to jump to the conclusion that conclusion that this lake was "fed by Tanganyika was a lake not yet filled up. springs in its bed in addition to the The inhabitants on its shores date this numerous rivers and torrents.” Consid- increase from after the visits of white ering these facts, it is extremely difficult men, and ascribe it to these visits. There to believe that Tanganyika is a lake in is also evidence that Tanganyika has process of being filled up. The enor- been before at a much higher level. In mous rainfall and flow of streams into it brief, its level alters considerably, and could hardly be arrested to any extent the cause is not far to seek. Subterraby evaporation under skies so often nean passages (sometimes blocked up by cloudy, and would serve to fill up the falling pieces of rock) may have somebasin in a few centuries. It is hardly thing to do with it; but another cause credible that such excellent geologists as is much more apparent. The vast masses Livingstone and Burton could have ex- of floating vegetation which there are in amined the shores of Tanganyika with this, as in the other Central African lakes, out perceiving traces of its chasm having are quite sufficient to choke up the out
lets either periodically or for long irreg- reached a point on the twelfth degree of ular seasons. Unable, from various south latitude, and the twenty-fourth of circumstances, to trace down the Lukuga east longitude. Hence, as an explorariver, Commander Cameron moved west- tion, Cameron's journey is not so new as ward from Tanganyika to Nyangwe, on some might think ; but still, from Nythe Lualaba river, the farthest point angwe it was over almost entirely new which Livingstone had reached in his ground, though crossed at points by Livlast great explorations. His desire was ingstone's and Lacerda's routes. His to float down this river to the Congo as laborious determination of positions by it is already known to us, and so emerge astronomical observations has been of on the west coast of Africa, but scarcity immense service to our knowledge of of means and local difficulties prevented Africa. He has also determined the him from carrying out this design. The heights along his route, so as to be able disappointment was exceedingly great to to present in his map a most interesting our traveller; and it is so to his readers section of the country, displaying at a also; because, before him, and almost glance the elevations from sea to sea. inviting his footsteps, lay the immense He has exposed the villanies of the slaveunknown regions lying between Nyangwe trade, still carried on by negroid Portuand the western sea, including the mys- guese ; and he managed so well with the terious Lake Sankorra and the great val- natives as to open, not shut, the way for ley of the Congo. There was no help future travellers. And though the litefor it; but the interest of the journey rary excellences of his narrative are not which Cameron might have achieved, of a very striking character, yet they are had circumstances been more favorable, charming in their way, the details being detracts from the interest of that which very clearly presented, and there being it remained for him to achieve, and where throughout an unobtrusive tinge of he had to descend so far to the south as humcr and almost poetic feeling. to cross the previous lines of exploration. We have now indicated the great ex
Nyangwe had been visited before by plorations which have penetrated and lit Livingstone; and from thence Cameron up the darkness of the African continent. had to strike almost directly south to Lake A very fair general idea has been obtained Kassali, between the 8th and oth parallels of what that continent is, of what it is of south latitude. All this was entirely capable of being made, and of the people new ground; but, having after this to by whom it is occupied at present. The strike still further south, though now most important facts which all this disalso in a westerly direction, he crossed covery has brought to light are the existthe line of exploration of Dr. Lacerda ence in Central Africa of great lakes and in 1798, and of Livingstone's early jour- great navigable rivers, and innumerable ney across Africa.
Lacerda went up smaller rivers, many of which are also from the east coast as far as Kabebe, a navigable—the existence of a fertile soil place about S. lat. 8°, and long. 23°, and and of an elevated region, with, in many lying between Cameron's route and the parts, a temperate climate. These facts great valley of the Congo and the Lake obviously point out the existence of a Sankorra.
vast region in Central Africa where, by Livingstone, again, in his journeys of means of the introduction and judicious 1855-56, crossed Cameron's route at employment of the members of the more Katema about 12° 30' S. lat., and 21° civilised races of the world, there may long., and went as far north as Kabango, be a new field for the development of about nine degrees south of the equator. humanity. As to the people of these reWe also notice that in 1796 Pereira gions, much is to be hoped for. It is
quite clear, from the accounts of all the * Colonel Long says of Lake Ibrahim, “The great travellers, that the more we get almost tranquil laké is only relieved of its away from the miasmatic swamps of the heavy pressure of water when the vegetable coast-lands, and from the absolutely matter decays, is annually loosened, and bear
ruinous effects of slave-hunting-whether ing upon its bosom the Pistia stratiotes, and detached islands of papyrus, rushes down and Arab, Portuguese, or Egyptian—the more past Karuma Falls into the Lake Albert, and do we find a half-savage, but also halfthence to the north."
civilised, people, with many fine and at
tractive qualities. The truth seems to over vast regions. The bounty of Nature lie between Dr. Livingstone's extreme has provided for them such abundance affection for them, and Colonel Long's that they continue to exist despite all the horror of their naked deformities. It cruel conditions of that existence. But seems clear that in the African (speaking they are arrested at a position, not so generally) there are qualities of much much between heaven and earth, as bepromise. He has a larger, more exuber- tween earth and hell. There is an old ant physique than any other of the savage touch, a tertiary or pre-tertiary touch or semi-civilised races. His inconse- about them, affiliating them with the quence and fancifulness are those of the ancient hippopotamus and the crocoundeveloped human being, and are not dile; but there is also a touch of a senstereotyped in his nature as in that of sitiveness and of an affection as keen as the ordinary Hindu. If we take his any to which the more civilised races stage of development into account, we have attained. This has exposed them find a remarkable amount of common- to a torture which the crocodile and the sense.
In this respect he approaches hippopotamus do not know; but it has the Chinaman; but he has more affec- been insufficient to elevate them to a tion and sentiment. He has not that platform of order and happiness. Surely hardness of nature which gives such a here is a case where the introduction of metallic sound to the Chinese voice, and European civilisation would be most that square-skulled immobility which pre- justifiable, and might well repay the cost. vents the Chinaman, even under the But if that is to be done at all
, it should most favorable circumstances, from be done effectually,--not as in India, to amalgamating with other races, or depart- the great loss of the agents of civilisaing from the lines of his own stereotyped tion, and in the fostering of a weak nacivilisation. There is good hope that tive conceit, in itself incapable of develthe African may improve vastly under oping or even retaining the benefits which more favorable circumstances than those have been conferred upon the country, in which, hitherto, he has been imbedded. --not as in America, to the extermina
The history of that dark continent, so tion of the aborigines. In the interests far as known to us, presents an awful of England, the African continent might retrospect, and one all the more dreadful be made really to correct the balance of when we take into account the kindly the Old World, and enable us to keep in and affectionate qualities of so many of front of such expanding nations as Gerits primitive people to which Mungo many and Russia. Then, perhaps, it Park, Livingstone, Grant, Schweinfurth, might be given us, in the evening of our and Cameron have borne witness. It is days, to wander meditatively on the shore inexpressibly sad to think of the unnum- of Tanganyika, that mighty Ulleswater bered ages through which these poor of Africa, or of Lake Nyassa, its softer dark savages have continued, scarcely Windermere. It does not seem at all advancing beyond the elements of art likely at present that England will underand science and even of language: from take such a work, but Germany has of within, destroying and devouring one late displayed some distinct symptoms another, willingly offering their throats of being inclined to do so. But however to the knives of sorcerers, or paving the that may be, it is to Englishmen belongs deep grave-pit of some bloody monarch the glory of having first penetrated into with the living trembling bodies of a the centre of tropical Africa, and of havhundred of his young wives: from with- ing achieved there a series of grand inout, hunted down and destroyed or cap- dividual explorations which has no paraltured by aid of the weapons of civilisa- lel in the history of the human race.tion, until every man's hand is turned Blackwood's Magazine, against his brother, and terror reigns