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house of Chigi has now shared the com- make themselves quite as strongly felt mon lot. The sons of these great Roman whenever it is necessary to accredit to princes will certainly not exhibit the at- foreign Governments a Papal nuncio. If tachment to the Papal cause by which this transition character in the civil and their fathers, including the least Papal of social, in the mental and moral condition the number, Prince Doria, were marked. of the former subjects of the Papacy in They will divide their allegiance between the city of Rome itself, is discernible by the Vatican and the Quirinal. It may every calm and impartial observer, the safely be predicted that on the death of transition character of the governing Pius IX. their allegiance will be trans- body of the Church and of the great mass ferred to the Quirinal completely. of the Catholic hierarchy is not less dePrince Torlonia is beyond all question cided, though perhaps from the different the most prominent financial representa- sphere of its action it may not in the same tive of the old Papal system. And degree startle and rivet the same observPrince Torlonia has audiences of King er's mind. How the Papacy, from an Victor Emmanuel, entertains the Minis- attitude comparatively friendly and paters of King Victor Emmanuel at the cific, should have passed of late years inauguration of his great agricultural into one so openly hostile and belligerent works, and receives from the King of towards all civil Governments, is only Italy the gold medal struck by royal com- intelligible when we examine much more mand in commemoration of the same. attentively than it is the fashion to do No member of this class, by the most the successive relations between Church vigorous aid of self-deception, can hide and State in Italy. Nothing at this from himself the fact that the Rome moment in the various phases of Italian which he is now free at any moment to politics and parties is more instructive quit for London or New York, where than the process of continual and univerhe can defend his legal rights in an open sal change, in a reactionary sense, in all court against rival interests however pow- branches of the Catholic hierarchy in erful, where every phase of public life is Italy. Its hundred and seventy-six bishthe daily subject of free discussion, is ops, four thousand canons, ninety-six separated by a change of opinion far thousand priests, and forty thousand greater than any mere lapse of years monks and nuns may not all obey with from the Rome in which the Vatican the same rigorous discipline the word of Council met during the first six months command issuing from the Vatican, but of 1870, and in which, until the 20th of a very large proportion of the body act in September of that year, every expression the same direction with a consistency of opinion unwelcome to the ruling pow- and unity which it would be vain to look ers was kept down by the rifles of the for in any merely political party within Papal Zouaves.

the bounds of the Italian Peninsula. Even the Sacred College itself, in one They have facilities for action such as of its two antagonistic currents, and pre- no merely political party possesses. The cisely from the antagonistic nature of the object of the law which was recently two currents, is daily affording a marked submitted by the present Italian Ministry illustration of this transition state. The to Parliament, and which, after passing character of nearly all the recent nomi- through the Chamber of Deputies, has nations has been strongly Ultramontane, been rejected in the Senate, was justified and this Ultramontanism it is sought to on the ground that in the interest of the extend and strengthen by increasing the State such facilities must be curtailed. proportion of foreign cardinals. With They did not exist in the old Sardinian each successive appointment of a foreign legislation. They were not to be found cardinal, the Italian element in the Sacred in the Leopoldine and Josephine laws, College has by a sufficiently natural re- by which the relations of Church and action gained in strength and intensity State were regulated in the Tuscan and what it has lost in numbers. That Lombard provinces. The policy of strength and intensity have been clearly Tanucci had carefully removed them enough revealed in the filling up of the from the legislation of Naples. The Revacant posts in the several congregations public of Venice, true to the traditions or separate ministries of the Curia, and of its great jurist, Paolo Sarpi, had excluded them with a vigilant jealousy named the Gladstone Parliament. Nor from the body of its laws. Nor will such did these charges proceed chiefly from facilities be found in the new penal code the members of the Left. The Marquis which has already received the sanction Anselmo Guerrieri Gonzaga, Commenof the Italian Senate, and which, so far datore Villari, Commendatore Tommasi as regards this branch of penal legisla- Crudeli, were amongst the foremost cention, is equally certain to meet with the sors of the Ministry, and all three besanction of the Chamber of Deputies. longed to the ministerial ranks. The Why, then, it may naturally be asked, first of these three eminent politicians should the discussion and rejection of a spoke with undisguised severity of the temporary law which, after all, only seeks course taken by the Cabinet when dealto re-establish provisions which a few ing with the popular movements in the years ago existed, and which in a few Mantuan and some portions of the Neamonths, perhaps even weeks, are certain politan provinces, which in these districts to become again the general law of the had assumed the form of attempts to land, -why, it may well be asked, should wrest from the episcopal body the nomthis discussion and rejection have given ination of the parish priests, and to rerise to so much excitement, and be re- vive the ancient Christian right of nomigarded in many quarters almost as a turn- nation by the parishioners. The motion ing-point in the relations between Church originated, however, in the ranks of the and State in Italy? If the existence of Left, and found in those ranks a very such facilities was necessary for the in- learned and eloquent exponent of antidependence of the Catholic Church, and Papal views, the distinguished Neapoliis so regarded by foreign States, how tan lawyer, Pasquale Stanislao Mancini. comes it that no voice of protest ever It was therefore not unnatural that with proceeded from those foreign States dur- the formation of a Left Ministry, and ing the long term of years when the with the presence in that Ministry of facilities were not accorded ? Why was Pasquale Stanislao Mancini as Minister no warning voice heard from foreign of Grace and Justice, a more decided Governments when the Senate discussed anti-Papal attitude should have been anand approved, as a prominent feature of nounced as part of the ministerial prothe entire penal legislation, the provisions gramme. But on the actual point, which it has now discussed and con- whether the ancient provisions guarandemned when presented as a special teeing the State against the aggressions measure ? The true answer to these of the Church should be recalled into questions will only be found when we life, the Minghetti Cabinet, whatever its look a little below the surface of the general tendencies, Papal or anti-Papal, political stream and detect the under- had, at least in matter of penal legcurrents of party action.

islation, shown its resolution to keep a In the Parliamentary session of 1875, tight hold upon the Church. A great the relations between Church and State Piedmontese lawyer, the friend and, on occupied in a quite exceptional degree many critical occasions, the trusted conthe attention of the Italian Chamber of fidant of Count Cavour, Senator Vigliani, Deputies. The Minghetti Ministry was who had most honorably filled the office charged with exhibiting a timid, not to of Minister of Grace and Justice in the say servile bearing towards the Vatican. Minghetti Cabinet, and who now disIt was charged with yielding to Ultra- charges the functions of President of montane influences in its bearing towards the Supreme Court of Cassation, had the episcopal body, in the character of taken good care to provide ample guareducational appointments, in the lenity antees in the new penal code against the which it observed towards seditious abuse of the priestly office to the detripriests. In a word, it was accused of ment of the State. When the guaran* Vaticanism," and in debate after de- tees adopted on his recommendation in bate the authority of Mr. Gladstone was the Senate should likewise have received invoked to point the moral and adorn the sanction of the Chamber of Deputies, the tale of Minghettian reaction. So the State would have reoccupied-and frequently did this occur, that the Par- nothing more-the defensive positions jiament was sometimes satirically nick- which, in the old legislation of the separate Italian States, it held against any bishops were expected, invited, instructed aggression on the part of the Vatican. to make themselves the organs of this But this was not enough for the present great pro. Papal demonstration in their Ministry, least of all for that member of relations with Marshal Macmahon's govthe Ministry, Mancini, on whom the task ernment. Kindred instructions were of dealing with legal and ecclesiastical transmitted to the faithful in other counaffairs chiefly devolved. A good oppor- tries. It seems probable that, as haptunity appeared to present itself of mak- pens with the most popular of French ing party capital, by passing from the and Spanish wines, the instructions were general and more defensive bearing of variously branded, according to the tastes his predecessor to an immediate, special, and palates of the populations for which and aggressive attitude towards the Vat- they were designed. If Cardinal Culican. Accordingly there was

was intro- len's language reflects with any fidelity duced into Parliament the special and the instructions addressed to his Emitemporary law, by which priests who nence, the communication must be reshould abuse their spiritual functions to garded as a touching tribute to the vigor the damage of the State, or the public of the Hibernian imagination. The outraging of its institutions, should be- Bollandists in their great collection of come liable to various degrees of fines the Lives of the Saints thought it pruand terms of imprisonment.

dent to put forward a special reservaNo step could possibly have been tion on the character of their hagiology. more welcome to the Vatican. The They felt it their duty to declare that Roman Curia believed that it had at last they could not guarantee the miracles of found a grievance which would bear ex- the Irish saints. The reader of Cardinal portation. It had hoped that foreign Cullen's addresses, on confronting the Catholic States would have prevented the statement that the Italian Government suppression of the religious orders: the intends to deal with the present or any hope was cruelly disappointed. It had other Pontiff after the fashion practised hoped that the forced conscription of by Napoleon I. to his predecessor, will students for the Church would have pre- perhaps feel the necessity of weighing vented angry protests from the same the language of his Eminence the CardiCatholic powers : and these powers had nal Archbishop of Dublin at least as not uttered a single syllable of sympathy carefully as the miracles of the Irish or consolation. Might not the attempt saints were weighed by the Bollandists. to awaken the indignation of the faith- The Mancini law passed the Chamber ful by the exhibition of this new griev- of Deputies by a large majority. It is ance prove more successful than the pre- not perhaps unfair or uncharitable to vious efforts ? Could anything assume that amongst the members who more monstrous than the proposal to there voted in its support, not a few were punish the minister of religion for the actuated quite as much by the desire to conscientious discharge of his religious stand well with democratic constituen

Where, henceforth, would be cies as by a hearty approval founded on the freedom of the pulpit ? Where, a careful examination of the measure. henceforth, would be the freedom of the Strange to say, the principal speakers confessional ? Was the priest, when against the law were found amongst the called on to administer the last sacra- ministerial supporters themselves, just as ments to the dying man, to be watched two years before, the chief assailants of by gendarmes, and have his words taken Signor Minghetti's ecclesiastical policy down by notaries public, as a safeguard had been found amongst the oldest and of the rights of the inviolable, infallible most consistent members of his party. State? This is nothing more than an The true facts are well worthy to be average sample of the tone in which all noted, as illustrating the altogether the Ultramontane journals, from the transitional state of public opinion in Alps to Syracuse, have been during the Italy on these questions. The law as last three month's discussing the provi- passed in the Chamber of Deputies had sions of the law. All this was intended then to meet with the approval of the

exportation, and of course for expor. Senate. And it is neither unfair nor untation chiefly to France. The French charitable to affirm that, even before its





provisions were made known to that former legislation of the different Italian body, a large proportion of the members States, but the new penal legislation of of the Italian Upper House had almost the kingdom to which, in its legislative made up their minds to reject it, for rea- character, it had given a sanction. Any sons which had not the most remote con- deductions from the policy of Count nection with any possible phase of Church Cavour ought, in common fairness, to be and State legislation. In plain words modified by the recollection of the fact the senators believed that they had been that Count Cavour died in the June of treated with disrespect by the present 1861, and that the Roman Curia opened Depretis Cabinet in the discussions of its new batteries against all civil Govlast year on the question of free ports; ernments at the close of 1864. How they were resolved that the disrespect far the law was a violation of that estabthen shown should be resented on the lishing the Papal guarantees, is a quesfirst opportunity; and the first favorable tion which from different points of view opportunity that happened to occur was may be differently answered, but from the Mancini law on the abuses of the the point of view which it must be preclergy. Of course, not the faintest trace sumed presented itself to the Italian of this sore feeling was to be found in Senate, which swept away all the civil any speech delivered in the Senate. But rights possessed by the monastic orders in the library and reading-room of the in connection with the Papacy, it cerSenate House, and in the familiar talk tainly was no violation at all. But the of the members beyond the walls of the real importance of the vote lies in the Senate House, one heard repeated, with political and party results to which it suggestive frequency, the threat, “Now has given rise. At an early stage of the we will pay the Government off, for its discussion in the Senate, it became eviway of treating us on the question of the dent that many members of the Opposifree ports.”

tion, though at first disapproving of the It would surely be a mistake to con course pursued by the Ministry in bringsider the adverse vote by which the dis- ing forward such a measure, were of cussion in the Senate, entered upon with opinion that its absolute rejection by the such feelings, was at length closed, as an Senate would be an unwise and impoliimportant indication of political tenden- tic concession to the Vatican, the various cies in any direction whatsoever. The organs of which in the European press discussion furnished occasion for at least were seeking to make this question the four remarkable discourses—that in pretext for a general crusade against which the Minister Mancini defended Italy. Foremost amongst the statesmen the policy of the Government, and those who held this view was the acknowledged in which it was assailed by Senators Buon head of the Opposition and Chairman of Compagni, Cadorna, and Lampertico. the Central Constitutional Club of Rome, The most eminent, at least if we regard the ex-minister Quintino Sella. The profound constitutional knowledge and Opinione, which on this matter was unvaried literary attainments of every derstood to reflect Signor Sella's opinkind, was undoubtedly Senator Buon ions, had strongly urged upon the SenCompagni, who opposed the law on the ate the expediency of voting the measground that it possessed an arbitrary ure. At the private meetings of the and exceptional character, that it was a Central Constitutional Club, Signor Sella direct deviation from the policy of had clearly expressed his views to the Count Cavour, and that it ran counter same effect. When, therefore, the Sento the provisions of the law on the Papal ate threw out the bill by a majority of guarantees, by which full liberty was thirteen, and it became known that, secured not only to the Pope but to all amongst the senators who voted in the members of the Catholic clergy in the ex- majority were several eminent members ercise of their purely spiritual functions. of the Central Constitutional Club, SigSome of these objections call for a word nor Sella at once tendered his resignaof comment. The Senate was evidently tion as president. He has not indeed quite right in its condemnation of the resigned his post as the recognized chief measure as exceptional. In condemning of the Opposition, but it is only too probit as arbitrary it not only condemned the able that the same difterences between

him and other members of his party on these issues in the Central Constituwhich led him to withdraw from the one tional Club of Rome has become more post, may cause him to resign the other. than ever the subject of keen discussion

And in this last fact may be found in every Italian journal, and, in truth, another and not the least striking illus- in every social circle throughout the tration of the general state of transition peninsula. Meanwhile, within the ranks to which I have referred. The Com- of the Church itself the transition is mendatore Buon Compagni, and the becoming more rapidly effected from other members of the old Cavour party the comparatively pacific and tranquil sharing his views, believe that it is still character of forty years back to one possible to effect a reconciliation be- of openly aggressive Ultramontanism. tween the Church and the State, and Once a fortnight the Civilta Cattolica that, in any case, every effort should be strikes the key-note of an air, which is made to treat delicately and tenderly repeated with endless variations in all what the Catholic Church is pleased to the clerical journals of the kingdom. call its liberty. The Commendatore The Central Catholic Club of Rome gives, Quintino Sella, the recognized head of at the same time, its tone to all the prothe old Cavour party, has broken off all vincial Catholic clubs with which it is connection with the Central Constitu- in connection. This is a campaign in tional Club, because he holds it to be the which the interests of other countries, as first duty of a patriotic Italian states- well as of Italy, are at stake; and even man to present a bold front towards Englishmen, though they may no longer Rome, and because he holds that what, repeat with equal conviction the words in the language of the Vatican, is termed addressed by Cromwell to one of his the liberty of the Church can only be re- Parliaments, " Rome is our matter," may garded by thoughtful and observant men still hold it to be a matter not unworthy as a continuous aggression on the liber- their regard.—Contemporary Review. ties of the State. The question raised


The marvellous way in which Africa of its long southern horn, presented has been explored during the last twenty most formidable obstacles to even an acyears is scarcely less extraordinary than quaintance with its elevated, temperate, the sublying fact, that a continent so and productive central regions. A quargreat and possessing such immense re- ter of a century ago our maps of Africa sources should have been reserved, as a were almost an entire blank from ten deterra incognita in its central regions, for grees of north latitude to the tropic of the travellers of our generation. Within Capricorn, with the exception of the a century and a half almost the whole of coast-line, the valley of the Niger, and North America has been explored, swept the central northern region. In some over, and occupied by the expanding of our maps traces remained of older races of Northern Europe ; South knowledge and of more recent PortuAmerica has been occupied, in great guese exploration. Livingstone's Lake part, by offshoots of the Latin race; and Nyassa appeared as “Nassa,” and Tanyet Africa, with not greatly inferior pos- ganyika occupied an enormous, but quite sibilities of development, has been re- indefinite, space as “Lake Uniarnesi ;" served for its own singular people and but these maps were exceptions rather for a few adventurous explorers. It is than the rule, and the most important not difficult, however, to explain how parts of Central Africa were either left such, in the circumstances, should have entirely blank, or were filled up with been the case. The great deserts of the great deserts, montes lune, and figures of northern portion of Africa, its unhealthy lions and dragons. coast-line, and thick tropical vegetation There was, no doubt, plenty of ancient on both sides of the equator, and on both knowledge to have taught us better. Ptosides of the continent, together with the lemy appears to have known a good deal scanty vegetation and the Kaffir tribes about the geography of Central Africa;

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