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namely, the appropriateness of the examples; the classic purity of the author; the justness of the sentiment; and, last of all, the variety of the writers. But I am persuaded that the reader will not be dissatisfied to find that I have shown a decided preference to such authors as Addison, Johyson, Dryden, Pope, Milton, etc. At th same time it is but just to serve that this selection of authorities has been made by an actual perusal of the authors, without the assistance of Johnson's “Dictionary."

For the sentiments scattered through this work I offer no apology, although I am aware that they will not fall in with the views of many who may be competent to decide on its literary merits. I write not to please or displease any description of persons; but I trust that what I have written according to the dictates of my mind will meet the approbation of those whose good opinion I am most solicitous to obtain. Should any object to the introduction of morality in a work of science, I beg them to consider that a writer whose business it was to mark the nice shades of distinction between words closely allied could not do justice to his subject without entering into all the relations of society, and showing, from the acknowledged sense of many moral and religious terms, what has been the general sense of mankind on many of the most important questions which have agitated the world. My first object certainly bas been to assist the philological inquirer in ascertaining the force and comprehension of the English language; yet I should have thought my work but half completed had I made it a mere register of verbal distinctions. While others scize every opportunity unblushingly to avow and zealously to propagate opinions destructive of good order, it would ill become any individnal of contrary sentiments to sbrink from stating his convictions when called upon, as he seems to be, by an occasion like that which has now offered itself. As to the rest, I throw myself on the indulgence of the public, with the assurance that, having used every endeavor to deserve their approbation, I shall not make an appeal to their candor in vain.

ENGLISH SYNONYMES

EXPLAINED.

TO ABANDON, DESERT, FORSAKE, RE-
ABAND

Things as well as persons may be
LINQUISH.

abandoned, deserted, or forsaken ; things

only are relinquished. To abandon may The idea of leaving or separating one's be an act of necessity or discretion, as a self from an object is common to these captain abandons a vessel when it is no terms, which vary in the circumstances longer safe to remain in it. Desertion is of the action; the two former are more often a dereliction of duty, as to desert positive acts than the two latter. To one's post; and often an indifferent acABANDON, from the German ban, a tion, particularly in the sense of leaving proclamation of outlawry, signifying to any place which has had one's care and put out of the protection of the law; attention bestowed upon it, as people deor, a privative, and bandum, an ensign, sert a village, or any particular country i. é., to cast off, or leave one's colors; is where they have been established. For. to leave thoroughly, to withdraw protec- saking is an indifferent action, and imtion or support. To DESERT, in Latin plies simply the leaving something to desertus, from de privative, and sero, to which one has been attached in one sow; signifying to leave off sowing or form or another; a person forsakes a cultivating; and FORSAKE, compound certain house which he has been accused of the privative for and sake or seek, tomed to frequent; birds forsake their signifying to leave off seeking, are par- nests when they find them to have been tial modes of leaving; the former by discovered. TO RELINQUISH is an act withholding one's co-operation, the lat- of prudence or imprudence ; men often ter by withdrawing one's society. Aban- inadvertently relinquish the fairest prosdoning is a violation of the most sacred pects in order to follow some favorite ties, and exposes the object to every mis- scheme which terminates in their ruin. ery; desertion is a breach of honor and fidelity; it deprives a person of the as If he hides it privately in the earth or other sistance or the countenance which he secret place, and it is discovered, the finder ac.

quires no property therein, for the owner hath has a right to expect; by forsaking, the not by this act declared any intention to abankindly feelings are hurt, and the social don it.

BLACKSTONE. ties are broken. A bad mother aban He who at the approach of evil betrays his dons her offspring; a soldier deserts his trust, or deserts his post, is branded with cowcomrades; a man forsakes his companions.

When learning, abilities, and what is excellent

in the world forsake the church, we may easily He who abandons his offspring or corrupts foretell its ruin without the gift of prophecy. them by his example, perpetrates a greater evil than a murderer.

Men are wearied with the toil which they bear, After the death of Stella, Swift's benevolence but cannot find in their hearts to relinquish it. was contracted, and his severity exasperated: he

STEELE. drove his acquaintance from his table, and wondered why he was deserted.

JOHNSON We may desert or forsake a place, but Forsake me not thus, Adam ! Milton. I the former comprehends more than the

ardice.

HAWKESWORTH.

SOUTH.

HAWKESWORTH.

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latter ; a place that is deserted is left by ( nounce that which may be in our posses. all, and left entirely, as described in sion only by an act of violence; a usurpThe Deserted Village. GOLDSMITH.

er cannot be said properly to abandon his

people or abdicate a throne, but he may A place may be forsaken by individu

resign his power or renounce his pretenals or to a partial extent.

sions to a throne.
Macdonald and Macleod have lost many of its
tenants and laborers, but Kaarsa has not yet The passive Gods belield the Greeks defile
been forsaken by its inhabitants. JOHNSON

Their teinples, and abundon to the spoil
Their own abodes.

DRIDEN. TO ABANDON, RESICN, RENOUNCE,

It would be a good appendix to "the art of

living and dying," if any one would write "the ABDICATE.

art of growing old,” and teach men to resign

their pretensions to the pleasures of youth. The idea of giving up is common to

STEELE. these terms, which signification, though For ministers to be silent in the cause of Christ analogous to the former, admits, howev- is to renounce it, and to tly is to desert it. er, of this distinction, that in the one

Socru. case we separate ourselves from an ob. Much gratitude is due to the Nine from their ject, in the other we send or cast it from even to the present hour they are invoked and

favored poets, and much liath been paid : for ABANDON, v. To abandon, desert. worshipped by the sons of verse, while all the RESIGN, from re and signo, signifies to other deities of Olympus have either abdicated sign away or back from one's self. RE

their thrones, or been disinissed from them with contempt.

CUMBERLAND, NOUNCE, in Latin renuncio, from nuncio, to tell or declare, is to declare off To abandon and resign are likewise from a thing. ABDICATE, from ab, used in a reflective sense; the former from, and dico, to speak, signifies like in the bad sense, to denote the giving wise to call or cry off from a thing. up the understanding to the passion, or

We abandon and resign by giving up the giving up one's self, mind, and body to another; we renounce by sending away to bad practices; the latter in the good from ourselves; we abandon a thing by sense, to denote the giving up one's will transferring it to another; in this man- and desires to one's circumstances or ner a debtor abandons his goods to his whatever is appointed. The soldiers of creditors : we resign a thing by transfer- Hannibal abandoned themselves to pleasring our possession of it to another; in ure at Capua. A patient man resigns this manner we resign a place to a friend; himself to his fate, however severe that we renounce a thing by simply ceasing to may be. hold it; in this manner we renounce a Reason ever continues to accuse the business claim or a profession. As to renounce and injustice of the passions, and to disturb the signified originally to give up by word repose of those who abundon themselves to

their dominion. of mouth, and to resign to give up by sig

KENNETT. Pascal's Thoughts. nature, the former is consequently a less

It is the part of every good man's religion to formal action than the latter; we may resign himself to God's will. renounce by implication; we resign in direct terms; we renounce the pleasures of it is not so complete a giving up of one's

When resign is taken in the bad sense, the world when we do not seek to enjoy self as abandonment. them; we resign a pleasure, a profit, or advantage, of which we expressly give edge, and pleasures, constitute, as may be, three

These three leading desires for honors, knowlup the enjoyment. To abdicate is a spe- factions, and those whom we compliment with cies of informal resignation. A mon- the name of philosophers have really done notharch abdicates his throne who simply de- ing else but resigned themselves to one of these clares his will to cease to reign; but a

KENNETT. Pascal's Thoughts. minister resigns his office when he gives

TO ABASE, HUMBLE, DEGRADE, DISup the seals by which he held it. We

GRACE, DEBASE. abandon nothing but that over which we have had an entire control; we abdicate To ABASE expresses the strongest de. nothing but that which we have held by gree of self-humiliation; like the French a certain right, but we may resign or re- I abaisser, it signifies literally to bring down

CUMBERLAND.

three.

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or make low, which compounded of the abasement or humiliation, his greatness intensive syllable a or ad, and baisser, from protects him from degradation, and his bas, low, in Latin basis, the base, which is virtue shields him from disgrace. the lowest part of a column. It is at 'Tis immortality, 'tis that alone present used principally in the Scripture Aunidst life's pains, abusements, emptiness, language, or in a metaphorical style, to The soul can comfort. imply the laying aside all the high pre If the mind be curbed and humbled too much tensions which distinguish us from our in children; if their spirits be abased and brofellow - creatures — the descending to a

ken much by too strict a hand over them, they lose all their vigor and industry.

LOCKE. state comparatively low and mean. To HUMBLE, in French humilier, from the To degrade has most regard to the exLatin humilis, humble, and humus, the ternal rank and condition, disgrace to the ground, naturally marks a prostration to moral estimation and character. Whatthe ground, and figuratively a lowering ever is low and mean is degrading for of the thoughts and feelings. According those who are not of mean condition ; to the principles of Christianity whoev- whatever is immoral is disgraceful to all, er abaseth himself shall be exalted, and but most so to those who ought to know according to the same principles whoev. better. It is degrading to a nobleman to er reflects on his own littleness and un- associate with prize-fighters and jockeys, worthiness will daily humble himself be- it is disgraceful for him to countenance a fore his Maker. The abasement consists violation of the laws which he is bound in the greatest possible dejection of spir- to protect. The higher the rank of the it which, if marked by an outward act, individual, the greater is his degradation ; will lead to the utmost prostration of the the higher his previous character, or the body; humbling, in comparison with abase- more sacred his office, the greater his ment, is an ordinary sentiment and ex- disyrace if he act inconsistent with its pressed in the ordinary way.

duties. Absorbed in that immensity I see, :

So deplorable is the degradation of our nat. I shrink abased, and yet aspire to thee.

ures, that whereas before we were the image of CowPER. God, we now only retain the image of men.

South, My soul is justly humbled in the dust. Rowe.

He that walkcth uprightly, is secure as to his Abase and humble have regard to per- honor and credit: he is sure not to come off dissons considered absolutely, degrade and grace fully either at home in his own approbadisgrace to their relative situation. To tion, or abroad in the estimation of men.

Barrow. DEGRADE (v. To disparage) signifies to lower in the estimation of others. It

Persons may sometimes be degraded supposes a state of elevation either in and disgraced at the will of others, but outward circumstances or in public opin- with a similar distinction of the words. ion. To DISGRACE, compounded of the He who is not treated with the outward privative dis and grace, or favor, prop

honor and respect he deserves is deerly implies to put out of favor, which graded; he who is not regarded with the is always attended with circumstances of same kindness as before is disgraced. more or less ignominy. To abase and

When a hero is to be pulled down and de humble one's self may be meritorious graded, it is best done in doggerel. ADDISON. acts as suited to the infirmity and falli.

Philips died honored and lamented before any bility of human nature, but to degrade or part of his reputation had withered, and before disgrace one's self is always a culpable his patron St. John had disgraced him. act. The penitent man humbles himself, the contrite man abases himself, the man These terms may be employed with a of rank degrades himself by a too famil- similar distinction in regard to things, and iar deportment with his inferiors, he dis- in that case they are comparable with graces himself by his vices. The great debase. To DEBASE, from the intensive and good man may also be abased and syllable de and base, signifying to make humbled without being degraded or dis base, is applied to whatever may lose its graced ; his glory follows him in his purity or excellence.

JOHNSON.

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All higher knowledge, in her presence, falls signs and wonders, far above the reach
Degraded.

MILTON.

of human comprehension. Confusion is And where the vales with violets once were at the best an infirmity more or less ex

crown'd, Now knotty' burrs and thorns disgrace the cusable according to the nature of the ground.

cause: a steady mind and a clear head The great masters of composition know very are not easily confused; but persons of well that many an elegant word becomes im- quick sensibility cannot always preserve proper for a poct or an orator when it has been

a perfect collection of thought in trying debased by common use.

Addison.

situations; and those who have any conTO ABASH, CONFOUND, CONFUSE. sciousness of guilt, and are not very hardABASH is an intensive of abase, signi- ened, will be soon thrown into confusion fying to abase thoroughly in spirit.” CÔN- / by close interrogatories. FOUND and CONFUSE are derived from They heard and were abash'd, and up they sprung different parts of the same Latin verb Upon the wing: as when men wont to watch confundo and its participle confusus. Con- en duty, sleeping found by whom they dread,

Rouse, and bestir themselves erc well awake. fundo is compounded of con and fundo,

Milton. to pour together. To con found and con Whereat amaz'd, as one that unaware fuse then signify properly to melt togeth Hath dropp'd a precious jewel in the flood, er or into one mass what ought to be dis- Orstonishid as night-wanderers often are,

Their light blown out in some mistrustful wood, tinct; and figuratively, as it is here tak- Even so confounded in the dark she lay. en, to derange the thoughts in such man

SHAKSPEARE ner as that they seem melted together.

The various evils of disease and poverty, pain Abash expresses more than confound, and sorrow, are frequently derived from others ; and confound more than confuse. Abash ceed from ourselves, and to be incurred only by has regard to the spirit which is greatly the misconduct which they furnish. abased and lowered, confound has regard

HAWKESWORTI. to the faculties which are benumbed and crippled; confuse has regard to the feel TO ABATE, LESSEN, DIMINISH, DEings and ideas which are deranged and

CREASE, perplexed. The haughty man is abashed when he is humbled in the eyes of oth nified originally to beat down, in the ac

ABATE, from the French abattre, sigers; the wicked man is confounded when his villany is suddenly detected ; a mod: tive sense; to come down, in the neuter est person may be confused in the pres. written, minish, from the Latin diminuo,

sense. DIMINISH, or, as it is sometimes ence of his superiors.

and minuo, to lessen, and minus, less, ex-
If Peter was so abashed when Christ gave presses, like the verb LESSEN, the sense
him a look after his denial; if there was so much of either making less or becoming less.
dreail in his looks when he was a prisoner; how
much greater will it be when he sits as a judge? DECREASE is compounded of the priva-

South. tive de and crease, in Latin cresco, to grow,
Alas! I am afraid they have awaked,
And 'tis not done: th' attempt, and not the deed, signifying to grow less.
Con founds us !

Abate, lessen, and diminish, agree in the
Alas! I ne have no language to tell

sense of becoming less and of making The effecte, ne the torment of min hell;

less; decrease implies only becoming less. Min herte may, min harmes not bewrey

Abate respects only vigor of action, and I am so confuse, that I cannot say. ChaCCER,

applies to that which is strong or violent, Abash is always taken in a bad sense; as a fever abates, pain, anger, etc., abates ; neither the scorn of fools, nor the taunts lessen and diminish are applied to size, of the oppressor, will abash him who has quantity, and number, but lessen is much a conscience void of offence toward God seldomer used intransitively than dimin. and man. To be confounded is not al. | ish; things are rarely said to lessen of ways the consequence of guilt: supersti- themselves, but to diminish. The passion tion and ignorance are liable to be con- of an angry man ought to be allowed to founded by extraordinary phenomena; abate before any appeal is made to his and Providence sometimes thinks fit to understanding. objects apparently di. con found the wisdom of the wisest by I minish as they recede from the view.

SUAKSPEARE.

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