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Art. 56. The Posthumous Works of the Rev. Thomas Adam, late Rector of Wintringham. 8vo. 3 Vols. izs. Boards. Buck* land, &c. 1786.

We have frequently, in his life-time, announced the publications of this truly pious and orthodox divine: See, particularly, his " Paraphrase on the Eleven first chapters of St. Paul's Epistle to the RotafafTs," Rev. vol. xlv. p. Aoo; and his " Evangelical Sermons," Rev. vol. lxvi. p. 315. It is well known that our theological ideas' do not well accord with those of such writers as Mr. Adam, and others, the followers of William Law, Hervey, and the rest of those good Mystics, whose private characters we revere, while we cannot, as friends to rational religion, but disapprove their sentiments. If will not, therefore, be expected that we should recommend the volumes now before us; but we (hall, nevertheless, fairly enumerate their contents, for the satisfaction of those of our Readers who are fond of what they term Evangelical compositions.—Vol. I. Consists of * Private Thoughts on Religion, and Sermons on different Subjects:' to which is prefixed, A Sketch of the Author's Life and Character.—Vol. II. Contains ' An Exposition of St. Matthew's Gospel, with suitable Lectures and Prayers.'—The Hid volume continues the Exposition, Lectures, and Prayers; to which are added, more ' Sermons on different Subjects.'—We repeat, what we have before observed with respect to Mr. Adam, that his productions are those of a sensible * man [according to his principles], who desired to deliver the true fense of Scripture, as far as he could" attain it, and to advance the cause of Christian piety, agreeably to the notions which he had formed.—There is no doubt but his practice was truly conscientious, and his example edifying, especially to those of his own peculiar persuasion.

Art. 57. Dying Ad-vices to the Associate Congregation of Haddington. By the Rev. Mr. John Brown, their late Pastor. 8vo. 12 Pages. Price id. Edinburgh, Paterson. 1787. The late Rev. Mr. Brown, of Haddington, appears to have been a very good man; and we have no doubt but that the Associated Congregation of that place are a very good fort of people. Yet, if we credit their pastor's account of them, they are still, as the saying is, no better than they shouldbe; nor was the shepherd much better than the flock ; —for he tells them, that he fears many of them will go down to hell -with all the Gospel sermons and exhortations they have ever heard—to ajjist their conscience in upbraiding, knowing, and tormenting them.—And of himself he fays, ' I fee such weakness, such, deficiency, such unfaithfulness, such imprudence, such unfervency and unconcern, such selfishness in all that I have done, as a minister or a Christian, as richly deserves the deepest damnation of hell.'— Why will Christian preachers thus expose themselves, and their rc

* We might here add, that he was, in a certain degree and character, a man of genius; as is evident from many striking passages in his Private Thoughts, &c. which manifest an original turn of thinking, and a strength of expression, well fitted to make a lasting impression on the minds and memories of his readers.

ligion, ligion, to theridicnle of those who, in their education, have not contracted prejudices favourable to such strange effusions of mistaken piety!,

SERMONS.

I. The dying Believer's Confidence in his exalted Redeemer.—At the Meeting-house in Butt Lane, Deptford, Oct. 16, 1785. On Occasion of the much-lamented Death of the Rev. John Olding, who, after having been thirty-one Years Pastor of the Church assembling in that Place, fell asleep in Jesus, in the 64th Year of his Age. By Stephen Addington, D.D. 8vo. 6d. Buckland, &c. This discourse is in the true, but now almost antiquated, manner

of the Puritans. It will however be as acceptable to one class of antiquarians, as a book printed in the Old English Black letter is to another. p

II. The first and second Advents of our Saviour Jesus Christ, considered in a Sermon preached Nov. 27, 1785, being Advent Sunday. By John Kennedy, Rector of Langley in Kent, and Vicar of Godslone in Surry. To which are added, some Observations on the Advantages arising from the Establishment of Sunday Schools; and some Hints for rendering of still greater Utility to the Nation at large these truly Christian Institutions, ito. is. Wilkie, &c. The chief merit of this discourse is, that it is intended to promote

a very laudable and useful design. «

III. At St. Giles's, Reading, Dec. 21, 1786, for the Benefit'

of the Girls Charity School. By William Bromley Cadogan. 8vo. - is. Rivington. 1787.

The text is, In thee the fatherless findeth mercy. The Sermon is orthodox; and the preacher warmly persuades us to the practice of charity in general, but more especially that species of it which is calculated, by giving religious instruction to the rising generation, * to connect the good of mankind with the glory of God.' This gentleman's compositions are in particular request with the Methodists. (1)

IV. The PerseiJions and Majesty of the Deity displayed by the Operations of Nature—On Occasion of the Thunder Storm, which happened Aug. 9th, 1787. By a Protestant Dissenter. Svo. 1 s. Gardner.

If, by drawing the attention of an audience to the greater phenomena of nature, to those extraordinary operations of the elements, which strike the mind of man with unusual awe, any good can be done in the way of religious instruction, it is right to embrace the opportunities afforded by such means. This pious preacher first attempts to raise * the hearts' of his hearers 'to an affecting fense of the Majesty of the Deity, from a view of the displays in his glory recorded in his word, or those proofs of them which have been visible to our own eyes.' Secondly, to * shew the consequences of such an habitual persuasion upon saints and sinners:' and he concludes with drawing * some practical inferences. His thoughts,' he fays, 'were turned to this subject, from a sincere desire to reinvigorate upon the thoughtless and inattentive, those awful and affecting impressions 4. which which appeared to seize almost every individual, during that alarming storm,' Sec. &c. The design of this discourse, no doubt, was commendable, but the preacher does not always express his ideas in the happiest manner; as our Readers may observe, in the sew word} here quoted.

CORRESPONDENCE.

*** Mr. Blanchard seems to have been too hasty in adopting the sentiments which his friends have suggested. We deemed his System §f Shorthand a good one, and consequently, in our review of it, we gave it the praise which we thought it really deserved. The latter part of the paragraph, which gives offence, is misconstrued by Mr. B.'s friends: the omissions which we noticed were in the explanation and not in the short-hand. See our Review for July, p. 84.

f 4-t We have received a long letter from the Editor of the Improved Latin Orthography. (See Review for August, p. 165.) Our thoughts and bit do not coincide. We think that the Latin ought to be spelled as the best Latin writers of the Augustan age have spelled it. Mr. S. 8. thinks not. Our Readers may determine for themselves who is right.

Jft The favour of Amicus Juratijpmus, dated Sept. 20, is entitled to our kind acknowledgments; but we do not think it adviseable to fiand forth in the way which he intimates,—or in any mode of notoriety. To be deemed useful to the Public, by our literary labours, is our highest ambition ; and to remain unknown, is our constant wish, *« Thus contented to live— not unwilling to die—"

Prior'* DoiunHall. "Hated by Fools" Swift.

J$t In pursuance of the request os Clericur, whose letter is dated in September last, we have collected some particulars relative to Quintus Sextius, the Pythagorean philosopher; and we propose to publish them in a future Review, not having room in our present number.

§t§ We are sorry that the requests of J. S. and W. B. must not be complied with. It is painful to us, to be obliged, so often, to reject the applications and inquiries of Correspondents, whom we cannot answer without subjecting ourselves to inconvenience, the extent of which might be extremely disagreeable.

||§|| The " Final Farewell," in our next.

t3* Mr. Young's two letters coming to hand too late in this montk for proper consideration, will be duly attended to in our next.

4--t4 Mr. T. B. Clarke is desired to accept our hearty thanks for his public defence of the Review.

t"{ Dr. Hamilton, and other Correspondents, hereafter.

tHE

MONTHLY REVIEW,

For NOVEMBER, 1787.

A«.T. I. Philosophical ^Transactions. Part I. For the Year 1787* Concluded from Page 181 of our Review-for September.

Experiments of the Produclim of dephhg'ijlkatid Air from Water with varinus Sub/lances. By Sir Benjamin Thompson, Knight, F.R.S.

WHEN the fresh leaves of healthy vegetables are exposed, in water, to the action of the sun's rays, a quantity of 'dephlogisiicated or pure air is produced. This fact, discovered by Dr. Ingenhousz, is generally considered as an instance of the purification of the atmosphere by the vegetable kingdom, and even alleged as an argument in support of that beautiful theory. It is supposed that phlogisticated or fixed air is imbibed by the leaves, and decomposed by the powers of vegetation; that a part of those airs, which constitutes their impurity with regard to animal life, is retained as nourishment to the vegetable; while the pure air, so essential to animals, is thrown out, as being, to the vegetable^ excrementitious.

Among many facts brought to prove that the air in question, is really thus elaborated in the vessels of the plant, particular stress is laid on the production of the air continuing only for a jhort time, till the leaves change their colour, for after that period no more air has been obtained. This is conceived to be owing (o the powers of vegetation being then destroyed, or, in other words, to the death of the plant; and hence it is inferred, not only that the leaves actually retained their Vegetative powers for some time after they were separated from the stock, but that it was in consequence of the exertion of these powers that the air, yielded in the experiments, was produced.

Plausible as this account appears, Sir Benjamin has proved, by a great number of experiments related in this paper, that it is erroneous. Indeed the circumstances of the leaves of a plant, accustomed to grow in air, being separated from the stem and confined in water, are, as he observes, so unnatural, that we can hardly conceive the fame functions tp be performed in such

V01.-LXXVU. A a. ' different different situations; and it Teems to have been from this consideration that the first doubt on the subject arose in his mind.

He found, that though the leaves, exposed in water to the action of light, actually do cease, in a few days, to furnish any air, yet, after a short interval, they regain that property, and that, after all the powers of vegetation are apparently destroyed, they furnish (or rather cause the water to furnish) more and tetter air than they did at first. ,

In water saturated with pure air, fresh leaves acted in the fame manner as in common water; whereas, according to the theory, they ought to have immediately died, as there is no instance of any vegetable or animal being able to nourish itself with its own excrement.

Substances in which no elaboration, or circulation of juices, can possibly be suspected to take place, caused the water to yield dephlogisticated air, in like manner as recent vegetables; and even in much greater quantities, and purer in quality. Such particularly were the dry down of the black poplar tree, and raw silk; which, with fresh portions of water, continued to furnish dephlogisticated air for several months successively.

It is plain from these facts, that the production of the air in question cannot be ascribed to the agency of any vegetative powers. Sir Benjamin has not yet been able satisfactorily to ascertain its real origin; but his experiments have thrown.great light upon it, and we shall present our Readers with an abstract of what appear to us the most remarkable particulars observed in them.

When raw silk, or the other bodies above mentioned, are exposed in water to the fun, for the first time, a little phlogisticated air is produced, prior to the pure air; but if they have previously been well washed with water, the air proves pure from the beginning. After a certain time, the production of air ceases, that is, no more is obtained from the fame water; but the fame substances, in fresh water, continue to furnish pure air as before. The air is purer, and more copiously produced, when the fun shines bright, than when his rays are more feeble, or when they are frequently intercepted by flying clouds; but with silk, or the poplar cotton, it is in all cafes better than common air, and better than the air which is in general produced by the fresh leaves of vegetables in the experiments of Dr. Ingenhousz. The medium heat of the water, at the time that air was produced in greatest abundance, was about qo° of Fahrenheit: when the glass globe was covered from light, but kept in the fame heat by means of a stove, only a few detached bubbles appeared: when the globe was set in the fun, but kept cool to about 50° by the repeated application of ice-water, air was produced, but not so abundantly as when the glass was suffered to become hot

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