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of their present abilities, preserve them against the worst consequences of the storm.'
'The second letter discusses the national debt, and the present peace establishment. Mr. Champion compares the state of the public funds in the year 1754, with that in 1784.; he observes that the prices of the funds have funk during that period from JOS to less than 55—that our credit is decaying * and our property decreasing in value, with several other calamities, all of which might have been prevented 'had government, under the present reign, been placed in able hands.'
In the third Letter, the Author takes a view of the 'new" system of government introduced in the present reign.' Here he is severe. He says, * The characteristic" of almost every administration under this reign, has been, an heterogeneous mixlore of debility and corruption. Lord Roclcingham and the Duke of Portland, who governed during the very short period of their administrations on the old system, are the only exceptions.'
Mr. C. then adds many remarks on the Whig and Tory system of government; and, in his fourth letter, describes more particularly the principles of the different parties;—which subject he pursues in his fifth, and makes some reflections on those Whigs who have deserted the cause.
An explanation of the apparent contradiction in the actions of the principal Whig-leaders with respect to America, is the subject of the two following letters; and in the eighth Mr. C. fakes no small pains to shew, what is self-evident, the necessity of vesting the administration of government in an able and vigorous minister. He describes the man whom he thinks able and vigorous; and concludes his panegyric on the patriot with asserting that, ' Any prince whatsoever might accomplish the purposes of ease to himself, his family, and his people, by vesting the administration of his affairs in the hands of such a man as is here described—a man of integrity, of honour, of ability, supT ported by families of great property and extensive connections—■ in fine, possessed of those qualifications which, by engaging the confidence of all honest men, would put an end to any distractions of the empire, even in the moment of their arising, and, timely guard against the calamities which, in such a case, would threaten the kingdom; and hence peace and happiness to the prince and people would certainly ensue.' ,
The ninth Letter is on the state of the commerce of Great Britain before the war, to which the Author contrasts, in the tenth, the state of commerce since the peace. He is here, in our opinion, somewhat mistaken, especially in his account of the Last India trade. He charges the present Administration, who .
* The Reader must bear in mind the date of Mr. C.'s Letters.
are, *re, he says, the avowed protectors of the East India Company, with having loaded the people with taxes for the support of the Company. He means the Commutation-tax, by which the people at large pay Government those sums which the Company ought to furnish: But he ought to consider, that, the duty on tea being taken off, the people are supplied with that commodity at a cheaper rate; and that the additional Window-tax is a recompense for the tea-duty; both were paid by the people at large, and not by the Company. He censures the trade for being carried on immediately with the Indies, and would recommend the Egyptians to be the intermediate merchants for supplying Europe with the commodities and luxuries of the East: this is contrary to the m<st obvious principle of commerce, the more hands through which goods pass, must increase their price. We could easily shew many other false reasonings in this letter; but We must be brief.
The nth, 12th, 13th, and 14th, are on the former and present state of the manners of the people of Great Britain. Mr. C. enumerates many circumstances that have corrupted the manners of the people; among the chief of which, he places the East India trade, turnpike roads, the influence of news-papers, and almost every institution that tends to increase our foreign trade, and improve our internal commerce and intercourse. The Author draws a comparison between the vices of Rome before its fall, and those which now prevail in England. He here greatly exaggerates matters: though we are corrupted, we are far short of the debaucheries and extravagancies of old Rome. The Parliament have never assembled for the purpose of debating on the manner of serving up a turbot at his Majesty's table, nor have any of the nobility given a private supper which has cost 20,000/.
The remaining six Letters are on the subject of emigration, from this ruined country to a better,—to America where every blessing and every comfort is to be found! Mr. Champion has been now almost three years in South Carolina; he can therefore by this time speak experimentally concerning the country. Whatever America may be hereafter, it certainly is rot at presents on any account whatever, preferable to England.
The Letters are throughout written with much heat and haste, and shew that the Author is more influenced by party spirit than by the true principles of liberty, untainted with licentiousness. O
Art. XIX. Supplement to the Arilic Zoology. 410. 9s. small Paper; 12s. 6d. large ditto, sewed. White. 1787.
*S /**\F making many books there is no end"—but the manner \J in which Mr. Pennant makes them, renders them both pntertaining and useful. We have, on former occasions, expressed prtfled our approbation of this industrious Author's multifarious works; we have gained much information from the perusal of them; and, while we have received instructions in natural history, we have admired the polite scholar, and the man of taste.
The Supplement to the Arctic Zoology is made up of much new matter, which has been communicated to the Author by hts friends, or which has occurred to him either from reading or ob'servation. * It is sent into the world,' he says, ' in order to render the work as perfect as possible; and, in cafe the Public should call for a new edition, to take away cause of complaint from the purchasers of the first, of not being made partakers of any improvements such an edition might receive.'
The gentlemen to whom Mr. Pennant hath been indebted for ■various communications, are the reverend Mr. Coxe, well known as a traveller in the northern part of Europe;—Mr. Samuel Oedman, a gentleman, whose name justly claims a difiinuu'shed place among the disciples of Limit; — Mr. Lenten, from Gottin* gen, a metalurgiff, who is at present engaged in the extensive copper works in Wales ; —Mr. Whitehurst, whose researches into the natural history of the Earth are sufficiently known;—not t« mention others of less note.
The additions made to the introduction of the Arctic Zoology, constitute about half of this book, and contain many curious remarks relative to the northern part of the world; the appearance of the countries, and their natural productions, are not barely enumerated, but painted in an ornamental style. Mr. Pennant's lively language must amuse the generality os readers, although his verbose descriptions may be less acceptable to the mere naturalist. As an addition to what is said of Lapland, in the introduction to the Arctic Zoologv, p. lxxii. he siy?,
« Let me not conceal that Lapland enjoys every sati-ve fruit of Great Britain, the Currant, Strawberry, Bilberry, Cranberry; which put it on an equality with our own climate before the introduction of foreign fruits among us. If we claim the puckering Sloe and Crab, we have not much to be proud of, while the Laplanders may boast their Acktrmurit (Ruhus ArilicuiJ, \yhich with its nectareous juice, and vinous flavour, so often supported the great Linnæus in his arduous journies through the deserts of the country. They may exult also in having given to our gardens the grateful Angelica, the) imputed gift of angels to men, and, in Lapland, the common inhabitant of the banks of every rill; the panacea and delight of the natives, and (preserved) a frequent luxury in our mpst sumptuous deserts.'
We wish our present limits would allow us to give more ample extracts of these additional notes. The account of tho eruption of fire in Iceland, in 1783, is curious, but its length obliges us to refer the inouisuive reader to the book, especial!-/
as the narrative would be interrupted by any abridgment which We could give.
Mr. Pennant has given two maps of the Arctic regions, which are a considerable addition to the value of the work. fyfi>_ -m
Art. XX. Pra3ical Observations on the Natural History and Cure cf the Venereal Disease. By John Howard, Surgeon. Vol. I. and II. 8vo. '5s. each Volume, Boards. Longman. 1787.
MR. Howard has here given the Public a very useful publication. The history of the disease is well delineated} the symptoms are recorded with precision, according to the time and order in which they appear, and those which are characteristical are properly distinguished from such as are either vague or accidental ; so that the diagnostics of the disease, in its several stages, are clearly marked.
We cannot however agree with the ingenious Author, when he affirms the gonorrhæa to be a distinct and separate disease from the lues; that some species of it may not be venereal we readily acknowledge, but that all are not, is contrary to the opinion of eur best writers, and what is of more weight, contrary to daily experience.
We axe next presented with some just remarks on those diseases which are frequently connected with, and analogous to the lues and gonorrhæa. The elephantiasis, leprosy, scrophula, and yaws, are particularly noticed, and their diagnoses well ascertained.
The second volume is wholly appropriated to the cure of the disease by its specific,—quicksilver. This powerful medicine had long been in use, chiefly among the Arabian physicians, as an alterative in cutaneous eruptions, but it had always been used sparingly and with great caution; it was applied to the lues vinerea soon after its first appearance in Europe, by some daring empyrics; from the success attending its use, it was adopted by Bertngarius Carpenfis, and Johannes de Vigo, as early as the end of the 15th or beginning of the 16th century: the Galenic system, prevalent at that time, was no small obstacle to its universal use; but at length, though the prejudices against it were vehement, and though many fatal errors had been committed during its early exhibition, by an injudicious and indiscriminate application, yet its peculiar efficacy soon established its fame, and, fortunately for mankind, it is a certain remedy for a deplorable malady,
Mr. Howard minutely considers the three different modes ia which it is used, viz. externally by friction, fumigation, or internally by taking it in a variety of forms. The practiler must indeed have very limited ideas both of the disease and the remedy, tnedy, who confines his resources to any Angle specific method of cure, or to any particular preparation of mercury. The disease comprehends a great variety of symptoms, some of which are easy, and others very difficult to cure; we are also in possession of numerous preparations of quicksilver, some of which are applicable, in a more pecul.iar manner, to some symptoms and constitutions, and others to others. These various circumstances give ample scope for the exercise of Mr. Howard's ingenuity. After enumerating the various preparations of mercury, and the advantages and disadvantages of each in particular cafes, Mr. H. describes the two general methods of cure. In the one, the patient is closely confined to his chamber, in the other, he takes exercise in the open air, and follows, with a few restrictions, his ordinary mode of living. The former, from its consequences, is called salivation; the other, the alterative course. What the Author says of these two methods, demands the serious attention of the Faculty. We do not remember to have any where met with such judicious remarks on the subject as are to be found in this part of the work; and consequently we do not hesitate in pronouncing it the most rational treatise on the lues venerea (the circumstance of the gonorrhæa above mentioned being excepted) that hath appeared since the time of Astruc. We hope the Author will not long with-hold from the Public the remainder of a work which cannot fail of being highly instructive to the ra* tional practises; to whom alone, and not to empyrics, this pub* lication is peculiarly adapted. <7> ^^
Art. XXI. A Dissertation on the Origin and Progress of the Scythians orGoths. Being an Introduction to the ancient and modern History of Europe. By John Pinkerton. 3vo. 3 s. 6 d. Boards. Nicol. 1787.
MR. Pinkerton divides the present performance into two Parts. The first is employed in shewing that the Scythians, the Getæ, and the Goths, were only one people;—that they came from present Persia by a north-west progress into Europe, so that Scandinavia, instead of being the country whence they sprung, must in fact have been almost the last that received them ;—that the Thracians, Illyrians, Greeks, Italians, Germans, and Scandinavians, were all Scythians or Goihs. In the second Part, the Author shews that the Germans are neither of Sarmatic nor Celtic origin, biit that they were originally Scythians; which he proves from the identity of their language — from the testimony of ancient authors—and from the similarity of their manners. The whole concludes with chronological tables of some remarkable events during 'the progress of the Goihs over Europe.' ,. . Sucb