« ПредишнаНапред »
second volume of the Transactions of (he American Philosophical Society. Of these our Readers will find an account in our late Review of that publication.
The sixth Paper contains several meteorological conjectures: it is dated at Passy (near Paris), in May 1784.
The ninth, intitled, Information to those who would remove to America; and the tenth, Remarks on the Savages of North America, were published together in London in 1784, and we gave an account of them in our Review, vol. Ixxi. p. 146.
The eleventh is On the internal State of America. It is written in the usual style of its great Author. It is simple, plain, just, and forcible. The true interests of America are (hewn in a full point of view; and the people are exhorted to maintain and improve the blessings which they now may enjay. Speaking of the discords at present subsisting in America, our Author says:
4 It is true, that in some of the States there are parties and discords; but let.us look back, and ask if we were ever without them? Such will exist wherever there is liberty; and perhaps they help to preserve it. By the collision of different sentiments, sparks of truth are struck out, and political light is obtained. The different factions which at present divide us, aim all at the public good; the differences are only about the various modes of promoting it. Things, actions, measures, and objects of all kinds, present themselves to the minds of men in such a variety of lights, that it is not possible we should all think alike at the fame time on every subject, when hardly the same man retains at all times the fame idea of it. Parties are therefore the common lot of humanity; and ours are by no means more mischievous or less beneficial than those of other countries, nations, and ages, enjoying in the fame degree the great blessing of political liberty.'
The principal sources of the increasing wealth of America are, in our Author's opinion, agriculture, and fisheries. To theft he advises the Americans to be peculiarly attentive, 'and then,' h)S he, • the power of rival;, with all their restraining and prohibiting acts, cannot much hurt us.'
The twelfth and last piece in this collection is A Letter to B— V— Esq. on criminal laws, and the practice of privateering. It contains chit-fly an examination of two pamphlets, Thoughts on Executive fujlice; and, Observations concernant I'Execution de 1"Article II. dt la Declaration Jur le Vol. The former, which recommends the hanging of all thieves, is disapproved; while the latter, which is for proportioning punishments to offences, is" praised by our Author.
Privateering is severely censured, as being totally contrary to the principles of equity and morality. The practice is altogether robbery, and is as much a violation of justice as any other species of theft or plunder whatever. The States of Amtr;ca have al
Rev. Oct. 1787. X icady ready put in practice the benevolent principles of our Author for abolishing privateering, by offering in all their treaties with other powers, an article, that in cafe of a future war, no privateer shall be commissioned on either side. This laudable and generous proposition has already been received, much to the honour of the parties, by Prussia, of which our Readers will fee an account in our Review for October last, p. 309. Would it were universally adopted by all nations on the earth! Ji ff\,.
Art. XI. Conclusion of our Arccunt of Dr. Farjler's History of the Foyages and Discoveries incite in the North. See our last Appendix.
THE third Book " Of the Voyages and Discoveries made in the North, in modern Times," sets out with relating the voyages made by the Portuguese along the coast of Africa: in the course of which the Canary Ides, those of Cape Verde, the Azores, Madeira, and Porto Sancto, were discovered; and the Author subjoins some general remarks on the state of navigation, and the government of Europe, toward the end of the fifteenth century. The remaining part of this Book is subdivided into seven chapters, on the discoveries of the English, the Dutch, the French, the Spaniards, the Portuguese, the Danes, and the Russians; all in the North.
The English voyages, here recorded, make but a small part of what might have been given, if the Author had thought proper, as any person may see, who will be at the trouble of consulting the Collections of Hackluyt and Purchase; and yet they fill twice the sp-ice that is occupied by the other fix chapters, all togpther. They consist of those which fellow:
I. The voyage of John Cabot and his sons to the coast of North America, in 1496.
II. The voyage performed by Mr. Here and others to Newfoundland and Cups Breton, 1536.
III. The unfortunate voyage of Sir Hugh Willoughby round the North Cape of Europe, 1553.
IV. The voyage of Mr. Richard Chancelor to the White Sea,
V. The voyage of Stephen Bourough to Nova Zembla and the Straits of Waig-itz, 1556.
VI. Martin Frobisher's three voyages for the discovery of a North-west Passage, 1576*, 1577, and 1578.
VII. A voyige made by Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, in 1580, in search of a North-east passage to China and the East Indies; and in which they passd the Straits of Waigatz, but were not able to proceed farther on account of the ice.
* Our Author has it 1567; but we suspect it to be an error of the press. The voyage was certainly made in IC76.
. VIII. The voyage of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and others, for establishing colonies in North America, under a grant from Queen Elizabeth, 1583.
IX. The three voyages of Capt. John Davis, 1585, 1586, and 1587, for discovering a North-west passage to the Pacific Ocean.
X. The voyage of George Waytnouth to Davis's Straits, and the coast of Labrador, 1602.
XI. The voyage of John Knight to the westward, 1606. The Doctor has abridged the account of this voyage in such a manner, that if he had not, accidentally, mentioned Newfoundland, in their return home, we should not have been able to determine what quarter of the world it was made to, without consulting Purchase, from whom it is taken.
XII. The voyage of James Hall to West Greenland, in 1612; where he was slain by one of the natives, in revenge, as is supposed, for his having taken some of them away with him in a former voyage, which he made in the service of the King of Denmark. This voyage is remarkable on account of the first practical attempt being made in it for determining the longitude, by observation, that is to be met with on record j for although much had been written on the subject before (hat time, nothing, as far as we know, had been done in it. For the honour of England, also, let it be known, that the attempt was made by an Englishman, and an Englishman who had not been in any foreign service: for, notwithstanding Dr. Forster ascribes it to Hall, who had been in the service of the King of Denmark, it is manifest, from the manner in which it is narrated, that the operator was William ]) .ifin, who wrote the account which we have of this voyage, and who has also recorded two other attempts of the fame nature, made by himself, in his voyage with Robert Bylot, in 1615.
XIII. The three voyages which were made by Henry Hudson, for finding a passage into the Pacific Ocean; first by sailing directly toward the North in 1607, then toward the North-.'ast
in 1608; and lastly toward the North-west in 1610: in the Q last of which his crew mutinied, «*4 put him, with eight other #L" persons, into a small boat, and turned them adrift, in conse- r quence of which they were never heard of afterward.
XIV. Several voyages to Spitzbergen, and the islands which lie in its neighbourhood, between the years 1603 and 1612.
XV. The voyage of Sir Thomas Button, to Hudson's Bay, partly in search of a North-west passage, and partly to look for Hudson and the men who were exposed with him. This voyage was undertaken in the year 1612, and the crew returned to England in 1613, having wintered in a river in Hudson's Bay, called Nelson's River, after Mr. Nelson,-Button's first mate, who died
X 2 and
and was buried there. Button's journal was never published, and all we know of the voyage is gathered from some extracts which were given by Sir Thomas Roe to Capt. Luke Fox, for his instruction when he went on his voyage for the discovery of a North-weft passage in 1631 ; and were inserted by him in his introduction to the narrative of his own voyage. From the unconnected extracts which we are in possession ef, there is undoubtedly great reason to believe that Button's journal contained many very important observations relative to the tides, and other objects of natural history, in that part of the world; several of which may, possibly, never have occurred to, or been noticed by those who have followed him thither: and, on this account, we cannot help lamenting, with Dr. Foriter, that his journal has never been published, and that it is now, probably, lost forever.
XVI. A voyage to the coast of Labrador, in 1614, by Capt. Gibbons, a friend and companion of Sir Thomas Button's.
XVII. A voyage made by Fotherby and Baffin to Spitzbergen, 1614, partly on discoveries, and partly to fish.
XVIII. Another voyage, by Fotherby, to the same parts, 1615.
XIX. A voyage by Robert Bylot and William Baffin, to Hudson's Bay, in the fame year.
XX. The celebrated voyage made by the fame two persons, in 1616, in which they discovered and coasted all round Baffin's Bay: a work which no navigator has been able to effect since!
XXI. Account of a voyage, said to have been made some time between the years 1613 and 1631, to Hudson's Bay, by Capt. Hawkridge, who was an officer in Sir Thomas Button's expedition.
XXII. The voyage of Capt. Luke Fox to Hudson's Bay, 1631, for the discovery of a North-west passage into the Pacific Ocean.
XXIII. The voyage made by Capt. Thomas James to Hudson's Bay, in the years 16^1 and 1632, for the fame purpose.
XXIV. Capt. Zach. Guillam's voyage to Hudson's Bay, for the purpose of settling a colony there. Dr. Forster has annexed to the account of this voyage, some remarks on the Hudson's Bay Company, the state of their factories, and their commerce to that part of the world, collected from Dobbs, Ellis, and other writers on that side of the question; in which he has retailed all the absurd stories, whimsical reveries, and extravagant opinions, with which these Authors have endeavoured to mislead their readers; and which, from our own personal knowledge, we can affirm are what we now represent them. At the same time he appears to have overlooked all later information, which, as it comes through a channel where self-interest and the violence of party are out of the question, may, with more reason, be depended
pended on; and he is, moreover, wholly unacquainted with the present state of the Company's concerns, and even with the situation of their factories.
XXV. The voyage of John Wood for the discovery of a North-east passage, between Spitzber«en and Nova Zembla, in 1676.
XXVI. Three voyages made along the North-west coast of Hudson's Bay, from Fort Churchill, at the expence of the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1720, 1722, and 1737.
XXVII. Capt. Middleton's voyage to the North-west coast of Hudson's Bay, for the discovery of a passage into the Pacific Ocean, in 1741 and 1742.
XXVIII. The voyage made in the Dobbs and California, for the same purpose, in 1746 and 1747.
XXIX. Capt. Phipps's voyage towards the North Pole in 1773. See Review, vol. lii. p. 120.
XXX. The two voyages made bv Lieut. Pickersgill and Lieut. Young, to Davis's Straits, in 1776 and 1777.
XXXI. Capt. Cook's voyage to theNorthern Ocean, between the continents of Asia and America, in 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780*.
We cannot omit remarking, on this chapter, that our Author seems particularly, and we think, in some measure, unjustly severe in his strictures on the English voyagers.
Their conduct has, no doubt, sometimes been bad enough; but not, that we can fee, worse than that of their neighbours. We therefore think the Doctor has not dealt justly by transcribing, at great length, all their bad actions, and even highly exaggerating them in some instances, while he passed over, in entire silence, similar enormities in the voyagers of other nations. It would not become us to bring this charge of partiality, much less that of having wilfully exaggerated the cruelties which have been committed by Englishmen, without supporting that charge by producing instances of it.
Page 278, he ridicules, with great justice, as well as severity, the idle and cruel practice of seizing and carrying away the natives of uncivilized countries, in order to instruct them in the principles of the Christian religon; when, most probably, they are obliged to kill some of them in doing it; or, if they are so fortunate as to effect their purpose without death, it is sufficient cruelty to carry away a man, who was, perhaps, the whole support of a numerous family, by which means that family is left to starve in an inhospitable region. Thus far_ we perfectly agree with the Doctor, and only ask, why these remarks are applied particularly to the English, and the English alone? They never
* See Review, vol. but. p. 460; and vol. lxxi. p. 48. 122. and 283.
X 3 were