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such a conduct, in such a government, that the safety of himself and family depends. If, therefore, the punishment of the refractory flave is occasionally severe, it is not inflicted in wantonness, but for the purppse of keeping his brethren in awe, and for deterring them from mutiny and revolt, to which they are not a little prone. With respect to the traffic, the trading in this unhappy people, it is another matter.—How far it may be justifiable we do not take on us to fay.
The following description of mid-day within the Tropics, will serve as a specimen of our Author's poetry:
* Now downward darts the fierce meridian ray,
And Nature pants amidst the blaze of day;
Though pitying Ocean, to her sufF'rings kind,
Fans her warm bosom with his western wind.
Now the huge mountains charm the roving eye,
Their verdant summits towering to the fley.
The cultur'd hill, the vale, the spreading plain.
The distant sea-worn beach, the ruffled main,
The anchoring bark o'erspread with awnings white;
All now appear in robes of dazzling light.
The feather'd race their gaudy plumes display,
And sport and flutter 'midst the glowing day;
The long-bill'd hamming tribe now hover round,
And (hew their tints where bloflbms most abound.
With eyes intent on earth, well pois'd in air,
Now useful Vultures seek their fated fare.
Where curls the wave, the Pelican on high.
With beak enormous and with piercing eye,
If chance he sees a watry tenant rise,
Now headlong drops and bears away his prize.
Now variegated flies their pinions spread,
And speckled lizards start at every tread-
Drag the rich produce of the juicy canes:
Now wearied Negroes totheir soeds repair,
Or spreading tree, to take their scanty fare.
'Twas now beneath a Tamarind's cool retreat
Two fable friends, &c.'
The ingenious Author assures us, in his prefixed advertisements that he resided several years in the West Indies, and that the scenes he has delineated fell under his aliual observation.—He has added Notesy to illustrate the passages where the names of peculiar things are introduced, as subjects of Natural History,
&C. &C. J M . .
Art. VIII. Monafticon Hibtrniatm; or an History of the Abbies, Priories, and other religious Houses in Ireland. Interspersed with, Memoirs of their several Founders and Benefactors, &c. Illustrated with Plates. By Mervyn Archdall, A. M. Member of the Royal Irisli Academy. 410. 11. 5 s. Boards. Robinsons. 1786.
OUR learned Readers are sufficiently acquainted with the Monasthon Angllcanum of the celebrated Dugdale. This being a similar work, will, no doubt, be very acceptable to the lovers of ecclesiastical antiquities.
Ireland seems to have been almost totally over-run by Monks. The possessions which, by the accounts here given, the several religious orders held in that kingdom, seem nearly equal to half of the island. How the monastic state came to gain so many acquisitions in the country, is a matter of very curious investigation; and we could have wished some able historian of our sister-nation had favoured the Public with the causes of so uncommon an ascendancy. If Saint Patrick, who first established the Monkish profession in Ireland, bad been remarkable for his benevolence, or had the doctrine he preached been of temporal advantage to the receivers of it, we should not wonder to find many of the inhabitants eagerly and strenuously embracing the austere life, which, it is generally believed, the Monastic orders, in the earlier ages of Christianity, observed. The living in affluence and ease (as the Monks, by every account we have received of them, certainly did) was indeed a sufficient motive for indolent and designing men, to deceive the ignorant and infatuated wretch on his death-bed, with a promise, nay an assurance, 9s happiness in another world, in lieu of his earthly wealth: and this was, probably, the most fertile source of the immense revenues which this useless and underferving body of men possessed. Their several orders, by the apparent uncommon rectitude of life and manners in their first professors, gained universal esteem among the ignorant and unsuspecting multitude, and they found no great difficulty in obtaining every thing that their unbounded avarice, ambition, or luxury, could suggest; of this the Knights Templars have also furnished a remarkable instance. As we do not recollect to have seen, in so narrow a compass, so just an account of this order, in any other publication, or of the vast riches they had acquired, we shall lay before our Readers what Mr. Archdall fays of their dissolution:
'1312. This year, on the morrow of Lucia the Virgin, the Moon appeared variously coloured *; on which day it was finally determined that the order of the Knights Templars should be totally abolished.
■» * What concern the Moon had in the event docs not appear.
1 Nothing could so well suit the taste osan age tinctured with alt the elevating spirit of romance, and heightened by every species of religious enthusiasm, as the institution of the order of the Knights Templars, about the year n 18. The Christian world was so highly pleased with the unexampled goodness of their first professors, that in the space of 126 years, from the first institution of the Knights Templars, they were possessed of a no less number than 9000 manors in Christendom; and at the time when it was determined to put a period to their existence, they were in actual possession of 16,000 lordships. A prince so jealous of his prerogative, and r.atuially so avaricious, as Philip King of France, beheld the rising greatness of these Knights with an envious and malignant eye. The blackness of the accusation brought against them, at first awakened the attention of the Public, and'then'raised their detestation. Their luxury, their intemperance, and impurity, cannot, even at this distance of time, be denied, but those crimes were indeed too general in that age to bear so peculiarly hard against the unfortunate Templars. The people, however, were struck with horror at an accumulated charge now brought against these Knights; they were accused of sorcery, unnatural lusts, and idolatry ; a charge so gross as almost to surpass human belief. It was easy for Philip to carry this iniquitous transaction through his courts; and upon proof, the estates, houses, and effects of the order were seized and sequestered into the hands of commissioners, and their persons were secured in castles, prisons, &c. The amazing accession of property which was likely by this persecution to accrue to the crown of France, soon induced our King, Edward II. to follow the example of Philip. As these two princes were alike favoured by the Pope, the charge brought against the Templars in France was held in England as confessed, and it was publicly ordained by the King and his Council, that all of that order throughout his dominions should be seized. This command was carried into immediate execution.—The depositions against the Templars were weakly supported, yet they were condemned; but more indeed through blind compliance with the prevailing practice throughout the other parts of Europe, than any demerits being proved against their persons *. Their lands and possessions of every kind were bestowed upon the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem by the Pope, which grant was however confirmed by the King, who at the fame time entered a protest of his rights against the assumed power of the Pope.'
The work before us contains many particulars, which will gratify the antiquary's curiosity; but the present proprietors of lands, formerly belonging to the monasteries here deicribed, are the persons to whom this publication will be most useful; and it is the more valuable on account of its being compiled from authentic official records, the truth of which cannot be called in question. As to the utility of the work, with respect to the general historian, little can be expected from it, since it is chiefly confined to local circumstances ; some particulars, however, may be here met which are no where else to be found.
• Arbitrary governments are aevet at a loss for evidence to criminate the rich, '7} _
Art. IX. The History and Antiquities of the Colleges and Halls in tit University of Oxford. By Antony Wood, M. A. Now first published in English, from the original Manuscript in the Bodleiatt Library; with a Continuation to the present Time, by the Editor, John Gutch.M. A. Chaplain of All Souls'College. 410. il. 6s. in Sheets. Oxford, printed ; sold by Rivington in London. 1786.
MR. Wood's History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford, begun about the year j 656, was completed some time about the year 1668. It consisted of two Parts; the first being a general history of the University, from its institution to the year 1649; the second, a history of the ancient and present Schools, Theatres, Lectureships, Sec. together with a history of the several Colleges ami Hal!s, from their first foundation, down to the year 1668. To the whole of this was subjoined an Appendix, entitled, * Fasti Oxonienses, or a Commentary on the supreme Magistrates of the Universaie of Oxford, namely, of the Chancellours, Commissaries, Prochancellours, or Vicechancellours, and Proctors : also of tiic High Stewards and Parliamentarie Burgesses of the Universitie,'
For the compilation of this elaborate work, the Author, by means of Dr. Wallis, obtained leave to consult the University registers, monuments, and writings. He was much delighted, siy his biographers, wi'.h these records, and took so much pains in carrying on his work, that his constitution and health were much impaired, and his acquaintance observed a very material alteration in his person. After he had extracted from these writings every thing he thought useful for his great undertaking, he went to London, with letters of recommendation, from Dr. Thomas Barlow, then Provost of Queen's College, to Sir William Dugdale; by whose means he obtained leave to peruse some manuscripts in the Cotton Library, and had free access to the records in the Tower.
With these advantages Mr. Wood could easily furnish himself with authentic facts; yet the labour in collecting them must have been immense, and the judgment in selecting what would be useful, and in rejecting what was superfluous, must have required time and attention; so that we cannot sufficiently admire his great assiduity in order to bring so elaborate a performance to a conclusion, in so short a time. On the 22d of October, the University of Oxford offered him the sum of One HunDred Pounds for the copy of this work; he accepted it, and received the money on the 29th of March following. What astonijhing Liberality!! A London porter, even in those days, would have earned above five times the money,—in the fame number of years.
This purchase was made for the purpose of translating the
yiork into Latin". The version was accordingly performed, under
Iz "the the inspection of Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, and published in 1674., in folio, under the title of Historia et Antiquitates Uni-' Vtrfitatis Oxoniensis, duobus voluminibus comprehensa.
Mr. Wood was g'eatly displeased with this translation, as appears from many p stages in his Athen. Oxon- where he makes heavy complaints of the injury done to his book (Vid. vol. 2d. Col. 853. ad edition). Tne Editors of the Biographia Britanmca give a remarkable instance of the translators wilful misrepresentation of the Author's meaning. (Vid. vol. v. p. 3403. Note P.)
Seeing this Latin edition so very faulty, he began in August 1676 to revise the whole of his English copy, continuing the General History, or first Part, down to the year 1660; and the second Part down to 1695. This copy, fairly transcribed in two very ample volumes folio, he bequeathed to the University of Oxford j and they are now deposited in the Bodleian Library.
* The second article,' says the Preface to this publication, * of the 2d part of this manuscript, or the History of the Colleges and Halls, is here given to the public. And as the Editor, by the obliging assistance of his friends in these societies, has been enabled to continue their history down to the present times, and sometimes to correct the Author's mistakes, many additions have been made, and much new matter inserted. But all such additions are incloled in crotchets, and never intermixed or confounded with Wood's text, which is exhibited with all possible fidelity.
« If this specimen should be favourably received, the Editor proposes to publish all that remains, consistently with his health, and his frequent avocations.'
As to the manner in which Mr. Gutch has executed his office as an Editor, we can only fay that there is no reason to susped his fidelity in giving a true copy of the original: the additional matter is on the fame plan with that of Mr. Wood, and seems to be accurate. The annotations and references with which he has enriched the original text, must also be highly ac* ceptable to those antiquaries who may have occasion to consult
the work' %%- ••;»
Art. X. Philosophical and Miscellaneous Papers, lately written by B. Franklin, LL.D. &c. &c. 8vo. 3s. 6d. Dilly. 1787.
MOST of the Papers which compose this volume have already passed under our notice. The first, second, third, and fourth, on Smtkey Chimneys; the fifth, A Description of a new Stove for burning Pitcoal and consuming all the Smoke; the seventh, on Hygrometers; and the eighth, containing sundry maritime Observatitnst were published in the 14 second