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of the Connoisseurs. At the conclusion of the tleventh is a poetical Epijlle to a Friend, which the Preface informs us was written by Lloyd. To these succeed six numbers of The Gentleman, which first appeared in The London Packet. Of these, the Papers on Language ate by far the best; though, indeed, the merit of the whole intitles them to a place in this collection, notwithstanding " they were discontinued," says the Preface, " as abruptly as they were begun." This volume concludes with four numbers of the Terræ Filius, published daily, during the Encænia at Oxford, in honour of the Peace 1763. These, we are told, were written while the Author was on an excursion to Oxford, with Thornton and Churchill, neither of whom, however, took any part in the publication.
Vol. II. opens with twenty-one Letters and pieces of criticism, which were written to promote the interest of the different publications in which they appeared. Many of them are ingenious, and several are very entertaining.
After these, come the Reflections en the old Englijh Dramatic write/s, which, after their first publication as a separate pamphlet, were prefixed as a Preface to an edition of M-iiirgcr, of which an account was given in our Review, vol. xxi. p. 176, and vol. lx. p. 480. To this fuccefd the following pieces in prose and verse: I. Preface to the edition of the Plays of Beaumont and Fletcher—M. Review, vol. lxii. p. 417. 11. A?» PENDix to the second edition of the translation of the Comedies of Terence, 1768, with a Postscript (never before published) to this Appendix, in answer to the Prolegomena and Notes to the Variorum Shakespeare. These relate to the question which has been so frequently agitated, respecting the learning of our great dramatic poet. Mr. Colman's opinion is directly opposite to tnat of Dr. Farmer, and some other critics. For our own part, we arc inclined to think, that the point can never te fo fully determined, but that arguments may be adduced to controvert any decision which can Le given. But we do not mean to in* terfere ;—
OT p' otwt voXtfxov ri Kay.cv, xxt (p-j^otriv Olvjtv
Homer, II. A. Remarks on Shylock's reply to the Senate of Venice: never before published. The passage which Mr. Colman here examines, js in the famous judgment scene in the Merchant of Venice;
"Some men there are, love not a gaping pig;
Some that are mad, if they behold a cat;
And others, when the bagpipe sings i'th'nose,
Cannot contain their urine for affection,
Matters of pillion s.vayes it to the mood.
Of what it likes or loathes."
In the old books, 'this passage has been universally allowed to be corrupt. Different commentators have prescribed different modes of cure, hut, in Mr. Coiman's opinion, eui nos quotescumque sumus, adsenthnur, not one of them with success. He therefore proposes, after enumerating the corrections of former critics, to add a line, in order to remove the difficulty,—and he reads the passage thus:
"Others, when the bagpipe sings i'lli'nose,
Cannot contain their urine for affection. Sovereign antipathy, or sympathy, Mijtre/s of paliion, svvayes it to the mood Of what it lilies and loathes." This is sorely very ingenious, as, indeed, are the whole of these remarks; but we mutt confess, that we are not satisfied with this method of removing the difficulty, however it may remove the defect in the construction.
Orthopædia, or Thoughts on public Education. These Thoughts, which were never before published, form a most valuable part of the collection; and are written profess-dly in answer to Mr. Locke's tract on Education.
Mr. Locke was an enemy to public education: Mr. Colmari is a declared friend to it, and, in our opinion, has, by many degrees, the best of the argument. He is more candid than his opponent, to whom he is not inferior in observation or powers of satire; and though his remarks are louse and desultory, they are by no means so imrr.ethodical as those of Mr. Locke; whose constant practice, in this work, is to resume in one part of it the very subject which he appeared to have dismissed in another.
We would willingly give a summary, orsynopt'ual view of this Essay, if our limits were not too circumscribed; but we must seriously recommend the perusal of it to every parent and guardian, whose candid attention it well merits. We shall, however, present to our Readers the following extracts; as they will serve to explain Mr. Coiman's sentiments on this most important subject, to those who may net have an opportunity of perusing the whole of the remarks:
'It must be confessed, that Public Education, as well as Domestic Tuition, has its faults: but many of the corruptions of schools are brought by the scholars from home. At home are the foolish, the idle, and vicious servants, so mach dreaded by Locke. At home indulgence takes the place of discipline, and from home they often bring sums of money far beyond their little occasions, by which artificial wants are created, and disorders introduced. This last evil, wholly owing to the indiscretion of friends and parents, has been, particularly noxious to Public Schools. Masters can only controul and check its influence. Friends and parents alone can prevent and extirpate it.
• Public Schools ought to cultivate the mathematics, as well a* the daffies. Both might be taught sufficiently, for the initiation of
V * pupij*!
pupils, during their stay at a Public School; from whence they ought to be sent to the Universities, equally prepared to pursue their philosophical as their classical studies.
'Public Schools also generally detain their pupils too long. Youths should be dismissed from schools at the age of sixteen or seventeen at the latest. They are afterwards commencing young men, and will not patiently submit to the corrections of children.'—
'In general it is unadvisable for parents to send their sons to a Great Public School, sooner than at the period of nine or ten years of age; not that I would wisti the preceding period to be lost and buried in ignorance and idleness. Let their children in the mean while be sent to some preparatory academy, where they may be taught to write, to read, to speak French, to dance, to draw, and the rudiments of Latin according to the grammar of, the school for which they are afterwards intended. A master who cannot, by himself and his assistants, supply his little students with these helps, is unlit to govern such an academy.
* One great reason for preference of Public to Private Education 3s this. Schoolboys, being at intervals called home, partake occasionally of the enjoyments and society of a family. Private pupils, constantly confined within one narrow circle, acquire none of the freedom and spirit of a Public Education.
'Travel, where it can be afforded, cannot be accompanied with the benefit that ought to attend it from the first stage of life, one of the periods to which Locke destines it: but being certainly improper at the usual time and in the usual mode, may be reserved to Locke's last stage, and therefore properly succeeding to a removal from the Universities; when the young traveller, if not fit and able to go alone, had better not go at all.
'Milton has given A traBate on Education, containing a plan of a school and university in one, intended to annihilate all other schools and universities, by instituting as many of such academies as might be necessary in different parts of the kingdom. Yet in this plan, romantic as he almost himself seems to think it, he has proceeded on principles very different from those of Locke, and shewn himself the friend and advocate of Public Education. He rather follows the principles of Plato and Xenophon, than adopts the system of Locke.
'His proposed number of pupils is an hundred and fifty, more or le(s. He directs the teaching of languages, not by rote, but by grammar, and those not only modern but ancient, and of the ancient not only Latin, but Greek and Hebrew, with the Chaldean and Syrian dialect?. So far from objecting to repetitions, that he enjoins Grammar lessons to be got by heart, and poems, and orations not merely to "be read, but " put to memory, and solemnly announced with right accent and grace." And though, like Locke, he regrets the time thrown, away in learning one or two languages, yet himself appropriates no Jess time than nine years, from twelve to twenty-one, to education. He also sixes the age of twenty-three or twenty-four as the proper time for travel, if travel be necessary. So that on the whole, though I have been hardy enough to enter the lists with such a giant antagonist as Locke, i have Mikon to support me.
'* It appears indeed, on the face of Locke's tract, that the present plan of education is highly preferable to the system that prevailed at the time of his writing. The medical management of children is so much improved, that many things which he recommends, as contrary to the practice of those times, are now in general use: and as to the cultivation of their minds, were he now living, he would no longer lament the want of a sixpenny History of the Bible, or. an Æsop with pictures to every fable. The booksellers have provided the little students a Lilliputian library, and every toyshop and stationer will supply them with polygons for the vowels, or the whole alphabet in cards or ivory, unless they should rather chuse to swallow it in gingerbread. Geography is learnt by the dice, like the Game of the Goose; maps are dissected into kingdoms and provinces; and perhaps to Locke himself we owe many of those valuable achievements.
'Universities, those dry-nurses that succeed to the first seminaries of education, are also much improved in their principles and practice since the æras of Milton and Locke: and if the students do not at their departure make due progress in their several pursuits and professions, the failure must be imputed to themselves, who have so ill applied the time they have passed there. At one university since the time of Milton, a great and transcendent genius has advanced the career of science, as Milton himself carried the flights of poetry, beyond the 'visible diurnal sphere. At the other an acute and able jurisprudent, whose early loli we still lament, instituted a course of lectures of established authority xa the professional reader, as well as affording, in the most elegant terms, a code of law necessary for the instruction and perusal of every private gentleman. The students too are now less bewildered in the labyrinths of logic and metaphysics. To their original resistance to the principles of Locke perhaps we owe much of his prejudice to Public Education. His prejudices, were he now a living witness of the cordial reception of his doctrines, would perhaps vanish: though he might still insist, and not without justice, according to the Tirocinium * of my worthy and ingenious friend Mr. Cowper, that Discipline should stand as porter at the gate of every college.
* The study of Geography, Chronology, History, the Elements of Natural Philosophy and Geometry, may easily be reconciled to the plan of the early part of Public Education, and should be incorporated with it. As to dancing, fencing, and accounts, these are generally taught by separate masters, according to the direction of the parents, without need of particular injunction or serious dissertation. Painting and music are indeed not in so general request, and the truth i«, that gentlemen practitioners either misapply much os their time, or fall infinitely below the most common artists of either profession. If a trade is absolutely necessary to a student and a gentleman, that of a gardener seems to be the most healthy and agreeable,
* ' The Tirocinium forms part of a collection of poems by W. Cowper, Esq. one of which poems is The Task, a most admirable work in blank verse, which gives a most promising earnest of the Author's intended Translation of Homer in that measure.*'
U 3 i« to which in bad weather may be added the occupation of a joiner or carpenter, as on that account both Locke and Rousseau recommend it.. And a schoolboy is perhaps more qualified even for such an apprenticeship, as well as for the more honourable and hazardous avocations of the army or navy, than a young gentleman bred in a private family.'
Dissertation en Tails, This humorous letter to the primer of the St. James's Chronicle, in which paper it appeared, in 1764, brings up the rear of the Prose in this volume.
Verses on several occasions. These consist of a fine from Klopstock's death of Adr.m.—Odes 10 Obscwhy and Oblivion* j which we are told, in the Preface, were a piece of boy's play, and written in concert with Lloyd, in order to jcke, perhaps too licentiously, with the prettyitcjscs of one poet, and the cbscuri? tics of another.—The Lew Student.—The Roliiad, an heroic poem. We wish these two humorous Cantos had been longer, though, they contain neither political allusion nor party satire.—The Fable of the Trees.—The Ccbler of Crippleeate's Letter to R. Lloyd, written in concert with Gnrrick.—Ode to any Minister or Great Man.—Fragment of a Love Eiegv.—Mother Shipten, a J3allad.—Epitaph on Powell, the Actor'.—Three Epigrams on the Contented Cuckold.—The three Witches at the Jubilee Masquerade,—and the Game at Loo.
So closes the second volume. Of these poetical pieces Tht Roliiad is the only one, which has not before appeared in print.
Vol. III. Horatii Epijlola at Pisories. Translation, and Notes.
Of this translation an account was given in our Review, vol. Ixix. p. 144, and p. 201.—It then received our commendation; and on comparing this new edition with the former one, we think it now intitled even to a larger portion of praise. The whole has been revised, and many of the roughnesses, that disfigured a poem, in which eale was'lhe chief object, are removed, and some obscure passages are corrected and rendered perspicuous. Among these is one f of the verses in which it appeared to us, that the translator had outstepped metaphorical propriety, Ver. 70.
Many (hall rise again, that now are dead;
We shall not attempt to enumerate all the improvement} which have been made in different places, by the change of a ■ '—■—■——- ■—-—■ '—f
* See Review, vol. xxiii. p. 57.
t We objected to another paflage, which Mr. Cplman has not alj|6ied. Sed cuiguestt suus gusiiu, Juumjudicium.