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PREFACE.

letter; the letters of introduction, of recommendation, excuse, sympathy, and business — all these practical epistolary forms, such as enter into the every-day transactions of life, should be thoroughly taught in our schools.

The gathering of news for the press, the rules and typographical marks for proofreading, the illustrations of printing types, visiting and business cards, notes of invitation, etc. — all these exercises and more, can be introduced with great benefit to pupils. In short, nearly every chapter of this Manual, much of which has never been published before in any form, can be used to supply practical lessons in the school

room.

In the business walks of life, a work of this kind has long been required. In penmanship, use of capital letters, punctuation, letter - writing; the forms of notes, bills, orders, receipts, checks, drafts, bills of exchange, articles of agreement, bonds, mortgages, deeds, leases, and wills; in selecting the kind of type in which to print the hand-bill or card; the marking letters; the law of the different States concerning the limitation of actions, rates of interest, usury, and amount of property exempt from forced sale and execution,-all this and much more contained herein, will be of especial service for reference in the transaction of business.

By the lady, much will be found in a Manual of this kind that will particularly serve her in the writing of her social forms. As a text-book and self-instructor in writing, it admirably serves to give her that delicate and beautiful penmanship which pleases the

eye as does fine music the ear. The rules of composition, writing for the press, the letter - writing, the marriage anniversaries, the notes of invitation to the cotton, paper, leather, wooden, tin, silk and other weddings; the fancy alphabets for needle-work; the selections for the album, lists of common Christian names, and synonyms, abbreviations, foreign words and phrases, the rules for writing poetry and the laws of etiquette—all these will meet her especial favor.

The mistress of the household will find here the form of the testimonial suitable to be given the seryant upon his or her departure to seek a situation elsewhere. The mother will find the written excuse to the teacher for the non-attendance of her child at school; the servant, the form of letter when applying for a situation; and the bashful, blushing maiden, the cautious, carefully worded letter, that will aid her in giving expression to the hitherto closely guarded secrets of the heart.

The sign-painter has daily use for a reference book of this kind, arranged and adapted, as it is, to the comprehension and wants of the knights of the pencil and brush, with the rules of punctuation, prepared for his especial use, and abundant examples of signs, so as to enable him not only to paint the letters and words beautifully, but to punctuate the same correctly. In this department is given a large number of plain and fancy alphabets, while the book throughout contains beautiful emblems and different kinds of lettering. The fine specimens of penmanship and pen-sourishing, including round-hand writing, old English, German-text, and orna

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mental script letters, will particularly please, presenting, as they do, much that is entirely new, calculated to aid the young sign- painter in doing his work elegantly and correctly.

The artist in lettering on marble finds in this work a chapter presenting tombstone inscriptions and epitaphs, giving the modern and best forms of wording by which to perpetuate the memory of the departed. More especially will this be valued by the marble-worker as giving him the grammatical wording of the inscription, the abbreviation of words, and their correct punctuation. The grand and costly monument, designed to stand for a thousand years, to be gazed upon by multitudes, and the record that it bears to be read by millions! How important that, in this conspicuous place, in such enduring form, the inscription, in grammar, capitalization, and punctuation, should be given absolutely correct.

absolutely correct. The ornamental scripts, with the plain and fancy alphabets, will also admirably serve the wants of marble-workers. This chapter will likewise assist the mourner who is desirous of selecting an appropriate inscription to mark the last resting place of the departed.

The reader will appreciate the forms herein relating to inscriptions suitable for use by the engraver, when marking the spoon, the ring, the cane, the watch, the modest birth-day gift, or the costly wedding present. The engraver will more especially value these examples, from the fact that they enable the customer to select at once the words desired, and the style of lettering in which they shall be executed; while the forms of punctuation and arrangement of wording will teach the youngest apprentice at the bench how to execute the same correctly.

The secretary of the public meeting, the presiding officer, every member of the assemblage; in fact, every American citizen that aspires to discharge the duties of a freeman, will be aided by the chapter on parliamentary rules, the forms of resolutions appropriate for various occasions, petitions to public bodies, etc.

The individual who would appear at ease in general society, who would do the right thing at the right time, be self-possessed and free from embarrassment, will appreciate the chapter on etiquette. More especially will this be valued because of its beautiful and instructive illustrations.

The chapter assigned to the writing of poetry, and the dictionary of rhymes, will instruct and aid a certain class; while the poetic selections will be valued by all lovers of poetry, as presenting some of the most beautiful and charming poems in existence.

In short, the varied character of this work appeals alike to the wants of the old and young of all classes. Realizing this, the book is launched on the sea of literature with the confident belief that it is demanded, and that it will accomplish its mission of usefulness.

8

ALPHABETICAL SUMMARY OF CONTENTS.

PAGE.

240
138

194 148 193 196 197

PAGE,

105 ..101

91 104

97 103 107

99 112

94 95 79 183

190 170 170 172 172

132 .127

126

248
2.29

52
133

128

215 .198 160

58 236

216 216

131 232 176 .168

278

.192

132

205

280

133 144 165 166 146 158 150 1717 172 172 172 172 173 159

17 252 302

216 229

Abbreviations, Modern List of ..
Albums, Selections for:...
Alphabets of Plain and Marking Letters.
Articles of Agreement, Forms of..
Balls, Rules that should Govern them..
Bills of Purchase, Form of..
Bills of Sale, Form of ..
Bonds, Form of....
Book and Newspaper Type, Sizes and Names of.
Bookkeeping; Directions for Keeping Books of Account
Bathing, Directions for
Beauty, Personal Habits which Make it.
Blondes, Colors They Should Wear
Brunettes, Colors They Should Wear.
Calls for Public Meetings, Form of
Capacity of a Freight Car..
Capital Letters, Rules for Use of.
China Weddings, Form of Invitation to
Coal, Where it Comes From
Composition, Rules of
Common Christian Names, List of
Comparative Vale of Different Woods for Fuel
Collection of Debts; How to Proceed.
Constitution and By-Laws, Forms of.
Copyright, Law of
Correcting Proof; Typographical Marks
Countries of the World; Population, Size, Government, etc.
Crystal Wedding, Form of Invitation to..
Calling; When, Where, and How to Call
Carriage Riding; How to Make it Agreeable.
Church Etiquette; What is Proper.
Conversation; When, Where and What to Speak
Courtship and Marriage; Danger of Mismating
Card Playing, Etiquette of...
Charming Homes; How to make them.
Colors Suitable for Different Complexions.
Colors Suitable to Wear at Different Seasons.
Colors in Dress Most Beautiful at Night.
Colors in Dress Most Beautiful by Daylight
Colors that Contrast, yet Harmonize.
Courtship; Suggestions Concerning it.
Days of Grace on Drafts, Notes, etc., in Different States
Deeds, Forms of..
Degrees at which Substances Melt, Boil, Freeze, etc...
Dictionary of Synonyms, Giving over 11,000 Words.
Distances to Principal Cities by Land and Water.
Drafts, Forms of.
Dinner Parties, How to Conduct Them.
Engravers’ Inscriptions, Forms of
Epitaphs, Forms of
Exemptions from Forced Sale in Different States
Exteinpore Speaking, Directions for.
Etiquette, Important Rules of Conduct.
Employer and Employe, Relations Between
Family Records, Form of..
Fast Trotters, Time of..
Flowers, Language and Sentiment of..
Foreign Words and Phrases, with Pronunciation..
Funeral Notice, Form of..
Feet, How to Care for them..
Fashion, Hints to Gentlemen.
Fashion, Hints to Ladies..
Funerals, Rules for Conducting them
Golden Wedding, Form of Invitation to..
Grammar, Leading Rules of
Hair, How to Make it Abundant and Beautiful.
Ilushands and Wives; Duty to Each Other
Husband's Duty to Wife
Hand, How to Make it Handsome.
Horseback-Riding; Cautions and Suggestions.
Highest To'vers, Monuments, etc., in the World
How to Teach Writing; Programıne of Lessons
How to Ascertain the Present Value of a Widow's Dower
Introductions, Directions for
Influence of the Moon on the Growth of Plants.
Insurance Tables.
Interest Tables; How to Compute Interest
Invitation to Receptions, Forms of
Kindness to the Erring .......
Landlord and Tenant; Forms of Leases
Largest Churches and Theaters; Their Capacity

Letters Accompanying Gifts, Forms of.
Letters of Advice, Forms of
Letters Applying for Situations, Forms of..
Letters Asking Favors, Forms of
Letters of Congratulation, Forms of
Letters of Excuse, Forms of.
Letters of Friendship and Relationship, Forms of.
Letters of Introduction, Forms of
Letters of Love and Courtship, Forms of.
Letters of Recommendation, Forms of..
Letters of Sympathy, Forms of.
Letter-Writing; General Directions for Correspondence.
Limitation of Action in Different States..
Marriage Anniversaries; When to Celebrate Them
Marriage Certificate, Form of..
Marriage License, Form of .
Marriage Notices, Form of
Men that Went to the War, Number from Each State.
Metric System of Weights and Measures.
Mortgages, Forms of
Marriage Ceremonies; How to Conduct Them
Notes of Invitation to Weddings and Parties
Number of Soldiers Called for during the late Civil War.
Neighbors; How they may be Improved
"No"; Importance of Saying it Politely.-
Oceans, Lakes, Rivers, Mountains; Length, Height, etc.
Orders, Forms of
Paper Wedding; When it Occurs.
Parliamentary Rules for the Use of Public Meetings
Partnership; Form of Partnership Agreement.
Pen and Pencil Flourishing.
Penmanship; Rules and Copies
Petitions to Public Bodies, Forms of.
Poetry, Rules for Writing
Population, Area, etc., of Each of the United States
Population of Cities at last Census.
Precautionary Measures in Transacting Business.
Presidents of the U. S.; Historical Facts Relating to.
Presidents of the U. S.; Where they were Educated.
Principal Exports of Various Countries...
Promissory Notes, Forms of ..
Public Celebrations; How to Conduct them
Public Meetings; Directions for Conducting them
Punctuation, Rules of...
Parental Government, Rules for..
Partners for Life; Whom to Marry
Proposal of Marriage; How to make it
Receipts, Forms of.....
Resolutions, Forms of
Skin; How to make it Pure and Clear..
Selections from the Poets; Fifty Standard Poems
Senators and Representatives; Number from each State.
Short-Hand Writing, Rules and Copies for...
Silk Wedding, Form of Invitation to..
Silver Wedding, Form of Invitation to.
Sign-Writing; Wording and Punctuation.
Spelling, Rules and Directions for..
State Laws Relating to Interest
Strength of Ice
Subscription Papers; How to Draft them.
Superscriptions on Envelopes, Directions for Writing.
Temperaments that Should go Together in Marriage
Teeth, How to make them Clean and White.
Toilet, Rules and Directions for....
Tables for Reference; Coins, Value, etc.
Time Required to Digest Different kinds of Food
Titles; His Excellency, Hon., Rev., Dr., Prof., Esq., etc.
Toasts and Sentiments Suitable for Public Occasions
Tombstone Inscriptions, Forms of...
l'nderscoring; Rules for Italicizing
United States; When, Where and by Whom Settled
United States Ariny; Its Strength at Various Dates
Visiting and Business Cards, forins of.
Vocabulary of Rhymes; Rhyming Dictionary.
Wages Table; Showing Earnings per Hour, Day, etc.
Wedding Ceremonies, Etiquette of
Weights, Measures, Variations of Time, etc...
Weights of a Cubic Foot of Metals, Liquids, etc...
Wills, Forms of
Wedding Dresses, Directions for
Wife's Duty to Husband.
Writing for the Press, Rules and Directions for..

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PENMANSHIP.

PAGE.

PAGE.

17

21

22

Introductory Remarks,
System of Penmanship,- Copies.- Principles, -Im-

portance of Practice, – Pens, Paper, — Ink;— Other Writing Materials - How to

Practice, Position while Writing, Position for Sitting and Holding the Pen, Legibility,— Proportion of Small Letters - Relative

Proportion of Letters in Large Round-hand,- Ele

ments of Small Letters, General Hints for Small Letters, – Principles of Capi.

tal Letters - Capital Letters, Views of the Correct Positions for Holding Hand and

Pen while Writing, Views Representing Incorrect Positions for Hand and

Pen while Writing, Nature's Rules,– Curved Lines - Proportion, Contrast, - Position of Hand in Flourishing,— Plain

Penmanship and Flourishing, Correct Position for Standing while Writing, Correct and Incorrect Positions for Sitting and Hold

ing the Pen, Small Letters Contrasted, Showing Probable Faults,

Right and Wrong, Description of the Plates, Lithographic Copies of Alphabets, Figures, Words, and

Sentences, Blackboard Flourishing – Teaching Penmanship,

The Twelve-lesson System, How to Organize the Writing Class, - How to Main

tain Interest, Lithographic Copies Representing Ladies' Penmanship,

Containing Alphabets, Figures, Words, and Sentences,- Business Penmanship, Showing Letter of In

troduction, How to Arrange Copies, - Coramencement of the

Writing School, Programme of Exercises for Each Lesson. First

Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Lessons, Lithographic Copies Comprising Off-hand Capitals,

Round - hand, and Flourishing, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Lessons, Eleventh and Twelfth Lessons, Lithographic Copies Representing Fine Penmanship

and Flourishing, - Pen-pictures of Birds, etc., Suggestions to Teachers,

Concluding Suggestions on Penmanship to Learners, -
Reasons Why we should Write Well,

40 Blackboard Flourishing,— Chalk and Pencil Drawing, 40-41 18 Copies for the Writing School,

41 Copies of Ladies' Epistolary Penmanship,

43 19 20

SHORT-HAND WRITING.
General Directions for Writing Short-Hand,-Posi.

tion for Holding the Pen when Writing Short-
Hand,

44 SPELLING. Spelling -Names of Elementary Sounds,-Letters, – 23

Rules for Spelling,-Classified list of Words of

Similar Pronunciation that are Spelled Differently, 24 -Spelling by Sound,

48-51 CAPITAL LETTERS. 25 Capital Letters,—Rules for the Use of Capitals,

52 26

PUNOTUATION. Examples,— Punctuation Marks,- Rules for Punc27 tuation,

52-53 28 Marks of Pronunciation,-Marks Directing Attention, -Underscoring,

54 29

GRAMMAR.
Grammar,– Mistakes Corrected,

55 30-31 Slang Phrases and Profanity,-Declamation of Origi32

nal Composition,
Writing as an Aid to Exte. opore Speaking,

57 32–33

Composition, -
Brevity in Telegrams,

59 33

Rhetorical Figures,—Metaphor.-Allegory,— Personi

fication,- Metonymy,-Synecdoche, Irony,--Par34 alipsis,--Climax,

60 Allusion,- Exclamation, - Interrogation,- Euphemism,-Apostrophe,–Vision,

61 Summary,—Laws of Language, -Specific Directions, 34-35 -Rules of Construction,

62 DICTIONARY OF SYNONYMS. 35 Examples Given of over Eleven Thousand Synonym

ous Words, Whereby the Writer is Not Only
Given the Spelling of all Common Words, but is

Enabled with this Table to avoid the Disagreeable
36–37 Fault of Tautology or Repetition of Words,
37

63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70

71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78

LETTER-WRITING, 38–39 Style and Manner,-Originality,

79 39 Parts of a Letter, -Purity of Expression,-Form,

80

56

58

36

38

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81
82

82

94

83

83

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Position of the Various Parts,–Complimentary

dress to the Business Man,—To the Married Wo-

man, - To the Unmarried Woman, Kinds of

Paper to Use,-Form of a Letter,

Etiquette of Letter-Writing,

TITLES.

To Royalty,—To Nobility,

To Baronets,—To Knights,—Titles of Honor, Profes-

sion, and Respect,

SUPERSCRIPTIONS.

How to Write Straight on the Envelope,

Form of Superscription on Envelope, to Circulate

within the United States,

Letter to England,

Letter to Germany,-Letter to Ireland, -Letter from

Germany, -Letter to be Returned in Ten Days, -

Suggestions,

BUSINESS LETTERS.

General Directions, -Ordering Goods,

Form of a Letter Ordering Books, — Form of an

Order to a Dry-Goods Merchant,-From a Young

Man Commencing Business to a Wholesale House,

Enclosing Order,—Requesting Information Con-

cerning the Opening of a Store,-Answer to the

Foregoing,

Enquiry Concerning Real Estate - Letters of Res.

ignation,- Letter Complaining of Error in Bill,

-Answer to the Foregoing—An Application for

Situation on a Railway,–Recommending a Suc-

cessor in Business, --Notice of having Forwarded

Goods,-Requesting a Friend to make Purchases,

Requesting Settlement of Account, —Reply to the

Foregoing,-Urging Payment of Rent,-Letter to

a Pioneer Settler in the West,- Answer to the

Foregoing, -

APPLICATIONS FOR SITUATIONS.

Letters Answering Advertisements, Miscellaneous

Advertisements,—" Wanted,”—Answer to an Ad-

vertisement for an Assistant Editor,

General Directions,-Letter from a Boy Applying for

a Clerkship,-From a Young Lady Applying for a

Clerkship in a Store, —Answering an Advertise-

ment for a Book-keeper,-Answering an Advertise-

ment for a Cook,-Answer to an Advertisement for

a Chambermaid,-Application for a Situation as a

Gardener,

Application for a Situation as a Coachman,—Appli-

cation from a Governess Answering an Advertise-

ment,-Requesting Information as to the Character

of a Governess,-Favorable Reply to the Foregoing,

-Unfavorable Reply to the Foregoing,—Answer-

ing an Advertisement for an Apprentice to a Dress-

maker,-Answer to an Advertisement for a Music-

teacher, Answering an Advertisement for an

Apprentice to a Printer,

LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION,

Recommending a Salesman, — Recommending a

School-Mistress,-Recommending a Book-keeper,

Recommending a Waiter, - Recon. mending a

Cook,-Recommending a Washerwoman,-Recom-

mending a Porter, Declining to Recommend a

Cook,

LETTERS OF SYMPATHY.

Expressions of Condolence, — To a Friend, on the

Death of a Husband,-Reply to the Foregoing, -

On the Death of a Mother,- On the Death of a

Brother,

On the Death of a Wise,-On the Death of a Sister,

-On the Death of a Daughter,-On the Death of

an Infant,-On a Sudden Reverse of Fortune,

LETTERS OF CONGRATULATION.

Form of a Letter Congratulating a Friend upon

Election to Office,

Congratulating a Friend upon Receiving a Legacy,-

Congratulating a Gentleman upon his Marriage, -

Congratulating a Friend upon the Birth of a Son,-

Congratulating a Friend upon the Twenty-fifth

Anniversary of his Wedding, -Congratulating a

Lady upon her Approaching Marriage,-Congrat-

ulating a Friend upon passing a Successful School

Examination,-Congratulating an Author upon the

Success of his Book, - Congratulating a Friend

upon Obtaining a Business Situation,

LETTERS OF INTRODUCTION.

General Directions, Form of Superscribing a Letter

of Introduction,-Letter Introducing one Gentle-

man to Another, -Introducing one Lady to An-

other,— Introducing a Young Musician to a Lady

Friend,—Introducing an Officer to a Brother Officer.

Introducing a Gentleman Seeking a Clerkship, --In-

troducing a Sister to a Schoolmate, - Introducing

a Clerk to an Old Fellow-clerk,- Introducing a

Student to the Writer's Mother,— Introducing a

Friend to a Member of Congress,- Introducing a

Literary Lady to a Publisher,- Introducing a

Daughter about to Make a Visit,

LETTERS OF ADVICE.

General Directions,-Letter Advising a Young Lady

to Refuse Gifts from Gentlemen,

Letter of Advice to a Young Man to Beware of Bad

Company,-- Advising a Young Gentleman against

a Hurried Marriage, -Advice to a Gentleman on

the Subject of Health,—Advice to an Orphan Boy,

LETTERS OF EXCUSE.

General Directions,-Letter Apologizing for a Broken

Engagement, — Apologizing for Failure to Pay

Money Promptly,-Excuse to a Teacher for Non-

attendance of Child at School, — Apology for

Breaking a Business Engagement, — Apology for

Delay in Returning a Book,

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