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reparation for past injuries, and the only favour I must not close my discourse upon silence he could do him, to rescue him from the igno- without informing my reader, that I have by miny of the wheel by stabbing him. As be is me an elaborate treatise on the aposiopesis going to make this dreadful request, he is not called an et cætera ; it being a figure much able to communicate it ; but withdraws his used by some learned authors, and particularly face from bis friend's ear, and bursts into tears. by the great Littleton, who, as my lord chief The melancholy silence that follows hereupon, justice Coke observes, had a most admirable and continues until he has recovered himself talent at an &c. enough to reveal bis mind to his friend, raises

ADVERTISEMENT. in the spectators a grief that is inexpressible, and an idea of such a complicated distress in To oblige the pretty fellows, and my fair the actor, as words cannot utter. It would readers, I have thought fit to insert the whole look as ridiculous to many readers, to give passage above-mentioned relating to Dido, as rules and directions for proper silences, as for it is translated by Mr. Dryden.* penning a whisper:' but it is certain, that

Not far from thence, the mournful fields appear; in the extremity of most passions, particularly So call'd from lovers that inbabit there. surprise, admiration, astonishment, nay, rage

The souls, whom that onhappy flame invades,

In secret solitude, and myrtle shades, itself, there is nothing more graceful than to

Make endless moans; and, pining with desire, see the play stand still for a few moments, and Lament too late their anextinguish'd fire. the audience fixed in an agreeable suspense,

Here Procris, Eriphyle here, he fonnd during the silence of a skilful actor.

Baring her breast, yet bleeding with the wound

Made by her son. He saw Pasiphac there, But silence never shows itself to so great an With Phædra's ghost, a foul incestuoas pair : advantage, as when it is made the reply to ca- There Laodamia with Evadne moves: lumny and defamation, provided that we give

Unhappy both ; but loyal in their loves.

Coenens, a woman once, and once a man; no just occasion for them. We might produce But ending in the sex she first began. an example of it in the behaviour of one, in Not far from these Phenician Dido stood;

Fresh from her wonnd, ber bogom bath'd in blood whom it appeared in all its majesty, and one,

Whom, when the Trojan hero hardly knew, whose silence, as well as his person, was alto- Obscure in shades, and with a donbtful view, gether divine. When one considers this sub- (Doubtful as he who runs thro' dosky night,

Or thinks he sees the moon's uncertain light,) ject only in its sublimity, this great instance

With tears he first approach'd the sullen shade could not but occur to me; and since I only And, as his love inspir'd him, thus he said : make use of it to show the highest example of “Unhappy queen! then is the common breath it, I hope I do not offend in it. To forbear

Of rumour true, in your reported death?

And I, alas, the cause ! by beav'n I vow, replying to an unjust reproach, and overlook

And all the powers that rule the realms below, it with a generous, or, if possible, with an en- Unwilling I forsook your friendly state tire neglect of it, is one of the most heroic acts

Coinmanded by the gods, and forc'd by fate;

Those gods, that fate, whose unresisted might of a great mind : and, I must confess, when I

Have sent me to these regions void of light, reflect upon the behaviour of some of the Through the vast empire of eternal night.

Nor dard I l0 presome, that, pressed with grie, greatest men in antiquity, I do not so much

My night should urge yon to this dire relief. admire them, that they deserved the praise of Stay, stay your steps, and listen to my vows; the whole age they lived in, as because they

'Tis the last interview that fate allows!'

In vain he tais attempts her mind to move, contemned the envy and detraction of it.

With tears and prayers, and late repenting love. All that is incumbent on a inan of worth, Disdainfully she look'd; then turning round, who suffers under so ill a treatment, is to lie

But fix'd her eyes unmov'd apon the ground;

And what he says, and swears, regards no more by for some time in silence and obscurity, un

Than the deaf rocks, when the loud billows roar; til the prejudice of the times be over,

and his But whirl'd away, to shun his hateful sight, reputation cleared. I have often read, with a Hid in the forest, and the shades of night:

Then sought Sichæns through the shady grove, great deal of pleasure, a legacy of the famous

Who answer'd all her cares, and equal'd all her love. lord Bacon, one of the greatest geniuses that our own or any country has produced. After baving bequeathed his soul, budy, and estate, No. 134.) Thursday, February 16, 1709. in the usual form, be adds, ' My name and

Quis talia fando memory I leave to foreign nations, and to my

Myrmidonum, Dolopumve, ant duri miles Ulykei, countrymen after some time be passed over.' Temperet à lacrymis ?

Virg. Æn. ii. 8. At the same time, that I recommend this

Such woes philosophy to others, I must coufess, I am so Not even the hardest of our foes could hear, poor a proficient in it myself, that if in the Nur stern Ulysses tell without a tear. Dryden course of my lucubrations it bappens, as it has done more than once, that my paper

Shecr-lane, February 15.

is duller than in conscience it ought to be, I think

I was awakened very early this morning by the time an age until I have an opportunity of the distant crowing of a cock, which I thought putting out another, and growing famous again for two days.

* Æneid, book vi, 46.


• What

bad the finest pipe I ever heard. He seemed | frequent than to see a dervise lay out a whole to me to strain his voice more than ordinary, year's income in the redemption of larks or as if he designed to make himself heard to the linnets that had unhappily fallen into the remotest corner of this lane. Having enter- bands of bird-catchers; that it was also usual tained myself a little before I went to bed with to run between a dog and a bull to keep them a discourse on the transmigration of men into from hurting one another, or to lose the use of other animals, I could cot but fancy that this a limb in parting a couple of furious mastiffs. was the soul of some drowsy bell-man who He then insisted upon the ingratitude and disused to sleep upon bis post, for which he was ingenuity* of treating in this manner a necescondemned to do penance in feathers, and dis- sary and domestic animal, that has made the tinguish the several watches of the night under whole house keep good hours, and called up the outside of a cock. While I was thinking the cook-maid for five years together. of the condition of this poor bell-man in mas- would a Turkt say,' continued he, 'should he querade, I heard a great knocking at my door, bear, that it is a common entertainment in a and was soon after told by my maid, that my nation, which pretends to be one of the most worthy friend, the tall black gentleman, who civilized of Europe, to tie an innocent animal frequents the coffee-houses bereabouts, desired to a stake, and put him to an ignomivious to speak with me. This ancient Pythagorean, death, who has perhaps been the guardian and who has as much honesty as any man living, proveditor of a poor family, as long as he was but good nature to an excess, brought me the able to get eggs for his mistress ?'' following petition; which I am apt to believe I thought what this gentleman said was very he penned himself, the petitioner not being reasonable; and have often wondered, that we able to express his mind on paper under his do not lay aside a custom, which makes us present form, however famous he might have appear barbarous to nations much more rude been for writing verses when he was in his and unpolished than ourselves. Some French original shape.

writers have represented this diversion of the

common people much to our disadvantage, * To Isaac Bickerstaff, Esquire, Censor of

and imputed it to natural fierceness and Great Britain.

cruelty of temper; as they do some other * The humble petition of Job Chanticleer, in entertainments peculiar to our nation: I inean

behalf of himself, and many other poor suf- those elegant diversions of bull-bating and ferers in tbe same condition;

prize-fighting, with the like ingenious recreaFrom my Coop in Clare-market, tions of the Bear-garden. I wish I knew how •SHEWETA,

Feb. 13, 1709.

to answer this reproach which is cast upon us, . That whereas your petitioner is truly de- and excuse the death of so many innocent scended of the ancient family of the Chanti. cocks, bulls, dogs, and bears, as have been set cleers, at Cock-hall near Rumford in Essex, it together by the ears, or died untimely deaths, has been his misfortune to come into the mer. only to make us sport. cenary bands of a certain ill-disposed person, It will be said, that these are the entertaincommonly called a biggler, who, under the ments of common people. It is true; but they close confinement of a pannier, has conveyed are the entertainments of no other common bim and many others up to London ; but hear people. Besides, I am afraid, there is a tincing by chance of your worship’s great huma-ture of the same savage spirit in the diversions nity towards robin-red-breasts and tom-tits, of those of higher rank, and more refined he is emboldened to beseech you to take bis relish. Rapin observes, that the English theadeplorable condition into your tender consi- tre very much delights in bloodshed, wbich he deration, who otherwise must suffer, with many likewise represents as an indication of our tem. thousands more as innocent as himself, that pers. I must own, there is something very inbuman barbarity of a Shrove-Tuesday per- horrid in the public executions of an English secution.* We humbly bope, that our courage tragedy. Stabbing and poisoning, which are and vigilance may plead for us on this occasion. performed behind the scenes in other nations,

Your poor petitioner most earnestly im- must be done openly among us, to gratify the plores your immediate protection from the in audience. solence of the rabble, the batteries of cat-sticks, When poor Sandford* was upon the stage, I and a painful lingering death,

have seen him groaning upon a wheel, stuck And your petitioner, &c.'

• Disingevaousuess. Upon delivery of this petition, the worthy

+ The word Turk, is used here to signify a savage, or gentleman, who presented it, told me the cus

a barbarian; but in the language of Turkey it means a toms of many wise nations of the east, through shepherd or herdsman which he bad travelled; that nothing was more

I Sandford was an excellent actor in disagreeable charac. ters; he had a low and crooked person, and such bodily

defects as were too strong to be admitted into great or amiThe original date of this paper is . From Tuesday Feb. able characters, so that he was the stage-villain, not by choice, 14, to Thurday Feb. 16, 1700.'

but from necessity.

with daggers, impaled alive, calling his execu- his disciples, as well as all the philosophers of tioners, with a dying voice, 'cruel dogs and note in Greece, and Cicero, Seneca, with all villains !' and all this to please bis judicious the learned men of Rome, endeavoured to enspectators, who were wonderfully delighted with lighten their contenporaries amidst the dark. seeing a man in torment so well acted. The ness and ignorance in which the world was then truth of it is, the politeness of our English sunk and buried. stage, in regard to decorum, is very extraordi- The great points which these free-thinkers Dary. We act murders, to show our intre- endeavoured to establish and inculcate into the pidity; and adulteries, to show our gallantry: minds of men, were, the formation of the uni. both of thein are frequent in our most taking verse, the superintendency of providence, the plays, with this difference only, that the former perfection of the Divine Nature, the immortaare done in the sight of the audience, and the lity of the soul, and the future state of rewards latter wrought up to such a height upon the and punishinents. They all complied with the stage, that they are almost put in execution religion of their country, as much as possible, before the actors can get behind the scenes. in such particulars as did not contradict and

I would not have it thought, that there is pervert these great and fundamental doctrines just ground for those consequences wbich our of mankind. On the contrary, the persons eneinies draw against us from these practices; who now set up for free-thinkers, are such as but methinks one would be sorry for any man endeavour, by a little trash of words and soner of occasion for such misrepresentations of phistry, to weaken and destroy those very prin. us. The virtues of tenderness, compassion, ciples, for the vindication of which, freedom of and humanity, are those by which men are dis-thought at first became laudable and beroic. tinguished from brutes, as much as by reason These apostates from reason and good sense, itself; and it would be the greatest reproach can look at the glorious frame of nature, witho to a nation, to distinguish itself from all others out paying an adoration to Him that raised by any defect in these particular virtues. For it; can consider the great revolutions in the which reasons, I hope that my dear countrymen universe, without lifting up their minds to that will no longer expose themselves by an effusion superior power which hath the direction of it; of blood, whether it be of theatrical heroes, can presume to censure the Deity in his ways coeks, or any other innocent animals, which towards men; can level mankind with the we are not obliged to slaughter for our safety, beasts that perish ; can extinguish in their own convenience, or nourishment. When any of minds all the pleasing hopes of a future state, these ends are not served in the destruction of and lull themselves into a stupid security a living creature, I cannot but pronounce it a against the terrors of it. If one were to take great piece of cruelty, if not a kind of murder. the word priestcraft out of the mouths of these

shallow monsters, they would be immediately

struck dumb. It is by the help of this single No. 135.] Saturday, February 18, 1709-10. term that they endeavour to disappoint the

Quod si io boc erro, quod animos hoininum iinmortales good works of the most learned and venerable esse credam, libenter erro; nec mihi hunc errorem, quo order of men, and harden the hearts of the delector, dum vivo, extorqueri volo: sin mortons, út qui ignorant against the very light of nature, and dam minuti philosophi censent, nihil sentiam; non vereor, ne hanc errorem meum mortui philosophi irrideant.

the common-received notions of mankind. Cicero, De Senect. cap. ult. Ed Verburgii, Vol. X. We ought not to treat such miscreants as p. 8758.

these upon the foot of fair disputants; but to But if I err in believing that the sonls of men are im. mortal, I willingly err; por while I live would I wish to

pour out contempt upon them, and speak of have this delightful error estorted from me: and if after them witb scorn and insamy, as the pests of death I shall fcel nothing, as some minute philosophers suciety, the revilers of human nature, and the think, I am not afraid lese dead philosophers should laughi blasphemers of a Being, whom a good man at me for the error.

would rather die than hear dishonoured. Sheer-lane, February 1".

Cicero, after having mentioned the great SEVERAL letters, which I have lately re. beroes of knowledge that recommended this ceived, give me information, that some well-divine doctrine of the immortality of the soul, disposed persons have taken offence at my calls those small pretenders to wisdom, who using the word Frec-thinker as a term of re- declared against it, certain minute philosophers, proach. To set, therefore, this matter in a using a diminutive even of the word little, to clear light, I must declare, that no one can express the despicable opinion he had of them. have a greater veneration than inyself for the The contempt he throws upon them in anotber free-thinkers of antiquity; who acted the same passage is yet more remarkable; where, to part in those times, as the great men of the show the mean thoughts he entertains of them, reformation did in several nations of Europe, he declares' he would rather be in the wrong by exerting themselves against the idolatry and with Plato, than in the right with such com. superstition of the times in which they lived. pany. There is, indeed, nothing in the world It was by this noble impulse that Socrates and so ridiculous as one of these grave philosophical 1

free-thinkers, that hath neither passions por might not run away with it; and, to do further
appetites to gratify, no heats of blood, nor vi-justice upon himself, desired them to tie a halter
gour of constitution, that can turn his systems about his neck, as a mark of that ignominious
of infidelity to his advantage, or raise pleasures punishment, which, in his own thoughts, he had
out of them which are inconsistent with the so justly deserved.
belief of a hereafter. One that has neither I would not have persecution so far dis-
wit, gallantry, mirth, or youth, to indulge by graced, as to wish these vermin might be ani.
these notions, but only a poor, joyless, uncom-madverted on by any legal penalties; though I
fortable vanity of distinguishing bimself from think it would be highly reasonable, that those
the rest of mankind, is rather to be regarded few of them wbo die in the professions of their
as a mischievous lunatic, thau a mistaken phi- infidelity, should have such tokens of infamy
losopher. A chaste infidel, a speculative liber- fixed upon them, as might distinguish those
tine, is an animal that I should not believe to bodies which are given up by the owners to
be in nature, did I not sometimes meet with oblivion and putrefaction, from those which
this species of men, that plead for the indul. rest in hope, and shall rise in glory. But at the
gence of their passions in the midst of a severe same time that I am against duing thein the
studious life, and talk against the iinmortality bonour of the notice of our laws, wbich ought
of the soul over a dish of coffee.

not to suppose there are such criminals in
I would fain ask a minute poilosopher, what being, I have often wondered, how they can be
good he proposes to mankind by the publishing tolerated in any mixed conversations, while they
of his doctrines? Will they make a man a are venting these absurd opinions; and should
better citizen, or father of a family; a more think, that if, on any such occasions, half a
endearing husband, friend, or son ? will they dozen of the most robust Christians in the com-
enlarge his public or private virtues, or pany would lead one of those gentlemen to a
correct any of his frailties or vices? What is pump, or convey him into a blanket, they
there either joyful or glorious in such opinions? would do very good service both to church and
do they either refresh or enlarge our thoughts ? state. I do not know how the laws stand in
do they contribute to the happiness, or raise the this particular; but I hope, whatever knocks,
dignity, of human natureThe only good that bangs, or thumps, might be given with such an
I have ever heard pretended to, is, that they honest intention, would not be construed as
banish terrors, and set the mind at ease. But a breach of the peace. I dare say; they would
whose terrors do they banish? It is certain, if not be returned by the person who receives
there were any strength in their arguments, them; for wbatever these fools may say in the
they would give great disturbance to minds that vanity of their hearts, they are too wise to
are influenced by virtue, honour, and morality, risk their lives upon the uncertainty of their
and take from us the only comforts and sup- opinions.
ports of afiliction, sickness, and old age. The When I was a young man about this town,
minds, therefore, which they set at ease, are I frequented the ordinary of the Black-horse
only those of impenitent criminals and male in Holborn, where the person that usually
factors, and which, not the good of mankind, presided at the table was a rough old-fashioned
should be in perpetual terror and alarm. gentleman, who, according to the customs of

I must confess, nothing is more usual than those times, had been the major and preacher for a free-thinker, in proportion as the inso- of a regiment. It happened one day that a lence of scepticism is abated in him by years noisy young officer, bred in France, was venting and knowledge, or humbled and beaten down some new-fangled potions, and speaking, in by sorrow or sickness, to reconcile himself to the gayety of his humour, against the dispenthe general conceptions of reasonable creatures; sations of Providence. The major, at first, only so that we frequently see the apostates turning desired him to talk more respectfully of one from their revolt towards the end of tbeir lives, for whom all the company had an honour; and employiog the refuse of their parts in but, finding him run on in his extravagance, promoting those truths which they had before began to reprimand him after a inore serious endeavoured to invalidate.

manner. Young man,' said hę, “ do not abuse The history of a gentleman in France is very your Benefactor whilst you are eating his bread. well known, who was so zealous a promoter of Consider whose air you breathe, whose presence infidelity, that he had got together a select you are in, and who it is that gave you the company of disciples, and travelled into all power of that very speech which you make parts of the kingdom to make converts. In the use of to his dishonour.' The young fellow, midst of his fantastical success he fell sick, and who thought to turn matters into a jest, asked was reclainied to such a sense of his condition, bim if he was going to preach ?' but at the that after he had passed some time in great same time desired bim,' to take care what he agonies and horrors of mind, he begged those said when he spoke to a man of honour.' 'A who had the care of burying him, to dress his man of honour!' says the major ; 'thou art buddy in the habit of a capuchin, that the devil ! an infidel and a blasphemer, and I shall use

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thee as such.' In short, the quarrel ran so merchant's wife. He no sooner thought of this high, that the major was desired to walk out. adventure, but he began it by au amorous Upon their coming into the garden, the old epistle to the lady, and a faithful promise to fellow advised his antagonist to consider the wait upon her at a certain hour the next even. place into which one pass might drive him ; | ing, when he knew her husband was to be but, finding hinu grow upon bim to a degree absent. of scurrility, as believing the advice proceeded Tbe letter was no suoner received, but it from fear; “ Sirrah,' says he, “if a thunderbolt was communicated to the husband, and prodoes not strike thee dead before I come at thee, duced no other effect in him, than that he I shall not fail to chastise thee for thy pro- joined with his wife to raise all the mirth they faneness to thy Maker, and thy sauciness to could out of this fantastical piece of gallantry. his servant.' Upon this he drew his sword, They were so little concerned at this dangerous and cried out with a loud voice,' The sword mau of mode, that they plotted ways to perplex of the Lord and of Gideon!' which so terrified him without burting him. Varnish comes exhis antagonist, that he was iminediately dis.actly at his hour; and the lady's well-acted armed, and thrown upon his knees. In this confusion at bis entrance gave him opportunity posture he begged his life; but the major re. to repeat some couplets very fit for the occasion fused to grant it, before he had asked pardon with very much grace and spirit. His thea. for his offence in a short extemporary prayer, trical manner of making love was interrupted which the old gentleman dictated to him upon by an alarm of the husband's coming; and the the spot, and which his proselyte repeated after wise, in a personated terror, besceched him, him in the presence of the whole ordinary, if he had any value for the honour of a woman that were now gathered about him in the gar- that loved him, he would jump out of the den.

window. He did so, and fell upon featherbeds placed on purpose to receive him.

It is not to be conceived how great the joy No. 136.] Tuesday, February 21, 1709.10. of an ainorous man is when he has suffered for

his mistress, and is never the worse for it. Deprendi miserum est : Fabio vel judice vincam.

Hor. 1. Sat. il. ver. ult. Varnish the next day writ a most elegant billet, To be surpris'd, is sure a wretched tale,

wherein he said all that imagination could form Avd for the truth to Fabius I appeal. Fruncis. upon the occasion. He violently protested,

going out of the window was no way terrible, White's Chocolate-house, February 18.

but as it was going from her;' with several THE HISTORY OF TOM VARNISI.

other kind expressions, which procured him a Because I have a professed aversion to long second assignation. Upon his second visit, he beginnings of stories, I will go into this at was conveyed by a faithful inaid into her bedonce, by telling you, that there dwells near chainber, and left there to expect the arrival the Royal Exchange as happy a couple as ever of her mistress. But the wench, according to entered into wedlock. These live in that mu- her instructions, ran in again to him, and tual confidence of each other, which renders locked the door after her to keep out her masthe satisfaction of marriage even greater than ter. She had just tiine enough to convey the those of friendship, and makes wife and hus- lover into a chest before she admitted the busband the dearest appellations of human lise. band and his wife into the room. Mr. Balance is a merchant of good considera- You may be sure that trunk was absolutely tion, and understands the world, not from spe- necessary to be opened; but upon her husband's culation, but practice. His wife is the daughter ordering it, she assured him, “she ha:) taken of an honest house, ever bred in a family-way; a!l the care imaginable in packing up the and bas, from a natural good understanding, things with her own hands, and he might send and great innocence, a freedom wbich men of the trunk abroad as soon as he thought fit.' sense know to be the certain sign of virtue, The easy husband believed his wife, and the and fools take to be an encouragement to vice. good couple went to bed; Varnish having the

Tom Varnish, a young gentleman of the happiness to pass the night in his mistress's Middle Temple, by the bounty of a good fa- bed.chamber without molestation. The mornther, who was so obliging as to die, and leave ing arose, but our lover was not well situated him, in his twenty-fourth year, besides a good to observe her blushes; so that all we know of estate, a large sum which lay in the bands of bis sentiments on this occasion is, that he heard Mr. Balance, had by this means an intimacy Balance ask for the key, and say, he would at his house ; and, being one of those hard himself go with this chest, and have it opened students who read plays for the improvement before the captain of the ship, for the greater in the law, took his rules of life from thence. safety of so valuable a lading.' Upon mature deliberation, he conceived it very The goods were hoisted away ; and Mr. Baproper, that he, as a man of wit and pleasure lance, marching by his chest with great care of the town, should bave au intrigue with his and diligence, omitted nothing that might give

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