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assemblies, that I must be forced to deal with the predictious of this author, which are written them as Evander did with his triple-lived ad- in a true protestant spirit of prophecy, and a versary; who, according to Virgil, was forced particular zeal against the French king, I have to kill him thrice over, before he could despatch some thoughts of sending for him from the him.

banks of Styx, and reinstating him in his own Ter letho sternendus erat.-

house, at the sign of the Globe in Salisbury

street. -Thrice 1 sent him to the Stygian shore.

For the encouragement of bim and

utbers, I shall offer to their consideration a I am likewise informed, that several wives letter, which gives me an account of the revival of my dead men have, since the decease of their of one of their brethren. husbands, been seen in many public places, without mourning or regard to common de


December 31. cency

“I have perusea your Tatler of this day, and I am further advised, that several of the de- bave wept over it with great pleasure; I wish funct, contrary to the woollen act, presume to you would be more frequent in your familydress themselves in lace, embroidery, silks, pieces. For, as I consider you under the notion muslins, and other ornaments forbidden to per- of a great designer, I think these are not your sons in their condition. These and other the least valuable performances. I am glad to find like informations moving me thereunto, I must you have given over your face-painting for some desire, for distinction sake, and to conclude time, because I think you have employed yourthis subject for ever, that when any of these self more in grotesque figures than in beauties; posthumous persons appear, or are spoken of, for which reason I would rather see you work that their wives may be called widows; their upon history-pieces, than on single portraits. houses, sepulchres; their chariots, hearses ; Your several draughts of dead men appear to and their garments, flannel: on which condi-me as pictures of still-life, and have done great tion, they shall be allowed all the conveniencies good in the place where I live. The esquire that dead men can in reason desire.

of a neighbouring village, who had been a long

time in the number of pon-entities, is entirely As I was writing this morning on this subo recovered by them. For these several years ject, I received the following letter :

past, there was not a bare in the county that

could be at rest for him ; and I think, the • MR. BICKERSTAFF, From the banks of Styx. greatest exploit he ever boasted of was, that

“I must confess, I treated you very scurri- when he was bigh-sheriff of the county, he
lously when you first sent me hither; but you hunted a fox so far, that he could not follow
have despatched. such multitudes after me to him any farther by the laws of the land. All
keep me in countenance, that I am very well the hours he spent at home, were in swelling*
reconciled both to you and my condition. We himself with October, and rehearsing the won-
live very lovingly together; for, as death makes ders he did in the field. Upon reading your
us all equal, it makes us very much delight in papers, be bas sold his dogs, shook off his dead
one another's company. Our time passes away companions, looked into bis estate, got the
much after the same manner as it did when multiplication-table by heart, paid his tithes,
we were among you : eating, drinking, and and intends to take upon him the office of
sleeping, are our chief diversions. Our Quid church-warden next year. I wish the same
nuncs between whiles go to a coffee house, success with your other patients, and am, &c.'
where they have several warm liquors made of
the waters of Letbe, with very good poppy-tea.

Ditto, January 9.
We that are the sprightly geniuses of the place

When I came home this evening, a very
refresh ourselves frequently with a bottle of
mum, and tell stories until we fall asleep. You tight middle-aged woman presented to me the

following petition : would do well to send among us Mr. Dodwell's book against the immortality of tre soul, which 'To the worshipful Isaac Bickerstaff, Esquire, would be of great consolation to our whole

Censor of Great-Britain. fraternity, who would be very glad to find that

* The bumble petition of Penelope Prim, widow; they are dead for good and all, and would, in

particular, make me rest for ever

'That your petitioner was bred a clear

starcher and sempstress, and for many years *P. S. Sir James is just arrived here in good men's wives, lawyers' clerks, and merchants'

worked to the Exchange, and to several alder. health.'

apprentices. The foregoing letter was the more pleasing

That through the scarcity caused by reto me, because I perceive some little symptoms in it of a resuscitation; and having lately seen

* Q. Swilling


Psalm civ, 24.

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grators of bread corn, of which starch is made, above her iostep. This conyinces me of the and the gentry's immoderate frequenting the reasonableness of Mrs. Prim's demand ; and, operas, the ladies, to save charges, have their therefore, I shall not allow the reviving of any heads washed at home, and the beaux put out one part of that ancient mode, except the their linen to common laundresses. So that whole is complied with. Mrs. Prim is there. your petitioner has little or no work at ber fore hereby empowered to carry home ruffs to trade: for want of which, she is reduced to such as she shall see in the above-mentioned buch necessity, that she and her seven father- petticoats, and require payment on demand. less children must inevitably perish, unless re

Mr. Bickerstaff has under consideration lieved by your worship. *That your petitioner is informed, that in four hundred pounds per annum, to be paid

the offer from the corporation of Colchester of contempt of your judgment pronounced on

quarterly, provided that all his dead persons Tuesday the third instant against the new

shall be obliged to wear the baize of that place. fashioned petticoat, or old-fashioned fardingal, the ladies design to go on in that dress. And since it is presumed your worship will not sup- No. 119.] Thursday, January 12, 1709-10. press them by force, your petitioner humbly

In tenui labor

Virg. Georg. lib. iv. 6. desires you would order, that ruffs may be

In wisdom hast thou made them all! added to the dress; and that she may be heard by her counsel, who has assured your petitioner, he has such cogent reasons to offer to your

Sheer-lane, January 11. court, that ruffs and fardingals are inseparable, I have lately applied myself with much sa: that he questions not but two-thirits of the tisfaction to the curious discoveries that have greatest beauties about town will have cambric been made by the help of microscopes, as they collars on their necks before the end of Easter are related by authors of our own and other term next. He further says, that the design nations. There is a great deal of pleasure in of our great-grandmothers in this petticoat, prying into this world of wonders, which nature was to appear much bigger than the life ; for has laid out of sight, and seems industrious to which reason they had false shoulder-blades, conceal from us. Philosophy had ranged over like wings, and the ruff above-mentioned, to

all the visible creation, and began to want obmake the upper and lower parts of their bodies jects for her enquiries, when the present age, appear proportionable ; whereas the figure of by the invention of glasses, opened a new and a woman in the present dress bears, as he calls inexhaustible magazine of rarities, more wonit, the figure of a cone, which, as he advises, is derful and amazing than any of those wbich the same with that of an extinguisher, with a astonished our forefathers. I was yesterday little knob at the upper end, and widening amusing myself with speculations of this kind, downward, until it ends in a basis of a most and reflecting upon myriads of animals that enormous circumference.

swim in those little seas of juices that are conYour petitioner, therefore, most bumbly tained in the several vessels of a human body. prays, that you would restore the ruff to the While my mind was thus filled with that secret fardingal, wbich in their nature ought to be wonder and delight, I could not but look upon as inseparable as the two Hungarian twins.* myself as in an act of devotion, and am very * And your petitioner shall ever pray.' well pleased with the thought of the great

heathen anatomist, * who calls his description I have examined into the allegations of this of the parts of a human body, An bymn to petition, and find, by several ancient pictures the Supreme Being.' The reading of the day of my own predecessors, particularly that of produced in my imagination an agreeable dame Deborah Bickerstaff, my great grand-morning's dream, if I may call it such; for I mother, that the ruff and fardiugal are made am still in doubt whether it passed in my sleepuse of as absolutely necessary to preserve the ing or waking thoughts. However it was, I symmetry of the figure ; and Mrs. Pyramid fancied that my good genius stood at my bed's Bickerstaff, her second sister, is recorded in head, and entertained me with the following our family-book, with some observations to discourse; for, upon my rising, it dwelt so her disadvantage, as the first female of our strongly upon me, that I writ down the subhouse that discovered, to any besides ber purse stance of it, if not the very words. and her husband, an inch below her chin, or 'If,' said he, you can be so transported with

those productions of nature which are disco

vered to you by those artificial eyes that are * Helen and Judith, two united twin-sisters, were born at Tzoni, in Hungary, Oct. 26, 1701 ; lived to the age of the works of human invention, how great will twenty-one, and dicd in a convent at Petersburg, Feb. 23, your surprise be, when you shall have it in your 1723. The mother, it is said, survived their birth, bore power to model your own eye as you please, another child afterwards, and was alive when her singular twins were shown here, at a house in the Strand, ucar Charing-cross, in 1708.

• Galen, de Usn Partium.

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No. 119.)

247 and adapt it to the bulk of objects, which, with the skeleton of a flea. I have been shown a all these helps, are by infinite degrees too mi- forest of numberless trees, which has been nute for your perception. We who are un picked out of an acurn. Your microscope can bodied spirits can sharpen our sight to what show you in it a complete oak in miniature; degree we think fit, and make the least work and could you suit all your organs as we do, you of the creation distinct and visible. This gives might pluck an acorn from this little oak, us such ideas as cannot possibly enter into your which contains another tree; and so proceed present conceptions. There is not the least from tree to tree, as long as you would thiok particle of matter which may not furnish one fit to continue your disquisitions. It is almost of us sufficient employment for a whole eter- impossible,' added he, ‘to talk of things so re. nity. We can still divide it, and still open it, mote from common life, and the ordinary noand still discover new wonders of providence, tions which mankind receive from blunt and as we look into the different texture of its parts, gross organs of sense, without appearing exand meet with beds of vegetables, minerals, travagant and ridiculous. You have often seen and metallic mixtures, and several kinds of a dog opened, to observe the circulation of the animals that lie hid, and, as it were, lost in such blood, or make any other useful enquiry ; and an endless fund of matter. I find you are yet would be tempted to laugh if I should tell surprised at this discourse ; but as your reason you, that a circle of much greater philosophers tells you there are infinite parts in the smallest than any of the Royal Society, were present at portion of matter, it will likewise convince you, the cutting up of one of those little animals that there is as great a variety of secrets, and which we find in the blue of a plum: that it as much room for discoveries, in a particle no was tied down alive before them; and that they bigger than the point of a pin, as in the globe observed the palpitations of the heart, the of the whole earth. Your miscroscopes bring course of the blood, the working of the muscles, to sight shoals of living creatures in a spoonful and the convulsions in the several limbs, with of vinegar; but we who can distinguish them great accuracy and improvement.' 'I must in their different magnitudes, see among them confess,' said 1, ‘fur my own part, I go along several huge leviathavs that terrify the little with you in all your discoveries with great plea. fry of animals about them, and take their past. sure: but it is certain, they are too fine for time as in an ocean, or the great deep.' I could the gross of mankind, who are more struek pot but smile at this part of his relation, and with the description of every thing that is great told him, 'I doubted not but he could give and bulky. Accordingly we find the best judge me the history of several invisible giants, ac- of human nature setting forth his wisdom, not companied with their respective dwarfs, in case in the formation of these minute animals, that any of these little beings are of a human though indeed no less wonderful than the other, shape.' 'You may assure yourself,' said he, but in that of the leviatban and behemoth,

that we see in these little animals different the horse, and the crocodile.' Your obserDatures, instincts, and modes of life, which vation,' said he, 'is very just; and I must accorrespond to what you observe in creatures of knowledge, for my own part, that although it bigger dimensions. We descry millions of is with much delight that I see the traces of prospecies subsisting on a green leaf, which your vidence in these instauces, I still take greater glasses represent only in crowds and swarms. pleasure in considering the works of the creation What appears to your eye but as bair or down in their immensity, than in their minuteness. rising on the surface of it, we find to be woods For this reason, I rejoice when I strengthen and forests, inhabited by beasts of prey, that my sight so as to make it pierce into the most are as dreadful in those their little haunts, as remote spaces, and take a view of those heavenly lions and tigers in the deserts of Lybia.' I was bodies wbich lie out of the reach of human much delighted with his discourse, and could eyes, though assisted by telescopes. What you not forbear telling him, “that I should be won-look upon as one confused white in the milky derfully pleased to see a natural history of im- way, appears to me a long track of heavens, perceptibles, containing a true account of such distinguished by stars that are ranged in proper vegetables and animals as grow and live out of figures and constellations. While you are adsight. 'Such disquisitions,' answered he,' are miring the sky in a starry night, I am entervery suitable to reasonable creatures; and, you tained with a variety of worlds and suns placed may be sure, there are many curious spirits one above another, and rising up to such an among us who employ themselves in such immense distance, that no created eye can see amusements. For, as our hands and all our an end of them.' senses may be formed to what degree of strength The latter part of his discourse flung me and delicacy we please, in the same manner as into such an astonishment, that he had been our sight, we can make what experiments we silent for some time before I took notice of are inclined to, bow small soever the matter be in which we make them. I have been present at the dissection of a mite, and have seen

• See Job, chap. xxxix. xl. xli.

Hor. ij. Sat. iii. 43.

it; when on a sudden I started up and drew | avarice; though both made a very ridiculous my curtains, to look if any one was near me, figure, and were as much laughed at by those but saw nobody, and cannot tell to this moment they joined, as by those they forsook. The whether it was my good genius or a dream that walk which we marched up, for thickness of left me.

shades, embroidery of Aowers, and melody of birds, with the distant purling of streams, and

falls of water, was so wonderfully delightful, No. 120.] Saturday, January 14, 1709–10. that it charmed our senses, and intoxicated our --Velat silvis, ubi passim

minds with pleasure. We had not been long Palantes error certo de tramite peilit;

here, before every man singled out some woman, Ille sinistrorsum, hic dextrorsum abit.

to whom he offered his addresses, and professed

himself a lover; when, on a sudden, we perWhen, in a wood, wc leave the certain way,

ceived this delicious walk to grow more narrow One error fools iis, though we various stray, Some to the left, and some to t’other side,-Francis. as we advanced in it, until it ended in many

intricate thickets, mazes, and labyrinths, that Sheer-lane, January 13.

were so mixed with roses and hrambles, brakes Instead of considering any particular passion of thorns and beds of Howers, rocky paths and or character in any one set of men, my thoughts pleasing grottos, that it was hard to say, whether were last night employed on the contemplation it gave greater delight or perplexity to those of buman life in general; and truly it appears who travelled in it. to me, that the whole species are burried on It was here that the lovers began to be eager by the same desires, and engaged in the same in their pursuits. Some of their mistresses, pursuits, according to the different stages and who only seemed to retire for the sake of form divisions of life. Youth is devoted to lust, and decency, led them into plantations that middle age to ambition, old age to avarice. were disposed into regular walks; where, after These are the three general motives and prin. they had wheeled about in some turns and ciples of action both in good and bad men ; windings, they suffered themselves to be overthough it must be acknowledged, that they taken, and gave their bands to those who pur. change iheir names, and refine their natures, sued them. Others withdrew from their folaccording to the temper of the person whom lowers into little wildernesses, where there were they direct and animate. For, with the good, so many paths interwoven with each other iu lust becomes virtuous love; ambition, true so much coufusion and irregularity, that several honour; and avarice, the care of posterity of the lovers quitted the pursuit, or broke their This scheme of thought amused me very agree.hearts in the chase. It was sometimes very odd ably until I retired to rest, and afterwards to see a man pursuing a fine woman that was formed itself into a pleasing and regular vision, following another, whose eye was fixed upon a which I shall describe in all its circumstances, fourth, that had her own game in view in some as the objects presented themselves, whether other quarter of the wilderness. I could not in a serions or ridiculous manner.

but observe two things in this place which I I dreamed that I was in a wood, of so pro. thought very particular. That several persons, digious an extent, and cut into such a variety who stood only at the end of the avenues, and of walks and alleys, that all mankind were lost cast a careless eye upon the nymphs during and bewildered in it. After baving wandered their whole flight, often catched them; when up and down some time, I came into the centre those who pressed them the most warmly, of it, which opened into a wide plain filled through all their turns and doubles, were with multitudes of both sexes. I here disco. wholly unsuccessful; and that some of my own vered three great roads, very wide and long, age, who were at first looked upon with aversion that led into three different parts of the forest. and contempt, by being well acquainted with On a sudden, the whole multitude broke into the wilderness, and by dodging their women in three parts, according to their different ages, the particular corvers and alleys of it, catched and marched in their respective bodies into them in their arms, and took them from those the three great roads that lay before them. whom they really loved and admired. There As I had a mind to know how each of these was a particular grove, which was called “the roads terminated, and wbither they would lead | labyrinth of coquettes;' where many were ell. those who passed through them, I joined nir- ticed to the chase, but few returned with purself with the assembly tbat were in the flower chase. It was pleasant enough to see a celeand vigour of their age, and called themselves brated beauty, by smiling upon one, casting a 'the band of lovers. I found, to my great glance upon another, beckoning to a third, and surprise, that several old men besides myself adapting her charms and graces to the several had intruded into this agreeable company; as follies of those that admired her, drawing into I had before observed, there were some young the labyrinth a whole pack of lovers, that lost men who had united themselves to ' the band themselves in the maze, and never could find of misers,' and were walking up the path nf | their way out of it. However, it was some satisfaction to me, to see many of the fair-ones, occasioned most of their miseries. The youngest who bad thus deluded their followers, and left of the sisters was known by the name of Levity, them among the intricacies of the labyrinth, who, with the innocence of a virgin, bad the obliged, when they came out of it, to surrender dress and behaviour of a harlot. The name of to the first partner that offered himself. I now the second was Contention, who bore on her had crossed over all the difficult and perplexed right arm a muff made of the skin of a porpassages that seemed to bound our walk, when cupine ; and on her left carried a little lap-dog, on the other side of them I saw the same great that barked and snapped at every one that road running on a little way until it was ter- passed by her. minated by two beautiful temples. I stood The eldest of the sisters, who seemed to have here for some time, and saw most of the multi- a haughty and imperious air, was always actude, who had been dispersed amongst the companied with a tawny cupid, wbo generally thickets, coming out two by two, and march marched before her with a little mace on his ing up in pairs towards the temples that stood shoulder, the end of which was fashioned into before us. The structure on the right hand the horns of a stag. Her garments were yelwas, as I afterwards found, cousecrated to vir. low, and her complexion pale. Her eyes were tuous-love, and could not be entered but by piereing, but had odd casts in them, and that such as received a ring, or some other token, particular distemper, which makes persons from a person who was placed as a guard at who are troubled with it, see objects double. the gate of it. He wore a garland of roses and Upon enquiry, I was informed that her name myrtles on his head, and on his shoulders a was Jealousy. robe like an imperial mantle, white and un- Having finished my observations upon this spotted all over, excepting only, that where it temple and its votaries, I repaired to that was clasped at his breast, there were two golden which stood on the left hand, and was called Turtle doves that buttoned it by their bills, the temple of lust.' The front of it was which were wrought in rubies. He was called raised on Corinthian pillars, with all the meby the name of Hymen, and was seated near retricious ornaments that accompanied that tbe entrance of the temple, in a delicious order; whereas that of the other was composed bower, made up of several trees, that were em- of the chaste and matron-like lonic. The braced by woodbines, jasamines, and amaranths, | sides of it were adorned with several grotesque which were as so many emblems of marriage, figures of goats, sparrows, heathen gods, satyrs, and ornaments to the trunks that supported and monsters made up of half men half beast. them. As I was single and unaccompanied, The gates were unguarded, and open to all I was not permitted to enter the temple, and that had a mind to enter. Upon my going in, for that reason am a stranger to all the mys- I found the windows were blinded, and let in teries that were performed in it. I had, how- only a kind of twilight, that served to discover ever, the curiosity to observe how the several a prodigious number of dark corners and apartcouples that entered were disposed of; which ments, into which the whole temple was di. was after the following manner. There were vided. I was here stunned with a mixed noise two great gates on the backside of the edifice, of clamour and jollity. On one side of me I at which the whole crowd was let out. At one heard singing and dancing; on the other, brawls of these gates were two women, extremely and clashing of swords. In short, I was so beautiful, though in a different kind, the one little pleased with the place, that I was going having a very careful and composed air, the out of it; but found I could not return by the other a sort of sinile and ineffable sweetness in gate where I entered, which was barred against her countenance. The name of the first was all that were come in, with bolts of iron, and Discretion, and of the other Complacency. All locks of adamant. There was no going back who came out of this gate, and put themselves from this temple through the paths of pleasure under the direction of these two sisters, were which led to it. All who passed through the immediately conducted by them into gardens, ceremonies of the place, went out at an iron groves, and meadows, which abounded in de wicket, which was kept by a dreadful giant, lights, and were furnished with every thing called Remorse, that beld a scourge of scorthat could make them the proper seats of hap- pions in his hand, and drove them into the only piness. The second gate of this temple let out outlet from that temple. This was a passage all the couples that were unhappily married, so rugged, so uneven, and choked with so who came out linked together with chains, many thorns and briars, that it was a melariwbich each of them strove to break, but could choly spectacle to behold the pains and diflinot. Several of these were sucb as had never culties which both sexes suffered who walked been acquainted with each other before they through it. The inen, though in the prime met in the great walk, or had been too well of their youth, appeared weak and enfeebled acquainted in the thicket. The entrance to with old age. The women wrung their hands this gate was possesseu by three sisters, who and tore their hair; and several lost their limbs joined themselves with these wretches, and I before they could extricate themselves out of

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