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With charm of earliest birds; nor rising sun occasion for it. He performs the most ordinary On this delightful land; nor herb, fruit, flower,

action in a manner suitable to the greatness Glistering with tlew; nor fragrance after showers; Nor grateful evening mild; nor silent night,

of bis character, and shows the prince even in With this her solemn birdi, nor walk by moon,

the giving of a letter, or despatching of a mes. Or glittering star-light, without thee is sweet.'

sage. Our best actors are somewhat at a loss The variety of images in this passage is infi- to support themselves with proper gesture, as nitely pleasing, and the recapitulation of each they move from any considerable distance to particular image, with a little varying of the the front of the stage; but I have seen the expression, makes one of the finest turns of person of whom I am now speaking enter alone words that I have ever seen ; which I rather at the remotest part of it, and advance from mention, because Mr. Dryden has said, in his it, with such greatness of air and mien, as preface to Juvenal, that he could meet with seemed to fill the stage, and, at the same time, no turn of words in Milton.

commanded the attention of the audience with It may be further observed, that though the the majesty of his appearance. But, not with. sweetness of these verses has something in it standing the dignity and elegance of this enof a pastoral, yet it excels the ordinary kind, tertainment, I find for some nights past, that as much as the scene of it is above an ordinary Punchinello has robbed this gentleman of the field or meadow. I might bere, since I am greater part of his female spectators. The accidentally led into this subject, show several truth of it is, I find it so very hard a task to passages in Milton that have as excellent turps keep that sex under any manner of government, of this nature as any of our English poets that I bave often resolved to give them over whatsoever; but shall only mention that which entirely, and leave them to their own inven. follows, in which he describes the fallen angels tions. I was in hopes that I had brought them engaged in the intricate disputes of predesti- to some order, and was employing my thoughts nation, free-will, and fore knowledge; and, to on the reformation of their petticoats, when, humour the perplexity, makes a kind of laby on a sudden, I received information from all rinth in the very words tbat describe it. parts, that they run gadding after a puppet. Others apart sat on a bill relir'd.

show. I know very well, that what I here say lu thoughts more elevate, and reason'd high

will be thought by some malicious persons to Of providence, fore-knowledge will, and fate,

flow from envy to Mr. Powell; for wbich Fix'd fate, free-will, fore-knowledge absolute, And found no end, in wandering mazes lost.'*

reason I shall set the late dispute between us in a true light. Mr. Powell and I bad some

difference about four months ago, which we No. 115.] Tuesday, January 3, 1709-10. managed by way of letter, as learned men

ought to do; and I was very well contented to Novum intervenit vitium et calamitas, Ut neqne spectari, neque cognosci potuerit:

bear such sarcasms as he was pleased to throw Ita populus sturlio stupidus in funambulo

upon me, and answered them with the same Animum occuparat,

Tır. Prol. de llecyra.

freedom. In the midst of this our misunderA tumult so uncommon interven'd,

standing and correspondence, I happened to As neither could be seen, nor understood • So taken were the people, so engag'd

give the world an account of the order of EsWith a rope-dancer!

Coleman. quires ; upon which Mr. Powell was so disinShecr-lane January, 2.

genuous, as to make one of his puppets, I wish

I knew which of them it was, declare, by way I went on Friday last to the opera, and was of prologue,' that one Isaac Bickerstaff, a presurprised to find a thin house at so noble an

tended esquire, had written a scurrilous piece, entertainment, until I beard that the tumbler to the dishonour of that rank of men;' and was not to make his appearance that night. then, with more art than honesty, concluded, For my own part, I was fully satisfied with the

that all the esquires in the pit were abused sight of an actor, wbo, by the grace and pro- by his antagonist as much as he was.' Tbis priety of his action and gesture, does honour public accusation made all the esquires of that to a human figure, as much as the other county, and several of other parts, my professed vilifes and degrades it. Every one will easily enemies. I do not in the least question but imagine I mean signior Nicolini, who sets off that he will proceed in his bostilities; and I the character he bears in an opera by bis ac

am informed, that part of his design in coming tion, as much as he does the words of it by his to town, was to carry the war into my own voice. Every limb, and every finger, contri- quarters. I do therefore solemnly declare, butes to the part he acts, insomuch that a deaf Dutwithstanding that I am a great lover of art man might go along with him in the sense of and ingenuity, that if I hear be opens any of it. There is scarce a beautiful posture in an bis people's mouths against me, I shall not fail old statue which he does not plant himself in, to write a critique upon his whole performance; as the different circumstances of the story give for I must confess, that I have naturally so

strong a desire of praise, that I cannot bear Paradise Lost, book ii, ver. 55"

reproach, though from a piece of timber. As

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for Punch, who takes all opportunities of be- discourse bold and intrepid; and as every one spattering me, I know very well his original, has an excellence, as well as a failing, which and have been assured by the joiner who put distinguishes him from other men, eloquence him together, that he was in long dispute was his predominant quality, which be had to with himself, whether he should turn him into so great perfection, that it was easier to bim several pegs and utensils, or make him the to speak, than to hold his tongue. This someman he is.' The same person confessed to me, times exposed him to the derision of men who

that he had once actually laid aside his bead had much less parts than himself; and, indeed, for a nutcracker. As for his scolding wife, his great volubility, and inimitable manner of however she may value herself at present, it is speaking, as well as the great courage he very well known, that she is but a piece of stowed on those occasions, did sometimes becrab-tree. This artificer further whispered in tray him into that figure of speech which is my ear, ' that all bis courtiers and nobles were commonly distinguished by the name of Gastaken out of a quickset hedge not far from conade. To mentivo no other, he professed Islington; and that doctor Faustus himself, in this very place, some days before he died, who is now so great a conjurer, is supposed to that he would be one of the six that would have learned his whole art from an old woman undertake to assault me;' for which reason I in that neighbourhood, whom he long served have had his figure upon my wall until the in the figure of a broom-staff.'

hour of his death: and am resolved for the But, perhaps, it may look trivial to insist so future to bury every one forthwith who I hear much upon men's persons ; I shall, therefore, has an intention to kill me. turn my thoughts rather to examine their be. Since I am upon the subject of my adverhaviour, and consider, whether the several saries, I shall here publish a short letter, which parts are written up to that character which I have received froin a well-wisher, and is as Mr. Powell piques himself upon, of an able and follows : iudicious dramatist. I have for this purpose provided myself with the works of above twenty

* You cannot but know, there are many French critics, and shall examine, by the rules scribblers, and others, who revile you and your which they have laid down upon the art of the writings. It is wondered that you do not exert stage, whether the unity of time, place, and yourself, and crush them at once. I am, Sir, action, be rightly observed in any one of this with great respect, celebrated author's productions; as also, whe

'Your most humble admirer and disciple.' ther in the parts of his several actors, and that of Punch in particular, there is not sometimes

In answer to this, I shall act like my prean impropriety of sentiments, and an impurity decessor Æsop, and give him a fable instead of diction.

of a reply.

It happened one day, as a stout and honest White's Chocolate-house, January 2. mastiff, ihat guarded the village where he lived I came in here to-day at an hour when only against thieves and robbers, was very gravely the dead appear in places of resort and gallan- walking, with one of his puppies by his side, try, and saw hung up the escutcheon of sir all the little dogs iu the street gathered about Hannibal, a gentiemnan who used to frequent him, and barked at him. The little puppy this place, and was taken up and interred by was so offended at this affront done to his sire, the company of upholders, as having been seen

that he asked him why he would not fall upon here at an unlicensed hour. The coat of the them, and tear them to pieces ? To wbich the deceased is, three bowls and a jack in a green sire answered, with great composure of mind, field; the crest, a dice-box, with the king of

If there were no curs, I should be no mastiff.' clubs and pam for supporters. Some days ago the body was carried out of town with great pomp and ceremony, in order to be buried with No. 116.] Thursday, January 5, 1709-10. his ancestors at the Peak. It is a maxim in

Pars minima est ipsa paella sai.
morality, that we are to speak nothing but

The young lady is the least part of herself.
truth of the living, nothing but good of the
dead. As I have carefully observed the first

Sheer-lane, January 4.
during his life-time, I shall acquit myself as The court being prepared for proceeding
to the latter now he is deceased.

on the cause of the petticoat, I gave orders to He was knighted very young, not in the bring in a criminal, who was taken up as she ordinary form, but by the common consent of went out of the puppet-show about three nights mankind.

ago, and was now standing in the street, with He was in his person between round and a great concourse of people about her. Wom Aquare; in the motion and gesture of his body was brought me, that she had endeavoured he was unaffected and free, as not having too twice or thrice to come in, but could not do great å respect for superiors. He was in his lit by reason of her petticoat, which was too


large for the entrance of my house, though I in, and ordered to produce what they had to had ordered both the folding-doors to be thrown say against the popular cry which was raised open for its reception. Upon this, I desired against it. They answered the objections with the jury of matrons, who stood at my right great strength and solidity of argument, apa hand, to inform themselves of her condition, expatiated in very florid harangues, which they and know whether there were any private rea- did not fail to set off and furbelow, if I may sons why she might not make her appearance be allowed the metaphor, with many periodical separate from her petticoat. This was managed sentences and turns of oratory. The chief arwith great discretion, and bad such an effect, guments for their client were taken, first, from that upon the return of the verdict from the the great benefit that might arise to our wool. bench of matrons, I issued out an order forth- len manufactory from this invention, which with, 'that the criminal should be stripped was calculated as follows. The common petof her encumbrances, until she became little ticoat has not above four yards in the circum. enough to enter my house. I had before given ference; whereas this over our heads had more directions for an engine of several legs, that in the semi-diameter; so that, by allowing it could contract or open itself like the top of an twenty-four yards in the circumference, the umbrella, in order to place the petticoat upon five millions of woollen petticoats whicb, acit, by which means I might take a leisurely cording to sir William Petty, supposing wbat survey of it, as it should appear in its proper ought to be supposed in a well-governed state, dimensions. This was all done accordingly; that all petticoats are made of that stuff, would and, forthwith, upon the closing of the engine, amount to thirty millions those of the anthe petticoat was brought into court. I then cient mode. A prodigious improvement of the directed the machine to be set upon the table, woollen trade ! and what could not fail to sink and dilated in such a manner as to show the the power of France in a few years. garment in its utmost circumference; but my To introduce the second argument, they great hall was too parrow for the experiment; begged leave to read a petition of the ropefor, before it was half unfolded, it described so makers, wherein it was represented, 'that ibe immoderate a circle, that the lower part of it demand for cords, and the price of them, were brushed upon my face as sat in my chair of much risen since this fashion came up.' At judicature. I then enquired for the person this, all the company who were present lifted that belonged to the petticoat; and, to my up their eyes into the vault; and, I must congreat surprise, was directed to a very beautiful fess, we did discover many traces of cordage, young damsel, with so pretty a face and shape, which were interwoven in the stiffening of the that I bid her come out of the crowd, and seated drapery. her upon a little crock at my left hand. 'My A third argument was founded upon a pepretty maid,' said I,“ do you own yourself to tition of the Greenland trade, which likewise have been the inhabitant of the garment be- represented the great consumption of whalefore us ?' The girl I found, had good sense, bone which would be occasioned by the present and told me, with a smile, that, 'not withstand fashion, and the benefit which would thereby ing it was her own petticoat, she sbould be accrue to that branch of the British trade. very glad to see an example made of it; and To conclude, they gently touched upon the that she wore it for no other reason, but that weight and unwieldiness of the garment, which, she had a mind to look as big and burly as they insinuated, might be of great use to preother persons of ber quality; that she had serve the honour of families. kept out of it as long as she could, and until These arguments would have wrought very she began to appear little in the eyes of her much upon me, as I then told the company in acquaintance; that, if she laid it aside, people a long and elaborate discourse, bad I not conwould think she was not made like other wo sidered the great and additional expense wbich men.' I always give great allowances to the such fashions would bring upon rather: sud fair sex upon account of the fashion, and, there husbands; and, therefore, by no means to be fore was not displeased with the defence of my thought of until some years after a peace. I pretty criminal. I then ordered the vest which further urged, that it would be a prejudice to stood before us to be drawn up by a pulley to the ladies themselves, who could never expect the top of my great hall, and afterwards to be to bave any money in the pocket, if they laid spread open by the engine it was placed upon, out so much on the petticoat. To this I added, in such a manner, that it formed a very splen- the great temptation it might give to virgins, did and ample canopy over our heads, and co- of acting in security like married women, and vered the whole court of judicature with a kind by that means give a check to matrimony, an of silken rotunda, in its form not unlike the institution always encouraged by wise societies. cupola of Saint Paul's. I entered upon the At the same time, in answer to the severa. whole cause with great satisfaction as I sat petitions produced on that side, I showed one under the shadow of it.

subscribed by the women of several persons oo The counsel for the petticoat were now called l quality, humbly setting forth, ‘ that, since th:

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introduction of this mode, their respective la- such a proportion of these blessings as is vested dies bad, instead of bestowing on them their in himself, and in his own private property. cast gowns, cut them into shreads, and mixed By this means, every man that does himself them with the cordage and buckram, to com- any real service does me a kindness. I come plete the stiffening of their under petticoats.'in for my share in all the good that happens to For which, and sundry other reasons, I pro- a man of merit and virtue, and partake of many Lounced the petticoat a forfeiture : but, to gifts of fortune and power that I was never show that I did not make that judgment for born to. There is nothing in particular in the sake of filthy lucre, I ordered it to be folded which I so much rejoice as the deliverance of up, and sent it as a present to a widow-gen- good and generous spirits out of dangers, diffitlewoman, who has five daughters; desiring culties, and distresses. And because the world she would make each of them a petticoat out does not supply instances of this kind to furnish of it, and send me back the remainder, which out sufficient entertainments for such a huI design to cut into stomachers, caps, facings manity and benevolence of temper, I have ever of my waistcoat-sleeves, and other garnitures delighted in reading the bistory of ages past, suitable to my age and quality.

which draws together into a narrow compass I would not be understood, that, while I the great occurrences and events that are but discard this monstrous invention, I am an thinly sown in those tracts of time, which lie enemy to the proper ornaments of the fair sex. within our own knowledge and observation. On the contrary, as the hand of nature has When I see the life of a great man, who has poured on them such a profusion of charms deserved well of his country, after having strugand graces, and sent them into the world more gled through all the oppositions of prejudice amiable and finished than the rest of her works; and envy, breaking out with lustre, and shining so I would have them bestow upon themselves forth in all the splendour of success, I close all the additional beauties that art can supply my book, and am a happy man for a whole them with, provided it does not interfere with, evening. disguise, or pervert those of nature.

But since, in history, events are of a mixed I consider woman as a beautiful romantic nature, and often happen alike to the wortbless animal, that may be adorned with furs and and the deserving, insomuch, that we frequently feathers, pearls and diamonds, vres and silks. see a virtuous man dying in the midst of disThe lyox shall cast its skin at her feet to make appointments and calamities, and the vicious her a tippet; the peacock, parrot, and swan ending their days in prosperity and peace, I shall pay contributions to her muff; the sea love to amuse myself with the accounts I meet shall be searched for shells, and the rocks for with in fabulous bistories and fictions ; for in gems; and every part of nature furnish out its this kind of writing we have always the pleashare towards the embellishment of a creature sure of seeing vice punished, and virtue rethat is the most consummate work of it. All warded. Indeed, were we able to view a man this I shall jodulge them in ; but as for the in the whole circle of his existence, we should petticoat I have been speaking of, I neither bave the satisfaction of seeing it close with can nor will allow it.

happiness or misery, according to bis proper merit: but though our view of him is inter

rupted by death before the finishing of his adNo. 117.] Saturday, January 7, 1709-10. ventures, if I may so speak, we may be sure

that the conclusion and catastrophe is altoDurate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis.

Virg. Æn. i. 211.

gether suitable to his behaviour. On the conEnduire the hardships of yonr present state,

trary, the whole being of a man, considered as Live, and reserve yourselves for better fate. Dryden. a hero or a knight-errant, is comprehended

within the limits of a poem or romance, and, Sheer-lane, January 6.

therefore, always ends to our satisfaction ; so When I look into the frame and constitution that inventions of this kind are like food and of my own mind, there is no part of it which exercise to a good-natured disposition, which I observe with greater satisfaction, than that they please and gratify at the same time that tenderness and concern which it bears for the they nourish and strengthen. The greater the good and happiness of mankind. My own cir- affliction is in which we see our favourites in cumstances are indeed so narrow and scanty, these relations engaged, the greater is the pleathat I should taste but very little pleasure, sure we take in seeing them relieved. could I receive it only from those enjoyments Among the many feigned histories which I which are in my own possession; but by this have met with in my reading, there is none great tincture of humanity, whieh I find in all in which the hero's perplexity is greater, and my thoughts and reflections, I am bappier than the winding out of it more difficult, than that any single person can be, with all the wealth, in a French author whose name I have forgot. strength, beauty, and success, that can be it so happens, that the hero's mistress was the conferred upon a mortal, if he only relishes sister of his most intimate friend, who for cer

tain reasons was given out to be dead, while In the midst of these our innocent endearhe was preparing to leave his country in questments, she spatched a paper of verses out of of adventures. The hero having heard of his my hand, and ran away with them. I was friend's death, immediately repaired to his mis- following her, when on a sudden the ground, tress, to condole with her, and comfort her. though at a considerable distance from the Upon his arrival in her garden, he discovered verge of the precipice, sunk under ber, and at a distance a man clasped in her arms, and threw her down from so prodigious a height embraced with the most endearing tenderness. upon such a range of rocks, as would have What should be do? It did not consist with dashed her into ten thousand pieces, bad her the gentleness of a knight-errant either to kill body been made of adamant. It is much easier his mistress, or the man whom she was pleased for my reader to imagine my state of mind upon to favour. At the same time, it would have such an occasion, than for me to express it. I spoiled a romance, should he have laid violent said to myself, it is not in the power of heaven hands on himself. In short, he immediately to relieve me! when awaked, equally transentered upon his adventures; and, after a long ported and astonished, to see myself drawn out series of exploits, found out by degrees that of an affliction which the very moment before the person he saw in his mistress's arms was appeared to me altogether inextricable. her own brother, taking leave of her before he The impressions of grief and horror were so left his country, and the embrace she gave him lively on this occasion, that while they lasted nothing else but the affectionate farewell of a they made me more miserable than I was at sister : so that he had at once the two greatest the real death of this beloved person, which satisfactions that could enter into the heart of happened a few months after, at a time when man, in finding his friend alive, whom he the match between us was concluded ; inasthought dead ; and his mistress faithful, whom much as the imaginary death was untimely, he had believed inconstant.

and I myself in a sort an accessary; whereas There are indeed some disasters so very fatal, her real decease bad at least these alleviations, that it is impossible for any accidents to rectify of being natural and inevitable. them. Of this kind was that of poor Lucretia ; The memory of the dream I have related still and yet we see Ovid has found an expedient dwells so strongly upon me, that I can never even in this case. He describes a beautiful and read the description of Dover.cliff in Shaks. ruyal virgin walking on the sea shore, where peare's tragedy of King Lear, without a fresh she was discovered by Neptune, and violated sense of my escape. The prospect from that after a long and unsuccessful importunity. To place is drawn with such proper incidents, that mitigate her sorrow, he offers her whatever she whoever can read it without growing giddy could wish for. Never certainly was the wit must have a good head, or a very båd one. of woman more puzzled in finding out a stra

Come on, sir, here's the place: stand still! how fearful tagem to retrieve her honour. Had she desired Aud dizzy,'tis to cast one's eyes so low? to be changed into a stock or stone, a beast, The crows and choughs that wing the midway air, fish, or fow!, she would have been a loser by it :

Show scarce as gross as beetles. Half way down

Hangs one that gathers samphire-Dreadful trade! or, bad she desired to bave been made a sea- Methinks he seems no bigger than his head. nymph, or a goddess, her immortality would The fishermen that walk upon the beach but have perpetuated her disgrace. “Give me,

Appear like mice, and yon tall anchoring bark

Diminish'd to her boat ; her boat ! a buoy therefore,' said she,“ such a shape as may make Almost too small for sight. The murmuring surge, me incapable of suffering again the like cala- That on th' annumber'd idle pebbles beats,

Cannot heard so high. I'll look no more, mity, or of being reproached for what I have

Lest my brain turn, already suffered.' To be short, she was turned into a man, and, by that only means, avoided the danger and imputation she so much dreaded. No. 118 ] Tuesday, January 10, 1709-10.

I was once myself in agonies of grief that are Lusisti satis, edisti satis, atque bibisti, unutterable, and in so great a distraction of Tempus abire libi

Hor. 9. Ep. ii. 214. mind that I thought myself even out of the pos. Already glitted with a farce of age, sibility of receiving comfort. The occasion was as

'Tis time for thee to quit the wanton stage.

Francis. follows. When I was a youth in a part of the army which was then quartered at Dover, I fell in love

From my own Apartment, January 8. with an agreeable young woman, of a good fa- I THOUGHT to have given over my prosecumily in those parts, and bad the satisfaction option of the dead for this season, having by me seeing my addresses kindly received, which oc. many other projects for the reformation of casioned the perplexity I am going to relate. mankind; but I have received so many com

We were in a calm evening diverting our plaints from such different hands, that I shall selves upon the top of the cliff with the prospect disoblige multitudes of my correspondents, if of the sea, and trifling away the time in such I do not take notice of them. Some of the little fondnesses as are most ridiculous to people deceased, wbo, I thought, had been laid quietly in business, and most agreeable to those in love. I in their graves, are such hubgoblins in public

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