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other men in the vicinity of Ticonderoga as will be necessary to carry into execution the resolutions of the Congress

of the 27 of June last transmitted to him. Ordered, that this be transmitted to Gen. Schuyler by the Pres!

On motion, Resolved, That Lieut' Patrick Moncrieff have liberty to return to England, on giving his parole of honour, that he will not act against the Americans in the present controversy between Great Britain and these colonies.

The order of the day was put off and the Congress adjourned till Monday next at 9 o'Clock.

MONDAY, JULY 3, 1775

The Congress met according to adjournment.

Sundry letters from the Convention of New York, Gen! Schuyler and a certifyed copy of a letter from Tho. Gage to Gov! Martin, were laid before the Congress, and read.?

Agreeable to the order of the day, the Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole, to take into consid eration the trade of America. After some time spent therein the president resumed the chair, and Mr. [Samuel] Ward reported that the Committee had come to a Resolution which they ordered him to report, but not having finished they had desired him to move for leave to sit again. The report from the Committee being read, the final determination of it was, at the request of the Colony of South Carolina, deferred till to Morrow.

* This letter is in Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 153, I folio, 1.

? Letters from General Schuyler, dated New York, June 28 and 30, 1775, are in the Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 153, I, folios 1 and 10. One from the Convention of New York, dated June 29, 1775, covering a copy of a letter from the South Carolina Committee of Intelligence, dated June 6, and a copy of a letter from General Gage to Governor Joseph Martin, dated April 12th, is in the Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 153, I, folios 17 and 21, but the Gage letter is not to be found. A second letter from the Convention dated June 29, 1775, on powder, is in the same volume, folio 23.

Resolved, that the Congress will to Morrow again resolve itself into a committee of the whole to take into consid eration the state of America.

Adjourned till to Morrow at 9 o'clock.

TUESDAY, JULY 4, 1775

The Congress met according to adjournment, and having taken up the consideration of the report from the committee came to the following resolution:

Resolved, That the two Acts passed in the first session of the present parliament, the one, intituled “An act to restrain the trade and commerce of the province of Massachusetts bay and New Hampshire, and colonies of Connecticut and Rhode Island and Providence plantation, in North America, to Great Britain, Ireland, and the British islands in the West Indies; and to prohibit such provinces and colonies from carrying on any fishery on the banks of Newfoundland or other places therein mentioned, under certain conditions and limitations :" The other, intituled “An Act to restrain the trade and commerce of the colonies of New Jersey, Pensylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, to Great Britain, Ireland, and the British islands in the West Indies, under certain conditions and limitations,” are unconstitutional, oppressive, and cruel; and that the commercial opposi tion of these colonies, to certain Acts enumerated in the Association of the last Congress, ought to be made against these, until they are repealed. Ordered, That the above be immediately published.

1 This resolution was printed in the Pennsylvania Packet, 10 July, 1775.

The Congress then took into consideration the letter of Gon! Sehuyler of 28 ult. and

Ordered, That the Delegates of the Colony of Pensyt vania procure letters from the German Clergy and other respeetable persons of that Nation, in this city to their friends and countrymen in the Colony of New York, and also to their countrymen in North Carolina.

Resolved, That the Comme for Indian Affairs be so far released from the Obligation of seereer as to have liberty to enquire of proper intelligent persons the situation and condition of the Indian Nations.

The Congress resumed the consideration of the petition to the king. After some debate, the furtherconsideration of it was postponed till to Morrow.

Resolved, that the Congress will to Morrow again resolve itself into a committee of the whole to take into consid eration the state of America.

Adjourned till to Morrow at 9 o'Clock.

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WEDNESDAY, JULY 5, 1775

The Congress met according to adjournment.

Several letters from Gen! Schuyler of the 24 and 34 of July were rec? and read.

It appearing that Gov' Philip Skene and Mr. Lundy have designs inimical to American liberty, thereupon,

On motion, it is recommended to the delegates of the colony of Pensylvania, to have the order of Congress of the 27 June last, respecting the sending Gov' Skene to Hartford in Connecticut, immediately carried into execution.

1 Both letters are in the Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 153, I, folios 12 and 15. A second letter dated July 3 was read on the 7th, but is not mentioned in the

Journals.

On motion, Resolved, That Mr. Lundy be sent under guard along with Gov? Skene to Hartford, in Connecticut, there to be confined in the same manner as is ordered with respect to Gov' Skene, until farther orders from this Congress.

Resolved, That such provision be made for the support of Gov' Skene and Mr. Lundy, as Gov? Trumbull shall think proper, which the Continent will take care to pay.

Ordered, That the president write to Gov' Trumbull on this subject, and enclose him the above orders and resolves.

The Congress resumed the consideration of the petition to the King, which being debated by paragraph, was agreed to, and ordered to be engrossed.

The order of the day was postponed, and the Congress adjourned till to Morrow.

THURSDAY, JULY 6, 1775

The Congress met according to adjournment, and resumed the consideration of the address to the Inhabitants of G-B, which after some debate, was re-committed.

The committee, to whom the declaration was re-committed, brot in the same, which being read, was taken into consideration, and being debated by paragraphs, was approved and is as follows:

here insert the declaration

Declaration on Taking Arms.'

JEFFERSON'S DRAFTS.”

FIRST DRAFT.

SECOND DRAFT.

A Declaration by

We the representatives of the United colonies of America now sitting in General Congress, to all nations-send greeting of setting forth the causes and necessity of

their taking up arms. The Committee appointed to draw up a Declaration to be published by General Washington, upon his arrival at the Camp before Boston, reported a draft on June 24th, which occasioned long and warm debate, and was finally re-committed. No copy of this first draft said, by Jefferson, to have been drawn by John Rutledge, is known to exist. Dickinson had taken a distinguished part in this debate, and with Jefferson was added to the Committee. Jefferson was desired to prepare a draft, but the result was not satisfactory either to Dickinson or to William Livingston. The former criticised it for its harshness, and the latter for its “much fault-finding and declamation, with little sense or dignity. They seem to think a reiteration of tyranny, despotism, bloody, &c. all that is needed to unite us at home and convince the bribed voters of North of the justice of our cause. (Letter to Lord Stirling, July 4, 1775.) Jefferson's own account was: “It was too strong for Mr. Dickinson. He still retained the hope of reconciliation with the mother country, and was unwilling it should be lessened by offensive statements. He was so honest a man, and so able a one, that he was greatly indulged even by those who could not feel his scruples. We therefore requested him to take the paper, and put it into a form he could approve. He did so, preparing an entire new statement, and preserving of the former only the last four paragraphs and the half of the preceding one. We approved and reported it to Congress." Autobiography, in Writings (Ford) I, 16.

* These two papers are found in the Jefferson Manuscripts in the Library of Congress. The second, or later, draft contains some suggested changes in the writing of John Dickinson, and bears on the last page the following memorandum by Jefferson:

1775. June 23. Congress appointed a commee to prepare a Declaration to be published by Gen! Washington on his arrival at the camp before Boston, to wit, J. Rutledge, W. Livingston, Dr. Franklin, M: Jay, and M: Johnson.

“June 24, a draught was reported.

“June 26. being disliked, it was recommitted and M: Dickinson and T. Jefferson added to the committee. the latter being desired by the commee to draw up a new one, he prepared this paper. on a meeting of the commee J. Dickinson objected that it was too harsh, wanted softening, &c., whereupon the commee desired him to retouch it, which he did in the form which they reported July 6, which was adopted by Congress."

Although the Jefferson drafts were never actually laid before Congress they are essential to a proper understanding of the Declaration as finally accepted.

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