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modated it with cases. The gerund, however, is not purely abstract, for it is so far verbal as to connect itself with the time and manner of an action. The idioms of two languages are seldom the same, but there is a certain resemblance between the Latin gerund and that usage of the English participle above quoted, such as we shall afterwards find to exist between the supines of the one and the infinitive of the other. In the sentences “He fell asleep in the reading,” “he is sick of writing," the words reading and writing are used substantively, but not as nominatives. “ The house is a building,” “The man is a dying," although nearly obsolete, are legitimate phrases, from which the a is now generally excluded; but, in the following, a hunting,” “He went a begging,”

» « He is out an airing,” and many others, if the expressions are allowed at all, the article appears to be indispensable: without it, the words hunting, begging, airing, &c. would cease to be general, and would each require an objective word, or sentence, on which the action might fall.

The substantive verb To be is also compounded with the past participle, and thereby forms the whole of what, in other languages, is termed the passive voice, which, in English, exists nowhere except in that participle. In the form of conjugation,

• He has gone

I am loved,
Thou art loved,
He is loved,


I was loved,
Thou wert loved,
He was loved,


the verbal adjective (or participle) loved is a
quality or state of the nominatives I, thou, he, &c.
as marked by the different parts of the verb To
be, in a similar manner as if we were to make a
conjugation of
I am strong,

I was strong,
Thou art strong,

Thou wert strong,
He is strong,

He was strong,


The analogy will appear more perfect if we advert to the etymology of the adjective STRONG, which is a varied orthography of the past participle (strung) of the verb To string, (or tie,) alluding: to the tension of the ligaments of the joints in the human body. In the same metaphor, we say that a man is well knit: thus, in Scott's Lady of the Lake :

“ Of stature tall, and slender frame,

But firmly knit was Malcolm Græme.” And more directly to our purpose in Dryden :“By chance our long-lived fathers earn'd their food; Toil strung the nerves, and purified the blood."

The apparent conjugation, hy means of the substantive verb, is not confined to participles and participial adjectives. Every adjective whatever, and even substantives, may be so combined. We may write, “I am wise," “ Thou art wise," or “I am the man,” “ Thou art the man," &c. either of which expressions might as well be termed a simple verb as the phrase “ I am loved,” an assertion which, although written in one word (amor) in Latin is made up of three separate words in English, and of these am only is the verb. The substantive verb' To be unites the noun to its adjective, - the substance to its quality;-gives them existence, and endows them

with power.

To Have (Latin habere, and Saxon habban,) is to hold or keep in our possession the thing of which we speak. The word is unlimited in its metaphorical usage.

Less permanent in duration and power than the verb To possess, (Latin possidere, from potis and sedere,) it holds dominion, for the time, not only over every thing that exists, but over the most evanescent shades of memory and imagination. A man, for example, has been puzzling you with a metaphysical subtlety which eludes your grasp, when, all at once, you exclaim I have you,” you get possession of him, that is, you catch his thought, for which you had so long followed him in vain. The had (haved), at the close of the sentence, is an additional metaphor: he was followed, and that action was yours :you had it.

As an auxiliary, To have is almost always conjoined with the past participle, and denotes being in possession of the action, which, in consequence, is understood to be completely finished. " I loved is in the past tense, but the action might have been left as unfinished or continuing: “I have loved” states the action to be over, because in the possession of the speaker. “ I was” and “I have been” are tenses of a like import. In the same manner, the verb is compounded with its own participle : thus," I had” means that I possessed at a certain time, which is left indefinite; but “ I have had” relates to the past circumstance, when the object once in possession is now leaving me, or is already gone.

Thus far the writers of grammars have treated the verb To have as an auxiliary. It has, however, other usages, and is prefixed to infinitives like ordinary verbs. For example, the expressions

" I have to see him to-morrow," and
Having to see them to-morrow, I will men-

tion your case,"

consider the speaker as holding the right of "


ing them to-morrow,”-that the interview, notwithstanding its being at present only prospective, is real property, and belongs to him. In a similar manner :I had to see him yesterday," and

Having had to see them yesterday,express the speaker's having, at one time, possessed an anticipated property over what is now also past. “I had had" denotes that I had possession at a past time, prior to another definite period.

With the termination ilis and habere, to have, was formed the Latin habilis, and from hence the old English habile, which signifies having or possessing any quality that might be requisite. This, by contraction, has originated the adjective ABLE, that is, having the power or quality necessary for any specific purpose. Taking the phrase to be able as an auxiliary verb, we can thereby form all the tenses of what, in other languages, is termed the PoTENTIAL MOOD (Latin potens), the expression of power.

AsI am able to walk, We are able to walk, Thou art able to walk, Ye are able to walk, He is able to walk, They are able to walk, &c.

&c. Another form of the expression of power is by

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