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been assigned for the introduction of such a ceremony into the Roman Catholic Church. Some accounts attribute it to Pope Boniface the Fourth; but, if we may believe Hospinian, it arose entirely at the instigation of the Devil, who showed the porter of St. Peter's Church a vision of the departed souls in Purgatory, where a few seemed to be very much at their ease, while others were poor and wretched, and begging for assistance. The angel, who acted as cicerone to the dreamer, informed him that the fortunate souls were those whom their friends prayed for, while their less successful companions were those who were left without any such assistance.*
Another story is "that in Cecylle (Sicily) in the yle of Vulcan, Saynt Odylle herde the voys and the howlynge of devylles, wyche complayned strongly by cause that the soules of them that were dede were taken away fro theyr hondes by almesse and by prayers; and therefore he ordeyned that the feest and remembraunce of theym that ben departed out of this worlde sholde be made and holden in al monasteryes the daye after the fest of Halowen, the whyche thynge was approvyd after of alle holy
* "Occasionem dedit diabolica quædam illusio. Nam anno sequente institutionem Festi Omnium Sanctorum, custos ille in ecclesia S. Petri Romæ post visionem illam de qua in priore festo diximus, ad alium locum et utriusque sexus homines ductus ab angelo, alios in stratis aureis, alios in mensis gaudentes diversis deliciis, alios nudos et inopes auxilium mendicantes ei ostendit. Dixit autem hunc locum Purgatorium esse; abundantes verò animas illas esse, quibus ab amicis per multa suffragia subveniretur, egentes verò esse quorum cura in terris nulla haberetur. Tandem mandavit angelus, ut ista omnia summo pontifici intimaret, qui tunc erat Bonifacius 4, circa annos Christi 611, ut post festum Omnium Sanctorum diem statueret Omnium Animarum, ut saltem generalia suffragia pro illis die illa fierent, qui specialia habere nequirent." DE ORIG. FESTORUM CHRIST. fol. 144. this is the very counterpart of the Roman custom, as we find it in Cicero-it was done that those who were too poor for special prayers, might be prayed for generally-" ut cujus sepulchrum nusquam extet ubi parentetur, ei publicè supplicetur."
chyrche.' To be sure the authority of the Golden Legend, from which this has been quoted, is not of the very highest order; but then we have a similar tale, with even more minuteness of circumstance, related by Damian, the Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia. He tells us how a cer. tain native of Rodez, or Rhodez,† returning from Jerusalem, sought shelter in a storm at an island or rock on the Sicilian coast, where he fell in with a holy hermit. In the course of their conversation, the latter enquired if he knew Odilo, the Abbot of Clugny? To this the guest answered that he knew him well, and demanding in his turn the motive for such a question, his host said, that in the country close by was the habitation of the damned; but that he often heard the fiends howling and complaining that the souls were snatched away from them by alms and the prayers of holy men; above all, the Abbot of Clugny and his monks were particularly active in defrauding them of their prey ; "wherefore," continued the her
mit, "I solemnly adjure you to carry these tidings to the Abbot, and entreat him to persist in the good work." On his return home, the man obeyed this injunction; and Saint Odilo,-for in good time he was sainted-appointed the festival of All Souls, which was afterwards generally adopted by the church.‡
GOLDEN LEGEND. Commemoration of All Souls, fol. 200.
+ Rhodez is an inland town in the south of France, on an eminence near the Aveyron. It was the capital of the small Province of Rovergue, as it was formerly called, but which is now known as the Department of the Aveyron. It is the See of a Bishop.
SANCTI PETRI DAMIANI OPERA, p. 198, folio. Parisiis, 1738.Damian, who was born of poor parents at Ravenna, somewhere about the year 988, has left us two large folios, replete with the miraculous, and yet useful for the insight it affords us into the ecclesiastical history of the eleventh century. I can not say much in favour of his prose Latin; but his poetry, considering it only as monkish rhyme, is graceful and full of pleasing images. The following specimen from his
This idea of Etna and Vesuvius being a vomitory of hell was at one time a received article of Christian faith;
Gloria Paradisi may enable the reader to judge how far this opinion is
"Hyems horrens, æstas torrens,
Illic nunquam sæviunt;
Sol, vel cursus Syderum ;
Sol præclarus, rutilant;
Existendi capiunt ;
indeed their eruptions were supposed always to take place upon the death of any rich sinner, an example of
Hinc perenne tenent esse,
Inde virent, vigent, florent;
Unum volunt, unum nolunt,
Preces et Carmina, tom. iv. p. 31.
The following version may perhaps help the unclassical reader to some idea of the original. In the last lines I have attempted to preserve the odd play upon words that seems to have so much delighted the Cardinal.
which occurred upon the decease of the Grand Master of the Knights of St. John,* as we learn from the authority just quoted.
There the holy host of martyrs
Shine in glory like the sun;
And, with wreaths of triumph circled,
Joy in their labours done;
In a state of bliss reposing,
Stript of all that made them mortal,
Hence with them life is unchanging,
Fear nor hope can fling a shade;
Ecstacies that never fade;
Sickness there can not come near them,
They rejoice in life immortal,
What with them could pass is past;
Death with them is dead at last.
Now they know the great All-knower,
* "Quo mortuo mons Vesuvius, unde videlicet gehenna frequenter eructat, in flammas erupit, ut liquido probaretur quia fænum, quod a dæmonibus parabatur, nil aliud fuit nisi ignis trucis incendii, qui