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wisely, " either affirming or disputing this point [i. e., that is that every word in the iEneid, according to Valpy, was derived from Greek] it is evident that the Latin language, in literature, at least, contained three classes of words, if not more." Of these—
I. —"Somewere simple transplantationsfromthe Greek,apparently
after an extensive intercourse subsisted with Magna Grcecia, or even Greece itself: such are Greek proper names, altered only in inflections, and such substantives as the thesaurus (trysor) and triclinium, &e."
Now, triclinium is, of course, derived from rpi and xXtvoe or KXivr). What is tri. Is it a root, per se, and having a distinct meaning as rpi? No, but it is found to be used in composition for rp«£. And what is Kxivt)? Abed. Very well; but how came it to signify a bed ?—how do we get an idea of 'reclining, stooping, or bending?' According to the Cimmerian term, it comes unchanged direct from tri, three, and din, a knee, because a person cannot recline on a couch or a tripod without bending the knee.
II. —" Some were obviously Greek, yet such as entered the lan
guage naturally and were part of its essential elements: to these, such proper names as .SSsculap-ius, Hercules, Sea., may be referred."
The analysis of these two terms will be found in pages 136 and 141. These and others are incidentally explained in the second and third volumes.
III. —" But there still remains a class of words, which, if really
of Greek origin, are evidently derived by a very different process. The maternal likeness is completely obliterated, and the enquirer who would establish the relation must content himself with the vindication of minute lineaments, in which few will be able to discover the parentage. Such are meta, lorica, clypeus, infula, &c."
Lorica is translated, 'a cuirass, defence, breastwork, arms,' &c Lluryg (or Llu-ryg) is the Cimmerian expression for the above interpretation of Lo-ric-a. Now, llu signifies a throng, a crowd, a host, and ryg, 'what bursts through' or dashes (oHh=rhwyg, the root of pr)ywfit, to break or burst forth, i. e., 'a host-sallyingarmor.
IV. —" The terms of husbandry and rural and domestic occupa
tion are mostly Greek; as, aratrum, ovis, agnus," &c. Aratrum, in that case, comes from apoTpov, arotron, and is derived from apou). But, what of the rpov? What business has it there any more than (ipov, ypov, or any other ov? See the term explained in pages 201 and 202.
V. —" Those of warfare, on the contrary, cannot be convincingly
deduced from the Greek, and, possibly, are not Greek at all;
as gladius, sagitta, &c." Glad-ius, a sword, is found in the Cimmerian Cleddeu or cleddyf (cledd-eu). But how came it to have that signification ?—from cledd, rest, or cled, sheltering; or, possibly, from cladd, interment, as its cause and effect. Sagilta, an arrow, is also perceived in Saeth (sa-eth), and derived from sa (s x a) ' what counter-wavers,' and eth, a terminal signifying 'completion or twisting.' "Hence it has been concluded that the un-Greek element was introduced by victorious invaders." Were these, then, the Umbri, or Cimmerian Ligures?
VI. —" This view, also, is countenanced by un-Greek terms refer
ring to government and laws; as, testis, &c."
Testis (test-is), a witness, is seen and heard in Tyst (ty-yst), from ty (t x y),' what includes,' and yst (ys x t),' an issue of,' ' an inward expansion,' i. e., ' a retainer of external evidence or outpourings.'
And, finally, let us take an order of epithets, as can-(us), ver-(us), sever-(us), virid-(is), avid-(us), &c, &c. Let the former instance, for the present, suffice. Can-(us) is usually considered akin to Kau) and icatu); but we want something more than this alleged kindred alliance. Let this and other subterfuges be taken for what they are worth, and no more. We defy all the un-Celtic elements, and all the classic folios of the universe, to assign a natural, a logical, and philological explication to these and other multitudinous plagiarised terms. Moreover, why is it can-(us), and not cawi-(us) or cap-(us). Why should the idea of whiteness be given to it, in preference to what is blue, red, or yellow, for Katui does not burn with an uniformity of color, according to the experience of the metallurgist.
The roots of can-us or can, 'white, splendid, enlightened,' according to a paradigmatic elementation of the Cimmerian, will be found, in conformity with an example given of the elements in page 164, to be literally and ideally explained, as far as regards the Coelbrennic words C and A. The nth power of n, so to speak, will be analysed in the expression tdn, in page 166, so that thereby the whole term will be proved to signify 'a preservation, in continuance, of what is visible,' just as car-(us) is equivalent to 'a keeping, in continuity, of what is of an inward force.'
The Adamitic meaning of can is preserved in Cahngti, or Cahngtiw, the Chinese expression for the Deity. Cimmerice sonans, it is can-yng-tiw, i. e., splendor or enlightenment in God= ■ * the Supreme God of ancient and eternal enlightenment,'—the terminal ti-w corresponding to the Hindoo or Persian Di-w, or our own D. U. W., as elemented in page 171 and elsewhere.
Cahngti, then, unlike the material form of a Lama or a Fo, dressed in sovereign robes of state, or of other multifarious and adored images of darkened demons, or inferior divinities, who are looked upon as mediators to the above supreme, enlightened God, was worshipped by the literati, the higher mandarins, and the imperial dynasty, by prayerful supplications and thanksgiving, without the boyish and girlish accompaniments of paint, wax, canvas, wood, brass, gold, and silver impressions, or any other idolatrous appendages whatever.
And hence, and not hence only, will it be perceived, independently of what has been already advanced in the first volume, and of what is to be incorporated throughout the second and third by other material proofs and logical deductions, as well as by silent communings with the ' laws of natural science,' as yet untraversed by philology, wherein each article or leading title is made to be proudly responsible for its own share of irrefragable truths as regards the version of its own Vestments, its Victuals, its Beverages, its Gold Coins and Ornaments, its Laws and Sovereignty of the Island, its Literature and Music, its Penillion and Englynion, its Mabinogion, and, above all, the Adamitic origin and radical expansion of the Cimmerian among the primitive or quasi-radical languages of earth, that the Cimmerians of Ynys Prydain, were not and could not have been, nationally speaking, such as the 'envy, malice, and all the uncharitableness' of a rampant or phlegmatic annalism have depicted them to be, as far as regards arts and sciences, life and manners, during the prehistoric periods of an antique world. Do or can the germs of civilisation, once implanted in a nation, entirely lose each aud every trace of their former existence, so as to become absolute savages or barbarians? Did Persia, did Egypt, did Greece and Rome revert to such an abyss of unlettered savageness?
"The useful arts," as Professor Tytler (Lord Woodhouselee) has well observed, in reference to mankind in general, " are the offspring of necessity. The sciences are the fruit of ease and leisure. Agriculture is not practised till the tribe becomes stationary, and property is defined and secured. The sciences arise in a cultivated society, where individuals enjoy that leisure which invites to study and speculation. The priests, maintained in that position by the monarch, were the earliest cultivators of science."
Let the soundness of this axiom be tested on the prehistoric evidence already but imperfectly enunciated in these pages, and I doubt not that, in the prehistoric language of Archdeacon Williams, to whom, en passant, I am particularly indebted for many valuable hints, Cimmerian literature, of one order or other, "will, in spite of all obstruction, eventually force itself upon the public notice, and be hailed as one of the great lights in a future field of observation, which is now covered with thick darkness."
I shall not pursue this subject-matter further at present, but hasten to give a brief account as to the purport and origin of this work, as stated by the President of our last anniversary banquet.
The following essays or lectures owe their birth to my esteemed and patriotic friend, John B. Humffray, M. L. A., who, while we were discussing together the unacknowledged merits of the Cimmerian race on the broad area of ancient and modern civilization, induced me, a few weeks prior to the anniversary of St. David's, to write a paper or two on these vexed questions, and to his sound judgment, correct taste, and logical acumen, I am deeply indebted. I unhesitatingly predict for him a yet more brilliant career on the field of honorable distinction. 'Britannia Antiquissima' demands this public tribute of justice at my hands. Though profoundly aware of the difficulties to be encountered on the threshold of authorities, I did not hesitate, even with such insufficient means at my command, to make the attempt. In this dilemma, I have been necessarily obliged to recur, almost uniquely, to first principles, i. e., to the innate laws of nature, as philologically interpreted from our Adamitic tongue, as the surest harbingers of primeval thought and action, the firmest basis of antecedent life—the best guarantee of a nation's career on the difficultlytrodden field of space and time, as already but partially exemplified and developed within the secret folds of the paradigma et 'Symbola Elementorum,' the astronomical symbol, the aula Humffrayia, the ' Clavis Adami,' &c., &c.
Moreover, I contend, for reasons to be hereafter assigned in my Cimbro-Celtic and other articles, though written prior to my reading the subjoined passages, that the Cimmerians were "those most ancient and highly-cultivated people of Asia of whose memory every trace is now extinct (?), but who have been the parent instructors of all around" spoken of by M. Bailly. "If we find," continues the learned author, as cited by Professor Tytler, in reference to 'M. Bailly's theory of the origin of the sciences among the nations of Asia,' " if we find," says he, "in the scattered huts of peasants, fragments of sculptured columns, we conclude for certain that these are not the works of the rude peasants who reared those huts, but that they were the remains of a magnificent building—the work of able architects, though we discover no other traces of the existence of that building, and cannot ascertain its precise situation."