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ment of country and nation. (Continual maledictions against Vortigern, Rowena, and the Saxons, the traitors to the nation.)*

“ The three combined expeditions are called the three mighty arrogances of the nation of the Cymry; also the three Silver Hosts, because of their taking away out of this island the gold and the silver, as far as they could obtain it by deceit, and artifice, and injustice, as well as by right and consent. And they are called the three Unwise Armaments, for weakening thereby this island so much, as to give place in consequence to the three Mighty Oppressions, that is, those of the Coranians, the Romans, the Saxons.

“ The three treacherous meetings of the Isle of Britain : The meeting of Avarwy (Mandubratius of Cæsar), the son of Llud, with the disloyal men who gave space for landing to the men of Rome, in the narrow green point, and not more, and in consequence of which was the gaining of the Isle of Britain by the men of Rome. Second, the meeting of the principal men of the Cymry and the Saxon claimants on the mountain of Caer Caradawg, where the plot of the Long Knives took place, through the treachery of Gwrtheyrn Gwrthenan; that is, through his counsels in league with the Saxons, the nobility of the Cymry were nearly all slain there. Then the meting of Medrawd and Iddawg, Corn Prydain, with their men in Nanhwynian, where they plotted treachery against Arthur, and consequently strength to the Saxons in the Isle of Britain.”


THE SOCIAL STATE, as comprising the Rights and DUTIES of the CYMRY, such as they were before they lost their Privileges through the oppression, fraud, and treachery of the Saxons.

“ The three fundamental principles of a social state; privilege, possession, and mutual compact.

“ The three fundamental principles of social compact: protection, punishment, pre-eminence, in so far as each is beneficial to country and clan.

* A king of Ireland, named Cormac, wrote in 260 de Triadibus, and some triads have been preserved in Irish tradition under the name of Fingal. The Irish marched to battle by threes; the Scotch Highlanders marched three deep. We have already spoken of the trimarkisia. At supper, says Giraldus Cambrensis, the Welsh set a panier of vegetables before each triad of guests ; they never sit down to table two and two.-Logan, the Scottish Gael.

“ The three privileges and protections of the social state : security of life and person ; security of possession and dwelling; and security of natural right.

“ Three things that dissolve the social state: affection, fear, and connexions foreign to it.

« Three things that confirm the social state: effectual security of property; just punishment where it is due; and mercy tempering justice where the occasion requires it in equity.

“ Three things that destroy the social state utterly : cruelty instead of punishment; mercy perverting justice through partiality; and fraudulent judgement where a native or a stranger is debarred of his right.

“The three pillars of a social state : sovereignty, the law of the country, and distribution of justice.

“ Three duties that are incumbent on each of these three pillars : justice to all; privilege and protection to all; and competent regulations for the benefit of the community as to instruction, information, and record.

- Three things that defend the social state: power, privilege, and just punishment according to the established legal manner.

“ The three elements of law: knowledge, natural right, and conscientiousness.

“ The three ornaments of the social state : the learned scholar; the ingenious artist; and the just judge.

“ The three proofs of a judge, (that is, of his capacity as a judge): knowledge of the law; knowledge of the customs, which the law does not supersede; and knowledge of its times and business thereto belonging.

“ Three things which a judge ought always to study: equity habitually, mercy conscientiously, and knowledge profoundly and accurately.

“ The three things necessary to a judge, in order that he may know and conscientiously determine any claim or plea brought before him : to be earnest in his own zeal for the truth, and in searching it out by his own natural abilities; to inquire diligently so as to find out truth from the others; and to be subtle in examining, so as, in any cause brought into his court, to discover deceit, which, otherwise, though he were conscientious, might mislead his decision, and pervert justice: for a judge ought to be thoroughly clear in his knowledge of the cause brought before him, in order that his decision may be just and conscientious.

“ The three chief duties of sovereignty: an honourable mutual support (on the part of sovereign and subject); confirming instruction in the sciences of the country (the constitutional principles ), so that the support may be according to prescription and law; and confirming the privilege of those who perform their just duties in clan and community, and also that of foreigners in protection of the community.”

« The three guardians of law: a learned judge, a faithful witness, and a conscientious decision.

“ Capital inflictions of punishment are three : loss of life ; loss of limb; and exile by hue and cry of men and dogs: and the king may direct which he pleases to be inflicted.

“Loss of life may be inflicted three ways: by beheading, hanging, or burning; and the king or lord of the territory may direct which he pleases to be inflicted.

“Punishments by distress are three: seizure of property, imprisonment and forfeiture of privilege; when the privilege is forfeited, the person and his descendants to the ninth generation remain in the state of an alien.”

“ The three mutual ties of country and clan: paternity, filiation, and brotherhood, that is to say, paternity on the part of the government, in caring, directing, and providing for the welfare of the community; filiation in obedience to the paternity, for the sake of order and regularity; and brotherhood, in uniting with and aiding the other two in their respective capacities, so as to strengthen the connexion between country, clan, and regular government."

“ Three things becoming civil society: the sciences of wisdom ; the useful arts; and the accomplishments of refinement.

“ The three supports of the arts and sciences : instruction given by teachers privileged and perfectly skilled; privileges conferred for the sake of the sciences or arts to those who are skilled in them ; and rewards secured by law to men of science and artists for that which is regularly done by them according to injunction or agreement."

“ Three things that cannot be cultivated or improved save in a social state: agriculture ; the privileged arts and sciences; and regular peace.”

“ The three primary pursuits of a firm government: privileged trades; scientific knowledge; and agriculture : for from these arise all other pursuits useful to a state; and, as the secondary pursuits depend on the primary, it is a necessity of state to establish the primary ones in a privileged and regular manner.”

" There are three national sessions, by privilege, in the island of Britain, [under the protection of the nation of the Cymry :] the session of the bards; which is the most ancient in dignity; the session of country and lord, that is to say a court of law, consisting of a general assembly of judges and constitutional assessors ; and the session of union and maintenance, that is to say, a collective assembly of the nation, consisting of rulers, chiefs of clans, and men of wisdom, from country and district, (or border country,) [according to the ordinances of civil community and laws, as affecting a country in relation to itself or in relation to a border country ;] by and with the assent and consent of country and country, ruler and ruler, and the agreement of privilege and privilege to act for the sake of peace and justice. And this shall bind all parties. No weapon is to appear drawn in these sessions, or within their limits, or during their continuance.

“ There are three national sessions by privilege, to which are subject of right those who are interested as to protection, office, or dignity, or advantages accruing from trade or science, which are in the cognizance and jurisdiction of one or other of these sessions, and the subjection to them is of right, and due to the session whilst in deliberation : viz.-1. The session of the bards of the island of Britain, which has a judicial cognisance of every one who desires to profit by his talents in music, artificers' employment, or bardism; and all who attend the session are under its protection during the sitting, until its office and business are terminated. 2. The session of the king, or lord of the district (shire), and his assessors, judges, and barons; that is, every Cymro (Cimmerian), who is a proprietary of land—thus forming a court of justice and of law. 3. The session of general constitutional assembly; that is, a general assembly of country and its dependencies, to which the two preceding are amenable. For, though the bardic session be prior in dignity, and the parent of all science, yet the session of general constitutional assembly takes precedence by right of power and necessity for the regulation and establishment of justice, privilege, and protection, in the country, its dependencies, and annexed and separated territories, in alliance. And without this general constitutional assembly, the other two,could possess neither privilege nor power. For this session of general determination of country and clan has three qualifications, that is to say, it consists of wisdom, the power, and the will of country and dependency, clan and united clan, in order to make, amend, and conform law and union; and to conform equity and privileges as to neighbouring countries, and territories in alliance, whether of borders or separate, whether of foreigner or Cimmerian, by common consent, so that in no part of the territories can it be withstood. This general session controuls all other right of determination and of power, law, or authority, so that none other is equal to it; and it was this general constitutional assembly which first conferred the privileges of the lord of district, and his territory, and of the session of bards. In fact, it is evident that no privilege can exist but by the respect paid to it [this court] by country and clan."

“ There are three branches of erudition (llenoriaeth ) as to language. 1. That of interpretation of a court of law between a Cimmerian and a foreigner, who know no language in common. 2. Skill in portraying arms, laudable actions and marvellous occurrences, so that they who see (the portraiture) may understand its signification : and such portrayer is called the Emblem Bard. And, 3. The knowledge of book and letter, and of reading and writing the Cimbric language correctly, and keeping book-memory of the three subjects of the records of the bards of Britain ; viz. pedigrees of rank by marriage, descent of estates, and actions and information worthy of record. He, whose occupation is that of either of these three branches of erudition, claims five free acres in right of his profession, exclusive of his right as a native Welshman, and is to attend the court of country and lord, and be obedient to the court, the judges, and the assessors, when court or session is lawfully held ; and, in remuneration for the information they afford, they are entitled, moreover, to free entertainment and presents by stipulation.

“ There are three principal branches of mechanic employment: viz, smith's work, carpenter's work, and mason's work, and the three are of equal privilege ; and whoever is of either of these trades has a full right to five free acres, exclusive of his right as a native Cimmerian, and is to be at the will of the lord of the district to instruct the slaves of the king or the lord, or any of their vassals, as far as the law permits; that is, under the obligation that no degree of the craft shall be granted to any of them but by consent of their lord proprietary and of the king."

There are three principal branches of household arts : cultivation of land ; management of the dairy; and weaving. And it is the duty of the chief of the clan to enforce their being taught, and answer for their being so in court, and in place of worship, and at every assembly (cyrch) for worship.”

“There are three city professions : medicine, merchandise, and navigation. Each of these has a peculiar city privilege, which privilege is by grant of lord of the district, with a security of the administration of justice, and is distinct from the privileges common to country and clan, for the security of regular commerce protected by justice.

“ The privileges of cities are three. 1. That citizens shall not be compelled to serve in any office except such as are comprised in the right and within the limits of their citizenship. 2. A protection which shall secure strangers or foreigners who frequent the cities for commerce from imposition or injury. And, 3. That no privileged markets shall be held except in respectable cities.

“ Three things that are not to be taken to a foreign country without permission of country and lord: gold, books, and wheat.

“ Three things that bar the rejection of a son by a clan: if the son be born in lawful bed, and reared for a year and a day without denial (of his legitimacy); if his nursing shall have been paid for, though he be the son of an harlot; or if he be acknowledged by proclamation. After either of these things is done, the father cannot deny him.”

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