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them or their progeny returned to this island, but remained among the Romans in the country of Gwasgwyn (Gascony), where they are at this time. And it was in revenge for this expedition that the Romans first came into this island."

"The three invading tribes that came into the Isle of Britain and never departed from it: The Coranians, the Irish Picts, the Saxons."

"The three invading tribes that came into the Isle of Britain and departed from it: The men of Llychlyn (Scandanavia ?), the hosts of Ganvel, the Irishman, who were there twenty-nine years, and the Caesarians."

"The three losses, by disappearance, of the Isle of Britain. Gavran, son of Aeddan, with his men, who went to sea in search of the Green Islands of the Floods, and nothing more was heard of them. Second—Merddin, the bard of Ambrosius, with his nine scientific bards, who went to sea in the house of glass, and there have been no tidings whither they went. Third—Madawg, son of Owain Gwynedd, who, accompanied by three hundred men, went to sea in ten ships, and it is not known to what place they went."

"The three gold shoemakers cf the Isle of Britain: first, Caswallawn ab Beli, when he went as far as Gascony to obtain Flur, the daughter of Mygnach Gor, who had been seduced and carried thither to Caisar the Emperor, by one called Mwrchan the Thief, king of that country, and friend of Jwl Caisar; and Caswallawn brought her back to the Isle of Britain; second, Manawydan ab Llyr Llediath, when he went as far as Dyved, laying restrictions; third, Llew Llaw Gyfes, when he went along with Gwydion, the son of Don, obtaining name and arms from Arianrod, his mother."

"The three arrant traitors of the Isle of Britain: Avarwy, the son of Llud, the son of Beli the Great, who invited Jwl Caisar and the men of Rome into this island, and caused the oppressions of the Romans; that is, he and his men gave themselves as conductors to the men of Rome, receiving treasure of gold and silver from them every year. And in consequence it became a compulsion on the men of this island to pay three thousand of silver yearly as a tribute to the men of Rome, until the time of Owain, the son of Macsen Wledig, when he refused that tribute, and under pretence of being contented therewith, the men of Rome drew the best men of the Isle of Britain, capable of being made men of war, to the country of Aravia (Arabia) and other far countries, and they returned not back. And the men of Rome, that were in the Isle of Britain, went into Italy, so that there were of them only women and little children left behind; and in that way the Britons were weakened, so that they were unable to resist oppression and conquest, for want of men and strength. The second was Gwrtheyrn Gwrthenan, who after killing Constantine the Blessed, and seizing the crown of the island, through treason and lawlessness, first invited the Saxons into this island as his defenders, and married Alis Itonween, the daughter of Hengist, and gave the crown of the island to the son he had by her, whose name was Gotta, and on that account it is that the kings of London are called children of Alis. Thus by the conduct of Gwrtheyrn the Cymry lost their lands, and their privilege, and their crown in Lloegr. The third was Medrawd, the son of Llew, the son of Gynwarch; for when Arthur left the crown of the Isle of Britain in his custody, whilst he went against the Emperor in Kome, then Medrawd took the crown from Arthur through treason and seduction; and so that he might preserve it, he confederated with the Saxons, and by reason thereof the Cymry lost the crown of Lloegr, and the sovereignty of the Isle of Britain."

"The three arrant traitors, who were the cause, by means whereof the Saxons took the crown of the Isle of Britain from the Cymry:—The first was Gwigi Garwlwyd, who after getting a taste for the flesh of man in the court of Edelfled, King of the Saxons, liked it so much, that he would eat nothing but human flesh ever after; and, therefore, he and his men united themselves with Edelfled, King of the Saxons, so that he used to make secret incursions upon the nation of the Cymry, and took male and female of the young so many as he ate daily. And all the lawless men of the nation of the Cymry gathered to him and the Saxons, where they might obtain their full of prey and spoil, taken from the natives of this isle. The second was Medrawd, who gave himself and his men to be one with the Saxons, for securing to himself the kingdom against Arthur; and by reason of his treachery, great multitudes of the Lloegrians became as Saxons. The third was Aeddan, the traitor of the north, who gave himself and his men within the limits of his dominion to the Saxons, so as to be enabled to maintain themselves by confusion and anarchy, under the protection of the Saxons. And because of these three arrant traitors, the Cymry lost their land and their crown in Loegria; and had it not been for such treason, the Saxons could not have gained the island from the Cymry."

"Three royal domains that were established by Bodri Mawr, in Wales: first, Dinevwr; second, Aberfraw; third, Matthraval. There was a prince wearing a diadem in each of the three dominions; and the oldest of the three princes, whichever of them it might be, was to be the sovereign—that is to say, King of all Wales; and the other two obedient to his word, and his word imperative upon each one of them; and he was chief of law and chief elder in every conventional session, and in every movement of country and nation. (Continual maledictions against Vortigern, Rowena, and the Saxons, the traitors to the nation.)*

"The three combined expeditions are called the three mighty arrogances of the nation of the Cymry; also the three Silver Hosts, because of their taking away out of this island the gold and the silver, as far as they could obtain it by deceit, and artifice, and injustice, as well as by right and consent. And they are called the three Unwise Armaments, for weakening thereby this island so much, as to give place in consequence to the three Mighty Oppressions, that is, those of the Coranians, the Romans, the Saxons.

"The three treacherous meetings of the Isle of Britain: The meeting of Avarwy (Mandubratius of Csesar), the son of Llud, with the disloyal men who gave space for landing to the men of Rome, in the narrow gi-een point, and not more, and in consequence of which was the gaining of the Isle of Britain by the men of Rome. Second, the meeting of the principal men of the Cymry and the Saxon claimants on the mountain of Caer Caradawg, where the plot of the Long Knives took place, through the treachery of Gwrtheyrn Gwrthenan; that is, through his counsels in league with the Saxons, the nobility of the Cymry were nearly all slain there. Then the meting of Medrawd and Iddawg, Corn Prydain, with their men in Nanhwynian, where they plotted treachery against Arthur, and consequently strength to the Saxons in the Isle of Britain."

The Law Triads of Dyvnwat, Moelmud, called The Triads Of The Social State, as comprising the Rights and Duties of the Cymry, such as they were before they lost their Privileges through the oppression, fraud, and treachery of the Saxons.

"The three fundamental principles of a social state; privilege, possession, and mutual compact.

"The three fundamental principles of social compact: protection, punishment, pre-eminence, in so far as each is beneficial to country and clan.

* A king of Ireland, named Cormae, wrote in 260 de Triadibus, and some triads have been preserved in Irish tradition under the name of Fingal. The Irish marched to battle by threes; the Scotch Highlanders marched three deep. We have already spoken of the trimarkisia. At supper, says Giraldus Cambrensis, the Welsh set a panier of vegetables before each triad of guests; they never sit down to table two and two.—Logan, the Scottish Gael.


"The three privileges and protections of the social state: security of life and person; security of possession and dwelling; and security of natural right.

"Three things that dissolve the social state: affection, fear, and connexions foreign to it.

"Three things that confirm the social state: effectual security of property; just punishment where it is due; and mercy tempering justice where the occasion requires it in equity.

"Three things that destroy the social state utterly: cruelty instead of punishment; mercy perverting justice through partiality; and fraudulent judgement where a native or a stranger is debarred of his right.

"The three pillars of a social state: sovereignty, the law of the country, and distribution of justice.

"Three duties that are incumbent on each of these three pillars: justice to all; privilege and protection to all; and competent regulations for the benefit of the community as to instruction, information, and record.

"Three things that defend the social state: power, privilege, and just punishment according to the established legal manner.

"The three elements of law: knowledge, natural right, and conscientiousness.

"The three ornaments of the social state: the learned scholar; the ingenious artist; and the just judge.

"The three proofs of a judge, (that is, of his capacity as a judge): knowledge of the law; knowledge of the customs, which the law does not supersede; and knowledge of its times and business thereto belonging.

"Three things which a judge ought always to study: equity habitually, mercy conscientiously, and knowledge profoundly and accurately.

"The three things necessary to a judge, in order that he may know and conscientiously determine any claim or plea brought before him: to be earnest in his own zeal for the truth, and in searching it out by his own natural abilities; to inquire diligently so as to find out truth from the others; and to be subtle in examining, so as, in any cause brought into his court, to discover deceit, which, otherwise, though he were conscientious, might mislead his decision, and pervert justice: for a judge ought to be thoroughly clear in his knowledge of the cause brought before him, in order that his decision may be just and conscientious.

"The three chief duties of sovereignty: an honourable mutual support (on the part of sovereign and subject); confirming instruction in the sciences of the country (the constitutional principles), so that the support may be according to prescription and law; and confirming the privilege of those who perform their just duties in clan and community, and also that of foreigners in protection of the community."

"The three guardians of law: a learned judge, a faithful witness, and a conscientious decision.

"Capital inflictions of punishment are three: loss of life; loss of limb; and exile by hue and cry of men and dogs: and the king may direct which he pleases to be inflicted.

"Loss of life may be inflicted three ways: by beheading, hanging, or burning; and the king or lord of the territory may direct which he pleases to be inflicted.

"Punishments by distress are three: seizure of property, imprisonment and forfeiture of privilege; when the privilege is forfeited, the person and his descendants to the ninth generation remain in the state of an alien."

"The three mutual ties of country and clan: paternity, filiation, and brotherhood, that is to say, paternity on the part of the government, in caring, directing, and providing for the welfare of the community; filiation in obedience to the paternity, for the sake of order and regularity; and brotherhood, in uniting with and aiding the other two in their respective capacities, so as to strengthen the connexion between country, clan, and regular government."

"Three things becoming civil society: the sciences of wisdom; the useful arts; and the accomplishments of refinement.

"The three supports of the arts and sciences: instruction given by teachers privileged and perfectly skilled; privileges conferred for the sake of the sciences or arts to those who are skilled in them; and rewards secured by law to men of science and artists for that which is regularly done by them according to injunction or agreement."

"Three things that cannot be cultivated or improved save in a social state: agriculture; the privileged arts and sciences; and regular peace."

"The three primary pursuits of a firm government: privileged trades; scientific knowledge; and agriculture: for from these arise all other pursuits useful to a state; and, as the secondary pursuits depend on the primary, it is a necessity of state to establish the primary ones in a privileged and regular manner."

"There are three national sessions, by privilege, in the island of Britain, [under the protection of the nation of the Cymry:] the session of the bards; which is the most ancient in dignity; the session of country and lord, that is to say a court of law, consisting of a general assembly of judges and constitutional assessors; and the session of union and maintenance, that is to say, a collective assembly of the nation, consisting of rulers, chiefs of clans, and men of wisdom, from country and district, (or border country,) [according to the ordinances of civil community and laws, as affecting a country in relation to itself or in relation to a border country;] by and with the assent and consent

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