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and the Loire, had, it seems, more gravity and consistency in their mental character. Less indisciplinable, they were governed by a sacerdotal corporation of the Druids."

How could it be possible for the skin-clad Kymry of a Macaulay to civilize Northern Gaul? Could they have dropped their skins, and washed their paint, in the channel; and plundered the black vestments and variegated plaids of the continent to hide their Sandwich tatooed forms, bjfore they undertook their mission of humanising codes, at such an almost pre-historic sera? Let the date be calculated from this to Csesar's, for the behests of future history!

A new power was brooding dismay and conquest in the distant east. The Cimbro-Celts, about the year 336 B. C, had learned, with feelings of evident satisfaction, either through the communications of the peripatetic Druids, or in the usual channel of commercial intercourse, that their old enemies, the nomadic Scythians of the north, then occupying the Cimmerian land of the Getse, had been in their turn vanquished by Alexander of Macedon. Accordingly, the princes of the west, in unison with the records of royal houses, as stated in Arrian (I am not quite sure of Quintus Curtius), sent personages of distinction to congratulate the Emperor by a formal Cimbro-Celtic embassy.

I really sympathise with Arrian and Diodorus Siculus at their disappointment in not witnessing hyperborean paint and skins on this occasion. What could have been the object of the mission? Nothing, I apprehend, save the national tact, and refinements of diplomacy, and the prudent conception of an alliance that might interest their commerce, or their race in any given contingency, even at the extremity of Europe.

The 85th triad on the social state, enumerates the privileges of persons to be sent on an embassy to a neighbouring or distant country, as :—"A bard to record the event; a minister of religion to imbue it with a sacred character; and a chief of a clan, or tiesbantyle, to represent the prince and their country;" and it goes on to state :—

"That no weapon ought to be drawn against either of these three, whether the neighbouring countries be in war or peace. For, unless learning, religion, and political knowledge, be privileged and protected, nations that are at war cannot be brought to be at peace; and it is therefore indispensably necessary to neighbouring countries that ambassadors should be so privileged and protected, that they may go and return in peace and safety, when their mission and office is by authority, for the purpose of concord."

In 371 B. c, i. e., about 50 years prior to the Macedonian embassy, a delegated portion of the brave sea-faring Celts and Iberians is seen traversing the broad expanse of the Moryntir, as allies, auxiliary forces, mercenaries, or Triadic 'Cyfforddwy,' to a foreign power, in order to retrieve, if possible, the discomfited laurels of Leuctra, through the defeat of the Lacedaemonians by the Thebans. The former were the allies of Dionysius, the Tvpawog of Syracuse. Do ye imagine, ye detractors of Britain's native stock, that Dionysius sent his own gallies, triremes, biremes, or other nameless boats, for these redoubtable Celtic allies, and ancient warriors, and navigators of deep waters through Gadytonffrwt to Eigion yr Atlas, or the Atlantic Ocean? Were they then by accident on the coast of Italy or of Greece? Were they blown away so far on the tidal pinions of mere fiction, of a mere triadic insinuation? But who, says the Pinkertonian clique, ever heard of Cimbro-Celts fighting as a Cimmerian legion, or a mercenary corps in Hellenistic waters? What a joke, to be sure! it is too much for ordinary gullibility! and acting the part, forsooth, of a Brito-Spanish legion: yea, verily, performing the roll of our Papal, or Neapolitan Swiss, or German legions, or of that "Corps Etranger" of France, in distant Africa? Do you conceive the possibility of this statement being believed beyond the Cimbric Channel, or the Gallic Rhine? Ha! ha! hah!

"Omnis spes Spartae et csepti fiducia belli
"Cimbrorum auxilii stetit."

Keightley, supported on his right and left, I presume, by Justin and Diodorus, will be able to give gentlemen of this stamp— the stamp of historic baseness—a short version of the affair, with, perhaps, a doubt pithily expressed as to the expedition being thefirst undertaken in these latitudes by these Cimmerian ocean traders, so as not to outrage the high-toned consciences of the ever-insular, painted, school of skins.

"At this very time (i. e., B. C. 363) arrived a fleet of twenty ships, sent by Dionysius, the Tvpavvoe of Syracuse, to aid the Lacedaemonians. On board of this fleet were Celtic and Iberian troops, perhaps the first of these remote nations ever seen in Greece; and about fifty horsemen, probably Iberians. Next day, the Thebans and their allies were drawn out, and filled the plain down to the sea, wasting it everywhere. The Corinthian and Athenian horse feared to engage them; but the new-comers attacked them boldly, and, by their desultory mode of fighting, did them much mischief. A few days afterwards the Thebans and their allies separated and went home; and the troops of Dionysius, having made an irruption into Sicyon, and defeated the Sicynians of the Theban party who came out against them, also departed and returned to Syracuse."

With regard to this and other expeditions, much has been said and written, if not in the Munchausen style, at least under the bias of tribes and states confounding tribes and states, and facts repealing facts, as well as in the most stringent terms of sarcastic stereotype vituperation about the unapproachable savageness and blood-thirsty propensity and vindictiveness of the Gauls, or Cimbro-Celts, in distant lands. Before stones are thrown, observe subsequent enlightened times, 'circumspicite externum mundum.'

Does the partial, one-eyed, world ever employ the faculty of thought in such matters, that they, the Celts, "the enemy," (par excellence of the classic pen), as invaders, never received any provocation to retaliate the Rowland for an Oliver, as the French of late in Africa, the English in India, the Dutch in the Indian Archipelago? Else why the perpetual and ever-sneaking aggrandisement of two or three antique nations—that you must divine! To accomplish such a feat of territorial strides, recourse must have been had, all along, to ocean-beds of Celtic blood by these never thirsty ' dogs of war'. Hence am I not surprised that the Cimbro-Celts should dare to beard the lions in their dens, to avert, it may be, greater calamities on their commingled race of 'good and bad ' throughout Europa's breadth; nor am I, indeed, more astonished to see the great migration of trans-Alpine Gauls, either in defence of a race oppressed, or in a crusading march of primeval love of Deffrobanian and Asian land, veering towards Greece and Asia Minor, in the fifth and sixth centuries, as on a later occasion in B. O. 281, than at the late Gallic-Brito-Ligurian invasion of Sebastopol in support of weakness against might. I grant a good deal to Grecian pride of prose, and Roman fund of poesy, when spleened and gored to shame, defeat, and loss of prestige, on the battle-field by mere ' barbaric' (?) troops of Cimbric Hyperborean Celts. I receive, 'cum grano salis,' Pausaniasian facts (?) reduplicated at pleasure by copyists of a Roman mould, to calm the unguent sores and tender points of stung historic spleen about the fabled panic tales of blood, and milk, and slaughter of their 'kin and kind,' when lanced to wounds of quasi-death by hostile hands.

Again, two kings of the (Cimbri) Boii (country of Bologna), At and Gall (the Atis and Galatus of Greece and Rome), endeavoured to arm the people, in order to seize the Roman colony at Ariminum, and they called in the aid of " Gaulish mercenaries" (Cyfforddwy y Gal) from beyond the Alps."

At another period we find the pike, or javelin-armed Gesatse (Gaisda, from gais, a pike; hence Gcesa Alpina), a warlike people, who, like the Swiss of modern limes, " gladly served under the rich Gaulish tribes of Italy," and, encamping on either side of the Via Aurelia, near the Portus Telamonis, and about three days march of Rome. Here they found themselves suddenly confronted with three Roman armies; upon this the Gaisda, according to the version of Polybius, cited by Michelet, who, however, by ever supplementing the naked highland idea as something outre on the subject, insinuates a process untenable as far as the bravado of a Bombastes Furioso is concerned, " threw off their clothes by way of bravado." To this distorted, yet unique, view of the question, as viewed and reviewed, I demur in toto. The ancient Celtic warriors, by disencumbering themselves of the ample well-known folds of their upper breithwe, brychan, or plaid would thus find their arms more at liberty with their own ponderous weapons and bucklers, to exercise their own peculiar tactics of military warfare. Go into the barracks of a highland regiment and learn historic wisdom, all ye base detractors of the millions of the Cimbro-Celtic race! The various grades of officers in this very Celtic army, and on this very occasion, were, according to Polybius, "decked with collars, chains, and bracelets of gold." This custom was universally adopted by the grand Cimbro-Celtic family from immemorial ages, as badges of distinction, by princes, by chiefs of clans, by Druids, Ovates, and chief bards, and others on the roll of fame, as we gather from the bards and triads. This practice was subsequently followed by the Homeric Trojan, Greek, and Roman chieftains.

The Cimbric tore, or golden collar, though designed and wrought by the hand of pre-historic Bapfiapoi, became the boast and ornament of many a Greek, of many a Manlius Torquatus, after the distribution of the Celtica spolia belli. The Scaligerian school, with Lord Macaulay at its head, have impotently, and impudently, essayed to ignore the Cimbro-Celtic manufacture, as well as in that of other national articles, to be hereafter explained. As this is not the time and place to discuss the question, I will, till next we meet, bequeath a little text from Tacitus to supply the stolen aureis nummis of the original Csesarean commentary: "Britannia fert aurum,argentum et alia metalla."

I leave these flippant, errant tongues in the crushing hands of an Akerman, and a De Saussaye, for the present. Truth must prevail, however clogged by the erasive wheels of time, and the Volusenian rust of modern scribes, un-versed, un-oiled by mental friction with the silent dead.

Moreover, the Gauls, or Celts (according to the ipsissima verba of Keightley), whose original seats were France and the British Isles, had felt the desire of change, and lust of acquiring new abodes, to which barbarians are subject. (?) [So then, the Victorians, of all nations, according to this doctrine, are classed as adventurers and barbarians.] It was now more than a century since they had occupied the plane of the Po in Italy, and had reached and sacked Rome; they also advanced and seized the countries along the Danube, and they now held the plains of Thrace. They proceeded to invade Macedonia. The next year (01. 125, 2, i.e., 282, B. O.), they were joined by numbers of their countrymen from about the Danube; and an army, we are told, of fifteen myriads of foot, and six myriads of horse, led by Brennus (y Brennin, or the king), and Acichorias (Acichwr), entered Thessaly."

In the name of a nation's dignity, and honorable dealing, says an admirer of Hume, Johnson, Macaulay, and Co., can this be true? What! were Gaul and Prydain, at that most South-SeaIslandish period, so densely populated, so warlike, so diplomatic, so ambassadorial, so civilised, so well equipped in all the appliances of sea and land transport as to be able to send out, whether right or wrong, such an invading force across the hostile fleets and armies of Greece and Home! One of these three horns of a dilemma must for ever butt, upset, and kick a balance so unjust. English histories, as put into our juvenile hands,.are either indisputably grossly negligent, unpardonably ignorant, or scandalously treacherous, respecting the primeval condition, manners, customs, and vestments of the 'most ancient Britons' and their Celtic allies, during, I will not say the pre-historic, which is not to be wondered at, but, what is far worse, and more reprehensible, during the patent evidences of the unravelled records of historic times.

Again, Brennin, according to Thierry, citing an ancient writer, is blamed for " not consulting any priest of his nation as to the future success of the fight, or, in lieu of such person, any Greek diviner." To consult a native priest, the painted, skin-clad, Bapftapot must have known something about Greek, which is more than can be said of many triflers, styling themselves annalists, or historians ' totius veritatis', who attribute to the Brennin, and "his army of Greece,"nothing but the idealities of a New Zealander. The Cimbric Brennin, when at Delphi, is reported by Justin to have said, " It was right that rich gods should bestow their bounty on men; that they had no need of wealth, inasmuch as it was they who were used to bestow it on men." He is also stated to have thrown his gold sword into the scale to make up the required balance; as a dross of earth, a bauble without price, compared to tarnished deeds of prowess—as of fame and

"Art enslaved and sold, "And science priestless of the idle gold!"

There is a vast fund of moral and physical wealth implied in the Brennin's philosophic views. The Druidical mines of Britain are inexhaustible, not only to the merchant, but to the philosopher also.

The other Celts, according to Michelet, cast themselves into that great Asia, amid the quarrels of Alexander's successors.

The old Cimmerian Allwysbont fell to the Trocmi; the coasts of the Aigwm to the Tolistoboii; the south to the Tectosages.


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