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want of arms, of paper and of tape, and other paraphernalia of imputed civilization, which of course the Greeks and Romans had; a fine scope for an elegantly penned tirade is here, for nameless men of fictious worth !!

A century or two has passed into eternity: I suppose by this the bardic warriors of the past must have dwindled into a state of ineffable barbarity and indifference with regard to the state of European affairs. This Audax Japeti genus, this maligned race of Cimbro-Celts, was not, believe me-(if not, you shall hear of Arnold, Thierry, and Michelet, and then, perhaps, you will, or shall, believe them): this people, then, I add, was not so exclusively absorbed at home, their island home, so incarcerated within the barriers of the ocean wall, as not to be cognizant of, and have an interest in, European politics, as the legendary historic world in its incurable hallucinations, in its morbid repetition of problematical unbelief, or obtusity of classic vision, would assign to them.

Again, according to Michelet, who seems to have honestly based his opinions on the agreement of Appian, Diodorus, and Plutarch, respecting the unmistakeable identity of the Kelts with the Cymry, Cimerii, or Cimbri, and these with each other, I find a superabundant confirmation of this, and other more important international verities, pregnant with results, though Macaulay, and other fact-perverting, truth-suppressing schemers of Cimbric history, will not condescend, in their lordly, but impotent, hauteur, or ' petitesse d'ame,' to note down. Is it an oversight, or is it worse? Is it a fraudulent suppressio veri? Is the dignity of a Cimmerian, forsooth, not deemed a quality worthy of civilised attention? Shall titled, or untitled names, dictate at will their crude fantastic whims as base of truth eternal in their schools.

Some inconsistent quibblers, and intellectual costermongers, through national vanity, prejudice, or otherwise, have strived, vi et armis, to refer the Cimbric exclusively to the Germanic race, without any other plausibility of excuse than that a late and fortuitous portion of the grand Cimmerian family under the sectional names of Helvii and Boii, had formed settlements, malgré eux, in Germania. Or, possibly, 'plerique, may fancy that, as an indirect Germanic origin had been un-ethnologically ascribed, by an un-Celtic, incompetent witness, to a fractional colonial portion of the Belge, either from alleged border intermarriages, during, or after the conjoint expeditions, or from an immemorial occupation of what was, afterwards, by the change of dynasties, a segment of Germania, they had a sort of claim, a 'jumping' claim, upon the plerosque' passage of Cæsar, “ Plerosque à Germanis ortos.” Whereas Strabo, when writing of these very Belgæ, on evidence unknown to Cæsar, insinuates that they must have had (as we know their descendants have at this day), a sprinkling of solitary Cimbric words in their language, if they did not speak it a little ; as inferred from the following remark :

“Mekpov egallouvrag on ylwoon.Centuries of ages prior to these events, the principal branches had dwelt in Prydain and Gaul under various cognate terms, as, for instance, of the continental Atrebates of Artois, and the insular Atrebatii of Stonehenge and Abury True it is, that on some occasions I find the Teutones sometimes foes, sometimes coalesced as allies with the Cimbri, Ambrons, or Umbrians, Gauls, and Ligures, to repel the common enemy, on many memorable battlefields, and notably at the coup final at Aquæ Sextiæ, or Aix, under Marius, the Roman general.

Still truer is it, that the pre-historic Kymry, Cimbri, or Cimmerii, gave an un-Teutonic name to the Baltic of antiquity, under the names of Llychlyn and Mormarwisa, as corroborated by the distinct evidences of the triads, Brut y Brenhinoedd, and the Roman naturalist.

The argument to be advanced against this theory of Teutonic exclusiveness requires, however, a correlative proof by a slight intercommunication between the “ Isle of the West” and the Aquilonic coast of Norway. Now, the sea between Prydain and Celyddon on the east, as well as that armlet of the sea between Gorynys Cimbraidd=peninsula Cimbrorum, and Llychlyn, or Llwchlan, in the western and southern extremity of Scandinavia, was called by the pre-historic Cimbric mariners, Môr Llychlyn ; and Lochlan by the Gwyddelaeg; and is corroborated by the following passage from the “ Brut Cymraeg,” and Latinised by Gryffydd ap Arthur.

“Eudaf en y longeu, a aeth hyd yn Llychlyn.” Or:

“Octav-ius navigio Norwegian Adivit.” The maritime district of Llychlyn, or Llochlan, abutting on Sinus Codanus, was afterwards corrupted, about the year 1200, A. D., into its corresponding acoustic form of Heilligoland= Helgoland=Heligoland, if credence be attached to the version of the “ Chronicon Manniæ.”

The “Brut,” or Cimbric Chronicle, however, makes a distinction betweeen Scandinavia and the Chersonesus, or Norway and Denmark, in these words :

“E dynevassant eylweyth er racdywededygyon ar Escotyeyt ar Flychtyeyt ar Llychlynwyr, a gwyr Denmarc y gyt ac wynt."

“Emergunt iterum prædicti duces, cum cæterius cuneis Scotorum, et Pictorun et cum Norwegensibus, Dacis, et cæteris quos conduxerant." G., ap. A.

Hence it is evident that Cimbro-Celtic navigators, and not landsmen, in pre-historic ages of the world, first discovered the Sinus Codanus of the geographers, the Morimarusa of Pliny, and gave it the name of Mormarwisa, from Môr, a sea, marw, dead, and isa, lower, by sailing across the Llychlyn, or German Ocean, through the “Ffrwt Cimbraidd," or Categat, into the Baltic, and making an aboriginal settlement on the Chersonesus that bears their name, sub silentio aliorum annalium.

From the Cimbric terms above cited, it is not improbable that some other part of the Baltic, possibly the Gulf of Bothnia, though unnamed on classic maps, may have been called Mormarw-uchaf, or the Upper-dead-sea, by these early marine rovers.

I feel, therefore, somewhat apprehensive lest these un-Teutonic dead, yet living, roots should prove three stumbling-blocks to Pinkertonian amateurs, when knapsacking their forced marches, and pencilling their way to Jutland, in order to examine and controvert, if possible, an old manuscript copy of Pliny (said to have been deposited in the archives of the country by a Teuton Pinkertonian prince), respecting the authenticity of a passage found therein derogatory to their views of the past; as when Pliny, speaking of the Baltic, and citing Philemon, inauspiciously remarks, “ Morimarusam a Cimbris Vocari, hoc est Mortuum Mare;” “namely, that it (the Baltic) was called “Mormarwisa' by the Cimbro-Celts, i.e., the Dead Sea," where, for the present, I shall leave the Teutonic theorists, and their endorsers, immersed in the waters of forgetfulness.'

“Der hehler ist so arg wie der Stehler.”


“The receiver of unfledged Teutonism is as bad as the concocter.”

It is gratifying, however, to be able, in all this mystification of rival races, and contradictory evidence, to squeeze out a fact now and then, here and there.

“Whilst Greece,” says the learned Professor Michèlet, “was beginning the civilization of the southern shores, Northern Gaul was receiving her civilization from the Celts (ah! but these Celts were probably some of the Germanic confederation, methinks I hear a Pinkertonian critic lisp); a new Celtic tribe, that of the Kymry (Cimmerii), joined that of the Gauls. The new-comers, who settled principally in the heart of France, upon the Seine and the Loire, had, it seems, more gravity and consistency in their mental character. Less indisciplinable, they were governed by a sacerdotal corporation of the Druids."

How could it be possible for the skin-clad Kymry of a Macaulay to civilize Northern Gaul ? Could they have dropped their skins, and washed their paint, in the channel; and plundered the black vestments and variegated plaids of the continent to hide their Sandwich tatooed forms, before they undertook their mission of humanising codes, at such an almost pre-historic æra? Let the date be calculated from this to Cæsar's, for the behests of future history!

A new power was brooding dismay and conquest in the distant east. The Cimbro-Celts, about the year 336 B. c., had learned, with feelings of evident satisfaction, either through the communications of the peripatetic Druids, or in the usual channel of commercial intercourse, that their old enemies, the nomadic Scythians of the north, then occupying the Cimmerian land of the Getæ, had been in their turn vanquished by Alexander of Macedon. Accordingly, the princes of the west, in unison with the records of royal houses, as stated in Arrian (I am not quite sure of Quintus Curtius), sent personages of distinction to congratulate the Emperor by a formal Cimbro-Celtic embassy.

I really sympathise with Arrian and Diodorus Siculus at their disappointment in not witnessing hyperborean paint and skins on this occasion. What could have been the object of the mission ? Nothing, I apprehend, save the national tact, and refinements of diplomacy, and the prudent conception of an alliance that might interest their commerce, or their race in any given contingency, even at the extremity of Europe.

The 85th triad on the social state, enumerates the privileges of persons to be sent on an embassy to a neighbouring or distant country, as :-"A bard to record the event; a minister of religion to imbue it with a sacred character; and a chief of a clan, or tiesbantyle, to represent the prince and their country;" and it goes on to state :

“ That no weapon ought to be drawn against either of these three, whether the neighbouring countries be in war or peace. For, unless learning, religion, and political knowledge, be privileged and protected, nations that are at war cannot be brought to be at peace; and it is therefore indispensably necessary to neighbouring countries that ambassadors should be so privileged and protected, that they may go and return in peace and safety, when their mission and office is by authority, for the purpose of concord.”

In 371 B. c., i. e., about 50 years prior to the Macedonian embassy, a delegated portion of the brave sea-faring Celts and Iberians is seen traversing the broad expanse of the Môryntir, as allies, auxiliary forces, mercenaries, or Triadic · Cyfforddwy,' to a foreign power, in order to retrieve, if possible, the discomfited laurels of Leuctra, through the defeat of the Lacedæmonians by the Thebans. The former were the allies of Dionysius, the Tupavvog of Syracuse. Do ye imagine, ye detractors of Britain's native stock, that Dionysius sent his own gallies, triremes, biremes, or other nameless boats, for these redoubtable Celtic allies, and ancient warriors, and navigators of deep waters through Gadytonffrwt to Eigion yr Atlas, or the Atlantic Ocean ? Were they then by accident on the coast of Italy or of Greece ? Were they blown away so far on the tidal pinions of mere fiction, of a mere triadic insinuation ? But who, says the Pinkertonian clique, ever heard of Cimbro-Celts fighting as a Cimmerian legion, or a mercenary corps in Hellenistic waters? What a joke, to be sure! it is too much for ordinary gullibility! and acting the part, forsooth, of a Brito-Spanish legion: yea, verily, performing the roll of our Papal, or Neapolitan Swiss, or German legions, or of that “Corps Etranger” of France, in distant Africa ? Do you conceive the possibility of this statement being believed beyond the Cimbric Channel, or the Gallic Rhine? Ha! ha! hah!

“Omnis spes Spartæ et cæpti fiducia belli

“ Cimbrorum auxilii stetit.” Keightley, supported on his right and left, I presume, by Justin and Diodorus, will be able to give gentlemen of this stampthe stamp of historic baseness-a short version of the affair, with, perhaps, a doubt pithily expressed as to the expedition being the first undertaken in these latitudes by these Cimmerian ocean traders, so as not to outrage the high-toned consciences of the ever-insular, painted, school of skins.

“At this very time (i. e., B. C. 363) arrived a fleet of twenty ships, sent by Dionysius, the Tupavvog of Syracuse, to aid the Lacedæmonians. On board of this fleet were Celtic and Iberian troops, perhaps the first of these remote nations ever seen in Greece; and about fifty horsemen, probably Iberians. Next day, the Thebans and their allies were drawn out, and filled the plain down to the sea, wasting it everywhere. The Corinthian and Athenian horse feared to engage them; but the new-comers attacked them boldly, and, by their desultory mode of fighting, did them much mischief. A few days afterwards the Thebans and their allies separated and went home; and the troops of Dionysius, having made an irruption into Sicyon, and defeated the Sicynians of the Theban party who came out against them, also departed and returned to Syracuse.”

With regard to this and other expeditions, much has been said

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