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"Nec vero hae sine sorte datae, sine judice Sedes."
As we have travelled so far, and so long, together with the Cimmerii of antiquity, under the unchanged designation, generally speaking, of Cimbri, or Celts, and, as their circumstances are now being canvassed under a totally new aspect on the stage of the world's career, by expeditions, invasions, expulsions, revolutions and counter revolutions of rival states and kingdoms of the west against each other; and, as the consanguinity of different nations might not be so clearly defined and accepted by modern writers who have, to their shame, be it said, as 'thinkers of times' and events as they verily occurred, allowed themselves to be led astray from the truth respecting the reality of the domestic, naval, or military condition of the Cimbro-Celtic family of Prydain and Europa, iti-would be as well to run over their varied nomenclatures by historians, past and present, before we enter on the general question.
The ancients, as you have already heard, are almost unanimous in representing the Kififiepiot, or Cimmerioi, or sections of that race, as Kepficpioi, by Hesiod and Crates, XaXu/3ot, Tavpoi, Tpr)peg, Tpiwvee, Takarai, SapovtSec, KiruiKeaviSee, Kifj.f}poi, KfXrat, Ofiflpoi, Twvsc Kififipow 01 Aovairavoi, K.t.x.; or, Cerberians, Chalybians, Tauroi, Treres, Triones, Galatae, Saronides, Oceanici, Cimbri, Celtae, Iberi, Galli, Armoricse, and the Cimbri of Lusitania, and so forth, as well as the British Cimbri=Kimbri=Cumbri= Cymry=Kymry.
TaXaraia is a well-known and acknowledged form of Gauloi or Celts.
"Aristotle," I quote Arnold, "ascribes to the Keltse a peculiarity in natural manners, which Diodorus reports of the Galatse, and in those notices of Keltic manners and character which occur in several places of his works, he must have been speaking of the Kelts of Pannonia and Thrace, that is, of the Galatse of Diodorus, and not of the remote inhabitants of Gaul and Spain." The Keltse of North Italy, according to Diodorus, are the same people with the Gauls of France and Britain.
Appian, also, in his Illyricis, expressly confirms this view with reference to the Cimbri: "As the Celti, or Gauls, whom thev call Cimbri."
Cfesar and Tacitus declare, not to us Britons and Armoricans, but to the un-Celtic portion of mankind, "that the language of the Britons and Gauls is not very different."
Plutarch, also, in his life of Sertorius, repeats the same idea, "that the Gauls and Cimbri used the same language."
Some of you, would, perhaps, like to know how the case stands at present; I give the anecdote on the authority of Idrison, whom I can corroborate by other personal observations :—
"A vessel from Morlaix, in Brittany, being in the Thames, in 1820, the captain was invited to come to hear the harp, by the Cymreigyddion. One of the members, after an air had been played, said to the Breton, in Welsh, 'Dyna ganu da;' to this the Breton replied, 'Na, dyna chware da: canu a genau , a chware a thelyn.' So that the Welshman was corrected in his own speech by the stranger, thus,'No; that is good playing: it is singing with the voice; and playing with the harp.'"
I must have recourse to Csesar again with reference to the term Celta: "The third part of Gaul," says the author, " is inhabited by a people called in their own language, Celtae, in ours, Galli, but by the Greeks, Galathse, or Galatse." The expression Celt8e=Celti=Celty=Celtau is derived from the root eel, a shelter, and ty, or tau, a house, in contradistinction to those who lived otherwise in the more inland territories. The term Galathse, or Galatse, of the Greeks, may be another form for Celtica, or "the wearer of long hair," from the difficult and imperfect acoustic sound of gwallt, hair.
And, finally, not to quote other superfluous authorities, Josephus sums up the present with the past in these remarkable words: "The people now called Gauls were called Gomari, Gomeraei, and Gomeritse, from Gomer;" and so forth.
Let us, also, endeavour, in a salient point of view, to ascertain something respecting the Cimbro-Celtic element of primitive Italy.
The Ligurians, Llugwyr, or Ligors, from llu, a band, and gwyr, warriors, Ligures Italia, Gallia vel Britannia, derived their name from Al y Lloegrwys mentioned in the triad as one of the " three earliest social tribes of Britain," in union with the " Cymry and Brython;" and, also, as having navigated from Cimbric Asia to Gaul.
These Lloegrwys, or Lloegrians, colonized " depuis les Alpes," from alp, a craggy rock, "jusqu' a 1'Arno.
"Non ego te, Liguium ductor fortissime bello
(Cynyra=Cynair, a Cimbric etymon, from cyn, foremost, and air, brightness; the prima parens of eira snow.) Here I cannot help remarking 'aLigurian tria juncta in uno,' of England, France, and Sardinia, and each having its modicum of Crimean blood within their veins, and united on Crimean and Deffrobanian lands, 'comme freres et amis,' after an expiration of a period not less than four thousand years, and combatting, possibly, a portion of that blood that deprived the Cimmerians of their native land.
Tyrrhenum Mare most probably gave its name to the Tyrrheni, who must, no doubt, have heard the name pronounced by the Umbri or Insubri of primeval Italy.
On principles of acoustic philology I derive the Tyrrhen-um Mare, from its inner basin, or channel, confined, as it were, on the west by Sardinia and Corsica, on the south by Sicily and the country of the Britti, and on the east by its semi-circular basinlike form, from the verb troi, to turn about, to veer, and rhin, a channel,—Troirhin=Tyrrhen. The Cimmerians claim the sea, whatever may be said of the people.
"Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat seguor,
The Umbri=C-umbri=Cimbri, or inhabitants of Umbria, or Ambra, from ym, my, poss. pro., or ym, prep., in, i. e., dwelling in as aboriginals, and bro., pl. broi, a country, or district, "Se sont venus de la Gaule Transalpine. lis y possedaient, avant V arrive des Etrusques, tout le pays entre les Alpes, le Tibre et le Truentus, mais, a 1' epoque qui nous occupe (1' an 222 avant J. C, ils se trouvaient reduits, a la possession. 1°- D' un territoire peu etendu au pied des Alpes vers les rives des lacs Verbanus et Larius, ou leurs tribus fugitives, conservaient le nom de Is-Ombres (from is, lower), ou Insubres—Ombres inferieurs, le nom, qu' ils avaient pris quand ils habitaient les rives du Po; et 2°- A une contree un peu plus etendue situee sur les rivages de la Mer Adriatique. Entre les fleuves de 1' Utis et du Pisaurus, et qui continua a porter le nom d' Oll-ombre (from oll, or holl, all, wholly), ou Ombrie superieure."
The JEAui, from Aedd mawr of the triads; Calabri, from gdl, opening, or extension, or gdl, fair, and bro, a district. The ear alone was the key in the original pronunciation.
In the Volsci, "gens bellicosa, incerti generis, sed linquse a Latina diversse, ae sibi proprise," I perceive the exact euphonic synonyma of the pod-husk-eating Pelasgi=plisg, plural of us, husks, as already analyzed, from ffla, he that divides, consumes, and us-awg. Whence the expression esca, food, as ;—
"Omnia nam late vastant, ipsasque volantes
as well as the subsequent appellations of Volci, Bolci, Bolgse,
In Opici, Opiques, I seem to discover the original Latin appellation of the Pictiof Erin, or the Celtic Pictdich=Pictish= plunderers. They were afterwards termed Scuit, or wanderers, by themselves; also Crutheni, and Cruthinei, from the alleged root cruithne, wheat; Suuite by the Gaels; Ysgythi by the Britons, from ysgoth, voidance; also Gwyddelod and Ffichti, or Ffychtyeyt of the Triads; and Scotti, possibly from the term ysgothi, or the Gallic schode, a corner, from the imputed limits of Celyddon, or Caledonia. They are mentioned by Marcellinus, about 343 A. D. :—
"Besides these opinions, the name Scuit has been derived from Scythce, or Scytce, Scythians, through a colony, of whom Ireland, Scotland, and a part of Spain, were peopled."
By Bede, Innes, and Camden, the Picts are derived from the Scythians of Norway, Denmark, &c.
Perhaps the following examples of Erse and Gaelaeg, taken out of Hanes Cymru, by Carnhuanawe, will not be deemed uninteresting, as showing the difference of language:—
"Cioniodh Scuit saor an fine
Or, " Unless destiny be fallacious, the Scuit (or Irish Scots), will reign wherever they will find this stone;" alluding to the Scone palace stone that was brought from Ireland, and employed by Fergus at his coronation about the year 503. James I., after his conquest of Alban, had it conveyed to Westminster Abbey, where it is at this day.
The following out of 112 verses of Bardd y Llys, is the oldest existing example of the Alban-Erse, and was composed in the reign of Malcolm Canmore, and generally attributed to the Bard of the Court:—
"A eolcha Alban uile
"O all ye learned Albanians,
The term Bruigh, in the last line, is equivalent to the termination briga, of enquiring historians.
"Look now abroad; another race has filled
"These populous borders; wide the wood recedes,
"And towns shoot up, and fertile lealms are till'd;
"The land is full of harvests and green meads;
"Streams numberless, that many a fountain feeds,
"Shine, disembowered, and give to sun and breeze
"Their virgin waters; the full region leads
"New colonies forth, that towards the western sea
"Spread like a rapid flame among the autumnal leaves."
The overthrow and expulsion of the Cimbro-Celtic families of Asia Minor, whether wholly between the seventh and sixth century B. C, or partially at a prior date, already alluded to, across the Beisfor to Thrace, Mcesia (moes=my-oes=form, aspect, and Asia), and Pannon-ia, (panu, to cleanse cloth or furs from its oil and grease, and non, s. f., a stream), must, T apprehend, have aroused a general outburst of indignation and revenge on the part of the Celtic nations of Western Europe, and the isle of Britain, with whom the Cimmerians of the east had not ceased, as kindred branches of a kindred blood, to keep up an uninterrupted line of allied and commercial intercourse, though the glory of exporting and importing the produce of " the isles which are in the sea " is attributed, blindly and thoughtlessly, to the sole intervention of a few Phoenicians, rarer Phocoeans and Carthagenians.
"Multosque per annos "Errabant acti fatis Maria Omnia Circum."
Such a sudden influx to the population of Western Europe would necessarily engender a spirit of aggression and retaliation, as well as an attempt, sooner or later, either to occupy, or reoccupy, some Germanic, Italian, or Grecian territory, which, in the lapse of lost ages or in the partial inactivity of history, had been wrested from certain branches of the Cimmerian race, or would, perhaps, create the idea of re-subduing the Asiatic provinces of the Aigwm (iEgeean) coast. Adventurers and impulsive spirits would not be wanting in such a people in such an emergency. A mutual understanding would gradually be maintained between them and the eastern Cimbro-Celts of Pannonia, Dacia, and other amalgamated districts, as to the bases of