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their veins, and united on Crimean and Deffrobanian lands, 'comme frères et amis,' after an expiration of a period not less than four thousand years, and combatting, possibly, a portion of that blood that deprived the Cimmerians of their native land.
Tyrrhenum Mare most probably gave its name to the Tyrrheni, who must, no doubt, have heard the name pronounced by the Umbri or Insubri of primeval Italy.
On principles of acoustic philology I derive the Tyrrhen-um Mare, from its inner basin, or channel, confined, as it were, on the west by Sardinia and Corsica, on the south by Sicily and the country of the Britti, and on the east by its semi-circular basinlike form, from the verb troi, to turn about, to veer, and rhin, a channel,—Troirhin=Tyrrhen. The Cimmerians claim the sea, whatever may be said of the people.
. “Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat æguor,
“Ilium in Italiam portans, victosque Penates.' The Umbri=C-umbri=Cimbri, or inhabitants of Umbria, or Ambra, from ym, my, poss. pro., or ym, prep., in, i.e., dwelling in as aboriginals, and bro., pl. broi, a country, or district, “ Se sont venus de la Gaule Transalpine. Ils y possedaient, avant l'arrive des Etrusques, tout le pays entre les Alpes, le Tibre et le Truentus, mais, a l'epoque qui nous occupe (l'an 222 avant J. C., ils se trouvaient reduits, a la possession. 1°. D'un territoire peu etendu au pied des Alpes vers les rives des lacs Verbanus et Larius, ou leurs tribus fugitives, conservaient le nom de Is-Ombres (from îs, lower), ou Insubres—Ombres inferieurs, le nom, qu'ils avaient pris quand ils habitaient les rives du Po; et 20. A une contrée un peu plus etendue située sur les rivages de la Mer Adriatique. Entre les fleuves de l'Utis et du Pisaurus, et qui continua a porter le nom d' Oll-ombre (from oll, or holl, all, wholly), ou Ombrie superieure.”
The Ædui, from Aedd mawr of the triads; Calabri, from gal, opening, or extension, or gal, fair, and bro, a district. The ear alone was the key in the original pronunciation.
In the Volsci, “gens bellicosa, incerti generis, sed linquæ à Latinâ diversæ, ae sibi proprie,” I perceive the exact euphonic synonyma of the pod-husk-eating Pelasgi=plisg, plural of us, husks, as already analyzed, from ffla, he that divides, consumes, and us-aug. Whence the expression esca, food, as ;
“Omnia nam late vastant, ipsasque volantes
“Ore ferunt, dulcem nidis immitibus escam," as well as the subsequent appellations of Volci, Bolci, Bolgæ, Belge, Bellovaci, the Belgwys of the triad, and the Fir Bholg of Erin, as well as the Tectosages, or Tectosagos, primævo nomine Bolgas.
In Opici, Opiques, I seem to discover the original Latin appellation of the Picti of Erin, or the Celtic Pictdich=Pictish= plunderers. They were afterwards termed Scuit, or wanderers, by themselves; also Crutheni, and Cruthinei, from the alleged root cruithne, wheat; Scuite by the Gaels ; Ysgythi by the Britons, from ysgoth, voidance; also Gwyddelod and Ffichti, or Ffychtyeyt of the Triads; and Scotti, possibly from the term ysgothi, or the Gallic schode, a corner, from the imputed limits of Celyddon, or Caledonia. They are mentioned by Marcellinus, about 343 A. D. :
“ Besides these opinions, the name Scuit has been derived from Scytho, or Scytoe, Scythians, through a colony, of whom Ireland, Scotland, and a part of Spain, were peopled.”
By Bede, Innes, and Camden, the Picts are derived from the Scythians of Norway, Denmark, &c.
Perhaps the following examples of Erse and Gaelaeg, taken out of Hanes Cymru, by Carnhuanawe, will not be deemed uninteresting, as showing the difference of language :
“ Cioniodh Scuit saor an fine
“Dlighid flailheas do ghabhail.” Or, “ Unless destiny be fallacious, the Scuit (or Irish Scots), will reign wherever they will find this stone;" alluding to the Scone palace stone that was brought from Ireland, and employed by Fergus at his coronation about the year 503. James I., after his conquest of Alban, had it conveyed to Westminster Abbey, where it is at this day.
The following out of 112 verses of Bardd y Llys, is the oldest existing example of the Alban-Erse, and was composed in the reign of Malcolm Canmore, and generally attributed to the Bard of the Court:
“A eolcha Alban uile
“Ro ghabhsadar Alban bruigh?''
“ That discovered the Alban country?”. The term Bruigh, in the last line, is equivalent to the termination briga, of enquiring historians.
“Look now abroad ; another race has Alled
The overthrow and expulsion of the Cimbro-Celtic families of Asia Minor, whether wholly between the seventh and sixth century B. C., or partially at a prior date, already alluded to, across the Beisfor to Thrace, Mosia (moes=my-oes=form, aspect, and Asia), and Pannon-ia (panu, to cleanse cloth or furs from its oil and grease, and non, s. f., a stream), must, I apprehend, have aroused a general outburst of indignation and revenge on the part of the Celtic nations of Western Europe, and the isle of Britain, with whom the Cimmerians of the east had not ceased, as kindred branches of a kindred blood, to keep up an uninterrupted line of allied and commercial intercourse, though the glory of exporting and importing the produce of “ the isles which are in the sea " is attributed, blindly and thoughtlessly, to the sole intervention of a few Phænicians, rarer Phocaans and Carthagenians.
“ Multosque per annos “Errabant acti fatis Maria Omnia Circum."
Such a sudden influx to the population of Western Europe would necessarily engender a spirit of aggression and retaliation, as well as an attempt, sooner or later, either to occupy, or reoccupy, some Germanic, Italian, or Grecian territory, which, in the lapse of lost ages or in the partial inactivity of history, had been wrested from certain branches of the Cimmerian race, or would, perhaps, create the idea of re-subduing the Asiatic provinces of the Aigwm (Ægæan) coast. Adventurers and impulsive spirits would not be wanting in such a people in such an emergency. A mutual understanding would gradually be maintained between them and the eastern Cimbro-Celts of Pannonia, Dacia, and other amalgamated districts, as to the bases of operation and the points of attack. Preliminaries of future action would, no doubt, be strictly canvassed in their general assemblies, to avenge former discomfitures, or the loss and suppression of their commerce in tin and bronze, by rising naval powers, whether of Phoenicia, Etruria, Greece, Syracuse, Carthage, or Rome. On no other principle of sound policy can the presence of invading British expeditions, or auxiliary forces, be satisfactorily accounted for, in the very centre and extremity of Mediterranean Europe, as well as in the sixth, fifth, and fourth centuries, as in succeeding pre-Christian æras.
“Tu potes unanimes armare in prælia fratres." All this might be very good in its way, methinks I hear a caviller, besmeared with paint,' and 'robed in skins,' as ornaments unique of Britain's Druid soil, cry out, amazed at my audacity; but what proof have you for such unsustained assertions ? what! mere naked, painted, skin-clad hunters of our historic school-boy days, to go so far! The idea is incredulous, preposterous beyond compare! Friend, I tell thee thy historical Scaligerian education, the tottering base of Anglo-Saxon records, has been rotten from the very core of a corrupted text. Why not be a man of thought, a man of search thyself! Why not compare a Cæsar with a Cæsar's own, and Cæsar with his Roman predecessors, and these again with Greeks and Triads ; so that the 'tug of war' and element of wrong may lapse in air of peace and truth.
“Paciferæque manu ramum prætendit olivæ. Let us dive 'un petit peu' beyond the frightened gaze of Volusenus, alleged to represent new-fangled legend thoughts to Cæsar, with whom, by and bye, I shall have a separate tournament.
In Dionysius, lib. VII., 3, we find, as cited by Arnold :
" That the Etruscans, according to the interpretation of Muller, who had dwelt on the shores of the Ionian Gulf, and who had been in the course of time driven from their country by the Gauls, &c.”
Niebuhr, however, thinks that the passage signifies:
“ Those Etruscans who were then dwelling on the Ionian Gulf, who, in the course of time, were afterwards driven from thence by the Gauls, &c.”
Be the reading or the version what it may, one fact, and it is the bearing of that fact that we have to deal with, cannot but be patent to the 'docti indoctique' of the schools, that the Cimbro
Celts drove one of the early Italian states out of Campania about the 64th Olymplad, i. e., 524 B. C., according to the one version, and somewhat later according to the other. And, in connection with this evidence another truth bursts forth, that the aboriginal Umbri, being of Cimbro-Celtic blood were left unmolested. Arnold seemed to be aware of this general fact, but not of the consanguinity of the Umbri with the invaders as a probable, or possible solution to the 'statu quo 'maintained.
Niebuhr, also, in referring to two passages in Livy, makes him say, when speaking of the Cimbro-Celts, or Gauls, anterior, I presume to the 64th Olympiad, that they were “a new enemıy” (as far as his own knowledge was concerned, no doubt), “ to the Etruscans and Romans, and that they had come upon them from the shores of the ocean, and the extremities of the earth.”
Again, the Cimbro-Celts, according to the testimony of Polybius, lib. II., 18, captured Rome, and “ totally routed the Romans and those who were drawn up in battle array beside them ” at the famous battle of the Alia. The number of these picked and experienced Roman soldiers amounted, according to the statements of Dionysius and Plutarch, to the gross sum of 40,000
“ Hic anser Gallos in limine adesse canebat
Does this statement verify, or does it annul the historical references of the 14th triad ? and Cæsar's statement respecting the Briton's interference, and the auxilia subministrata Cimbrorum (or Britanorum), “in fere omnibus Gallicis bellis ?” Do you want another Credat Jadæus? How long will ye halt between two opinions ?
Hail ! then, fourteenth! our Triad true!
In this victory I see something beyond mere success-beyond the bravery and the military ardour of the scandalously-libelled islanders, and their continental fratres et consanguinei. I appreciate the able management of the commissariat department of these, forsooth, untutored, un-disciplined, un-travelled, un-military, un-naval Britishers ! Now is the time for the skin-clad school to sneer at commissariat departments of antiquity, their